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Vol. 55, No. 12 (2006)

2006-06-20
GENERAL
Unified symmetry of Poincaré-Chetaev equations
Ding Ning, Fang Jian-Hui, Zhang Peng-Yu, Wang Peng
2006, 55 (12): 6197-6202. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6197
Abstract +
The unified symmetry and conserved quantities of Poincaré-Chetaev equations are studied. The definition and criterion of the unified symmetry are given. The Noether conserved quantity, the Hojman conserved quantity, and the Mei conserved quantity induced from the symmetry are obtained.
The sinking depth of a projectile in granular media under gravity
Wu Yao-Yu, Peng Zheng, Liu Rui, Lu Kun-Quan, Hou Mei-Ying, Zhang Quan-Yi
2006, 55 (12): 6203-6207. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6203
Abstract +
The process of impact and penetration of a projectile with velocity u0 in a fine, loose granular system under acceleration due to gravity has been recorded experimentally by using fast video photography. The measured penetration depth as a function of the projectile mass agrees with the prediction of our previous drag force model in that at low impact velocity the penetration depth is linearly proportional to the mass of the projectile.
Thomson scattering with few-cycle laser pulses
Zhang Peng, Song Yan-Rong, Zhang Zhi-Gang
2006, 55 (12): 6208-6213. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6208
Abstract +
In this paper, we analyze the relativistic Thomson scattering with few-cycle laser pulses. We conclude that scattering of high energy electrons with mono-cycle laser pulses is capable of producing attosecond pulses. The calculation shows that with a 1.5 cycle pulse at the wavelength of 1 μm, the normalized electric field intensity of 0.01,and the electron relativistic factor of 50, X-ray pulses of 0.2 as can be obtained. We also discussed the influence of the carrier-envelop phase offset and the initial phase φin of electrons starting to interact with the optical field on the radiation spectrum. The calculation results demonstrate that proper values of phase can result in single attosecond pulse generation, as well as the possibility of frequency tuning.
The method for constructing the exact solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation
Taogetusang, Sirendaoerji
2006, 55 (12): 6214-6221. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6214
Abstract +
Based on tanh-function method, homogeneous balance method and auxiliary equation, a new auxiliary equation was introduced in the paper, meanwhile, a new invariance solution was obtained, and a new exact solitary wave solution for Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney(BBM) equation and modified BBM equation was constructed using the symbolic calculation system of Mathematica. The method introduced in the paper has general significance in searching for exact solutions to the nonlinear developing equation.
Teleportation of entangled coherent state through bipartite entangled quantum channels
Liu Chuan-Long, Zheng Yi-Zhuang
2006, 55 (12): 6222-6228. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6222
Abstract +
We propose a scheme for teleportation of an entangled coherent state through bipartite entangled quantum channels. We study the problem in both coherent state picture and orthogonal basis picture composed of coherent states, and find that in the coherent state picture teleportation can be implemented using only linear elements, but the probability of success is less than 1/2, while in the orthogonal basis picture the probability of successful teleportation reaches 1 as long as the four Bell states can be discriminated.
Bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Makarov potentials
Zhang Min-Cang, Wang Zhen-Bang
2006, 55 (12): 6229-6233. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6229
Abstract +
The bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with equal scalar and vector Makarov potentials are obtained. It is shown that angular component of the Dirac equation can be solved with the gactorization method, which enables us to find immediately the eigenvalues and at the same time the manipulation process for the normalized eigenfunctions. The radial bound state solutions are expressed in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions and the energy equation is derived from the boundary condition satisfied by the radial wavefunctions.
Generalized master equation for the nonextensive reaction-diffusion systems
Huang Xin-Min, Wu Jun-Lin
2006, 55 (12): 6234-6237. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6234
Abstract +
Based on the theory of nonequilibrium statistics and density operator equation, the generalized master equation satisfied by characteristic function for the nonextensive reaction-diffusion systems affected by pressure is derived by calculating the time variation of probability distribution function, where the pressure of the nonextensive systems is given in the framework of Tsallis statistics. This new equation not only depends on the nonextensive parameter but also has more nonlinear terms as compared with the master equation in the phenomenological theory, and is thus more general.
Stochastic resonance of amplitude modulated wave in a linear model of single-mode laser
Cao Li, Jin Guo-Xiang, Zhang Liang-Ying
2006, 55 (12): 6238-6242. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6238
Abstract +
By adding modulated wave to the equation of the laser intensity of the gain-noise model of the single-mode lasers, we use the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of the laser intensity, which is driven by two white noises correlated in the form of δ function. The result show that the SNR shows stochastic resonance with the varing of not only intensities of the pump noise and quantum noise,but also the frequency of a high frequency carrier signal and frequency of a low frequency periodical signal.
Cryptanalysis of multiple chaotic systems based public key encryption technique
Wang Kai, Pei Wen-Jiang, Zou Liu-Hua, He Zhen-Ya
2006, 55 (12): 6243-6247. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6243
Abstract +
A novel public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. The security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP)m, where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions, respectively. In this paper, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the fact that any complex linear transformations on a vector will make the norm of the vector approximate linear growth, we present an attack that permits recovering the corresponding secret key from the public key and the initial value. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access the secret key without any difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications.
Synchronization control based on feedback precise linearization
Zhu Zhi-Yu
2006, 55 (12): 6248-6252. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6248
Abstract +
Precise linearity method which is applied to linearize nonlinear chaotic system through strict state transform and feedback strategy is discussed. Considering that some of the state variables can not be measured, the nonlinear feedback method including state observer is researched, and the corresponding control law is deduced. This kind of control method is adopted to chaos synchronization control of the Lorenz system, the simulation results show that the synchronization error of the three state variables can convergence to zero in a short time, which indicates that the control procedure proposed in this paper can guarantee high convergence speed and precision of synchronization under the prerequisite of close-loop stability.
Stochastic chaos in stochastic Duffing systems and its control by delayed feedback
Ma Shao-Juan, Sun Zhong-Kui, Fang Tong, Wu Cun-Li
2006, 55 (12): 6253-6260. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6253
Abstract +
The problem of stochastic chaos and its control by delayed feedback in a Duffing system with bounded random parameters (a stochastic Duffing system in short) under harmonic excitations is considered in detail. At first, the stochastic Duffing system is transformed into its equivalent deterministic nonlinear system by the Gegenbauer polynomial approximation. Thus, the problem of chaotic response and its control in stochastic Duffing system can be reduced to that in an equivalent deterministic system. So the available effective mathematical methods and control strategies can be applied to the latter. Then, the main feature of stochastic chaos is fully explored, where the top Lyapunov exponent of the equivalent system obtained by Wolf's algorithm is used to identify the dynamic behavior of stochastic Duffing system. Finally, the control strategy of delayed feedback is applied to suppress or to induce chaotic response in the system. The results of numerical simulation show that by proper choice of feedback intensity and time delay, either suppressing or inducing stochastic chaos can be achieved. Hence, the strategy of delayed feedback control is also effective to stochastic chaos.
Chaos synchronization of the new hyperchaotic Chen system via nonlinear control
Wu Xiang-Jun, Wang Xing-Yuan
2006, 55 (12): 6261-6266. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6261
Abstract +
This paper studies chaos synchronization of the new hyperchaotic Chen system via nonlinear control. A new method for improving the Lyapunov function of error dynamics of synchronization designed by Jiang and Huang et al is presented. The method removes the limitation occasioned by the Lyapunov function having only one form. Based on Lyapunov theory, a nonlinear controller is designed to synchronize two identical systems and two different chaotic systems. Chaos synchronization of two identical hyperchaotic Chen systems and two different chaotic systems (the hyperchaotic Chen system and the hyperchaotic R?ssler system) have been proved theoretically. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Studies on chaotic modulation performance and internal phase shifting key encoding in injection semiconductor lasers
Yan Sen-Lin
2006, 55 (12): 6267-6274. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6267
Abstract +
The chaotic modulation and demodulation in injected semiconductor lasers are studied, and a method of chaotic encoding is presented by modulating the phase of external optical injection light in semiconductor lasers. The modulation response function, demodulation response function and demodulation response factor are analyzed by small-signal analysis. It is found there are peak values about 60 MHz and the response functions and the demodulation factor decrease at high modulation frequency. A chaotic modulation-demodulation equation is theoretically deduced and its roots are given. It is found that there is a peak value at low modulation frequency and the demodulation perfomance declines at high frequency, however, modulation-demodulation of 109 Hz frequency is relalized. Synchronization is achieved and is proved feasible numerically in larger parameter range. Secure communication applications are numerically simulated with chaotic modulations of 200 Mb/s rate and 1.4 GHz frequency. Chaotic encoding is also achieved by shifting key on or off a phase-controller to encode chaotic laser state and decoding is realized under the condition of synchronization or unsynchronization. Chaotic phase key shifting is numerically simulated with a bit rate of 10 Mb/s.
The study of a cellular automaton NS and WWH mixed model for traffic flow on a two-lane roadway
Wu Ke-Fei, Kong Ling-Jiang, Liu Mu-Ren
2006, 55 (12): 6275-6280. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6275
Abstract +
Based on the NS model and the WWH model for one-dimensional cellular automaton traffic flow, and taking into account the drivers adopting different driving rules, we present a cellular automaton NS and WWH mixed model for traffic flow on a two-lane roadway. By using numerical simulation, we study the effect of the mixed proportion coefficient fNS on the velocity-density and flow-density diagrams of the mixed traffic flow and the lane-change frequency of the vehicles.
Time-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence spectroscopy
Qu Jun-Le, Lin Zi-Yang, Chen Dan-Ni, Xu Gai-Xia, Hu Tao, Guo Bao-Ping, Niu Han-Ben, Liu Li-Xin
2006, 55 (12): 6281-6286. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6281
Abstract +
A novel time-resolved two-photon excitation fluorescence spectroscopic system based on a high repetition rate streak camera and capable of simultaneous measurement of fluorescence spectrum and lifetime of the samples is presented. The system has high temporal (6.5—200 ps) and spectral (1—3 nm) resolutions and permits rapid data acquisition and reliable and reproducible lifetime and spectrum determinations. The system is tested with standard fluorescent dyes (rhodamine 6G, coumarin 314 and their mixtures) and the lifetimes and spectra obtained agree well with those reported in the literatures. Experimental results indicate that our system provides a unique contrast mechanism for discriminating multi-fluorophore or multi-component of biological tissues through spectrally and temporally resolved information and may find extensive applications in multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging.
Study of X-ray detector system characteristics on the 3B3 medium energy beamline in BSRF
Yi Rong-Qing, Yang Guo-Hong, Cui Yan-Li, Du Hua-Bing, Wei Min-Xi, Dong Jian-Jun, Zhao Yi-Dong, Cui Ming-Qi, Zheng Lei
2006, 55 (12): 6287-6292. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6287
Abstract +
On the 3B3 medium energy X-ray beamline, a new monochromatic X-ray source tunable in the 2—6 keV energy range bas been constructed and implemented. The characteristic parameters of the X-ray source having been determined, with the help of the light source, we have calibrated the sensitivity of X-ray detector,thickness of filter,diffraction efficiency of crystals and energy response of the BAS5000-RS, which showed the high performance of the monochromator and detecter system.
Two-photon spectroscopy and Dicke narrowing of a thin atomic vapor film
Li Yuan-Yuan, Zhang Gui-Zhong, Zhou Yu, Zhang Yan-Peng, Gan Chen-Li, Bai Jin-Tao
2006, 55 (12): 6293-6297. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6293
Abstract +
One-photon Dick-narrowing absorption spectroscopy from a thin atomic vapor film can be extended to the two-photon case, in which the sub-Doppler absorption structures are obtained in a cascade three-level system. The periodic line shapes of two photon spectroscopy are similar to one-photon case. It is found that Dicke-narrowing is apparent when L/λ=(2n+1)/2 (n an integer, L the film thickness, and λ the wavelength of the probe field)in the case of one-photon process, and this feature is maintained in the case of two-photon process but not in the one-photon process when L/λ=2n/2. Due to the contribution of atom-wall collision in the cell and the pump-probe scheme, a very narrow structure can be obtained when the pump and the probe fields are in counter-propagation regime.
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Relation between dynamic parameters and limiting current in separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator
Wang Zhi, Chen Jia-Er, Yan Xue-Qing, Lu Yuan-Rong, Fang Jia-Xun, Guo Zhi-Yu
2006, 55 (12): 6298-6301. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6298
Abstract +
The particles' motion in separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator is analyzed in this paper. Compared to conventional radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, the SFRFQ structure has higher accelerating efficiency, and the particles are focused or defocused by the quadrupole outside the diaphragms. The relation between limiting current and dynamic parameters has been deduced, so the transverse and longitudinal stability of particles in SFRFQ is ensured by selecting proper dynamic parameters.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
Potentional energy function of CrHn(n=0,+1,+2)
Zhu Zheng-He, Huang Ping
2006, 55 (12): 6302-6307. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6302
Abstract +
Based on the atomic and molecular reaction statics, the ground electronic states of CrH(X6Σ+), CrH+(5Σ+), CrH2+ (6Σ+) and their dissociation limits have been derived. Using density functional method (B3PW91), 6-311++G** basis sets for H and split valence polarization basis sets for Cr, the molecular equilibrium geometry and dissociation energies for CrH+(5Σ+) and CrH2+ (6Σ+) have been calculated. The analytical potential energy functions for CrH(X6Σ+), CrH+(5Σ+) and CrH2+ (6Σ+) are determined. The force fields and spectroscopic parameters have been worked out from these analytical potential energy functions. For the ground state of CrH+, the calculated results of Re, f2, f3, f4, Be, αe, ωe and ωeχe are 0.16200 nm, 1.52574 aJ/nm2, -7.81171 aJ/nm3, 28.61613 aJ/nm4, 6.71181, 0.28792, 1624.6297 and 53.55394 cm-1, respectively; and for the ground state of CrH2+, the corresponding parameters are 0.24005 nm, 0.42946 aJ/nm2, -0.97766 aJ/nm3, 2.40438 aJ/nm4, 2.9562, 0.050184, 858.059 and 6.46813 cm-1, respectively. The theoretical results show minimum points in the potential energy curves of CrH+(5Σ+) and CrH(X6Σ+), so we conclude that CrH(X6Σ+) and CrH+(5Σ+) are stable.But there are no minimum points in the potential energy curves of CrH2+ (6Σ+), so CrH2+ (6Σ+) is not stable.
Study on potential energy functions and spectrum constants of VOn±(n=0,1,2)
Gao Tao, Wang Ling, Du Quan, Shen Xiao-Hong
2006, 55 (12): 6308-6314. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6308
Abstract +
The potential energy functions and spectrum constants of VOn±(n=0,1,2) have been analyzed by the density functional method (B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) and using the relativistic effective core potential (Lanl2dz). The results show that all of them can exist stably. Their ground electronic states are 4Σ (VO2-), 3Σ (VO-), 4Σ(VO), 3Σ(VO+) and 2Σ(VO2+). Among them, the potential energy curves of VO2+ and VO2- have the form of a volcanic crater. The molecules of VO2+ and VO2- are in meta-stable states. The potential energy curves of VO2+ and VO2- have been fitted with the seven-parameter Murell-Sorbie functions. It has been found that the fitting cures of the meta-stable ions VO2+ and VO2- are well in accordance with their potential energy curves. However, the four-parameter Murell-Sorbie functions are not suitable for VO2+ and VO2-. At the same time, the effect of charge on the potential energy functions and energy levels have been discussed.
A study of the surface enhanced Raman bond polarizability derivatives of ethylene thiourea:electromagnetic and charge transfer mechanisms
Liu Zhao-Jun, Wu Guo-Zhen
2006, 55 (12): 6315-6319. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6315
Abstract +
The surface enhanced Raman spectra of ethylene thiourea adsorbed on the silver electrode were measured at different electrode potentials. Based on the analysis of the Raman spectra, especially the bond polarizability derivatives elucidated from the Raman intensities by our algorithm, important information on the surface enhancement mechanisms was collected. The results show that both the electromagnetic and charge transfer mechanisms are responsible for the large enhancement, the former operating in the whole potential range between -0.3 and -1.2 V while the latter only in the range lower than -0.7 V.
The classical dissociation of HF molecule by chirped laser pulse
Liu Xue-Shen, Ding Pei-Zhu, Chi Yu-Hua
2006, 55 (12): 6320-6325. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6320
Abstract +
The classical dissociation of a diatomic molecule by chirped laser pulses is evaluated by means of symplectic algorithm. We discuss the effect of the vibro-rotational energy level transition on the dissociation probability.
Cascade decays and final charge-state distribution of hollow argon ions
Hu Hong-Wei, Dong Chen-Zhong
2006, 55 (12): 6326-6332. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6326
Abstract +
On the basis of a previous model of radiative-Auger-cascade for calculation of final-charge-state distributions of hollow ions, a new model of radiative-Auger-double Auger-cascade has been constructed by including double Auger process, and was applied to study the final-charge-state distribution in the production of Ar+(1s-1) (argon ion with an initial 1s hole) and Ar+(2s-1) (argon ion with an initial 2s hole). Comparing with the previous calculations and experiments, the present results show excellent agreement.
Generation of controllable double-well optical trap for cold atoms (molecules) and its experimental studies
Yin Jian-Ping, Li Ya-Li, Ji Xian-Ming, Mu Ren-Wang
2006, 55 (12): 6333-6341. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6333
Abstract +
In this paper, an experimental scheme of a controllable double-well optical trap for cold atoms (molecules) is briefly introduced, and the fabrication method of a binary π-phase plate and the experimental results to generate a controllable double-well optical trap are reported. In the experiment, we investigated the dependence of the double-well parameters (such as the spatial position of optical double-well, the spacing between the centers of two wells and the relative intensity distributions and so on) on the phase errors of the π-phase plate, and the change of double-well intensities resulting from errors in the engraving depth of the binary π-phase plate as well as the evolution of the optical trap from two wells to single one are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results consistent with theoretical prediction are obtained.
A laser diode system for 40K-87Rb atomic cooling
Wei Dong, Chen Hai-Xia, Xiong De-Zhi, Zhang Jing
2006, 55 (12): 6342-6346. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6342
Abstract +
We have developed a semiconductor laser system used in 40K-87Rb trapping and cooling experiment. The laser diode system is composed of three external cavity diode lasers and four injection diode lasers and a tapered amplifier. Four laser beams used for 40K and 87Rb cooling and repump lights are obtained by using acoustic optic modulators to offset the frequencies from the three external cavity diode lasers. Four light beams with different frequencies are injected into four slave lasers for injection locking. Then Rb cooling light, K cooling light and K repump light are injected into a semiconductor tapered amplifier in a master oscillator-power configuration. This configuration is flexible and stable and can simultaneously produce the cooling and repump light for 40K and 87Rb trapping and cooling experiment.
Applicability of the reaction window theory
Ma Xin-Wen, Chen Lan-Fang, Zhu Xiao-Long
2006, 55 (12): 6347-6353. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6347
Abstract +
Based on the molecular Coulombic over barrier model for description of slow ion-atom collisions, the reaction window theory related to projectile velocity is presented briefly. According to the theory, the state-selective differential cross sections of single electron capture in O8+-H, Ar8+-H, Ar8+-He, Ne10+-He and Ar18+-He collisions at different collision velocities are calculated and compared with experimental results. Calculations are also done for single, double, and triple electron capture in 15N7+-Ne collisions at fixed velocity of 0.53 a.u., and are compared with experimental data. It is found that the predictions of the final electronic state distribution of captured electron(s) are in agreement with experimental data, and both theory and experiments show that the widths of the reaction window increase with the projectile velocity. The differential cross sections predicted by the theory are larger for smaller Q-values, vice versa, when compared with experimental data.
Theoretical investigation of optical heterodyne cavity ring down spectroscopy
Cao Lin, Wang Chun-Mei, Chen Yang-Qin, Yang Xiao-Hua
2006, 55 (12): 6354-6359. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6354
Abstract +
A simplified optical heterodyne cavity ring down spectroscopy, which is relatively easy to implement and more suitable for molecular ro-vibrational spectrum study, is suggested in the present paper. It avoids measuring the ring down time directly, and in addition cancels the DC common mode signal resulting from the loss of the cavity mirrors. Theoretically, it could reach the quantum noise detection limit. Furthermore, its lineshape of the first derivative of Gaussian profile is theoretically analyzed, and the dependence of the spectral intensity and lineshape on some experimental parameters are also discussed, and thus the optimal parameters are obtained.
CLASSICAL AREA OF PHENOMENOLOGY
Propagation of electromagnetic wave in a lossy cylindrical waveguide
Luo Ji-Run, Jiao Chong-Qing
2006, 55 (12): 6360-6367. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6360
Abstract +
Based on the dispersion equation of electromagnetic mode, the propagation characteristics in a lossy cylindrical waveguide are studied. The analytic formula of propagation constant for all modes in the waveguide is presented, which includes the effects of the thickness of the lossy layer. A large uumber of numerical calculations using the analytic formula and the dispersion equation have been carried out on the relations of the attenuation and phase constant with wave frequency, thickness and conductivity of the lossy layer. The analytic calculation results are in good agreement with those of the dispersion equation. This research is useful for selecting appropriate distributed wall losses for the stable and wide-band operation of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers.
Investigation on the miniaturization of the microstrip antenna based on the back ward wave property of left-handed medium
Wu Ming-Feng, Meng Fan-Yi, Wu Qun, Wu Jian
2006, 55 (12): 6368-6373. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6368
Abstract +
Based on a left-handed medium (LHM) structure unit with smooth dispersion, broadband property and of electrical small dimensions, a microstrip antenna (MSA) substrate is designed partially loaded by both the LHM and the conventional dielectric medium for the miniaturization of MSAs, in which the backward wave property of LHM is employed to compensate for the phase shift resulting from waves propagating in the conventional dielectric medium. Both the analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the physical dimensions of a 4.70 GHz MSA have been significantly reduced by 37.92%, and can be no longer proportional to the working wavelength, while its bandwidth and gain can be equivalent to that of a conventional MSA. All above results indicate the practical capability of LHM in the miniaturization of MSAs.
The transmittance of Savart polariscope in polarization interference imaging spectrometer
Wu Fu-Quan, Peng Zhi-Hong, Zhang Chun-Min, Zhao Bao-Chang, Li Ying-Cai
2006, 55 (12): 6374-6381. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6374
Abstract +
The Savart polariscope is the key spectroscopic component of the static polarization interference imaging spectrometer (SPIIS) that we have developed. The principle of beam splitting of Savart polariscope is described. This paper mainly studies the reflection and refraction of light incident from one medium to another when incident plane and the principle section of the left plate are coincident or perpendicular, according to electromagnetic boundary conditions. The transmission coefficient of each interface is deduced, and the total transmittance is given as a function of angle and wavelength of the incident light which is analyzed through computer simulation. It is proved in theory and by experiment that the Savart polariscope has the advantages of both high flux and large field of view, and can be used as high performance lateral shearing beam splitter in static interferometer and SPIIS. This will provide the theoretical basis for the development of new polarization interference imaging spectral systems.
Hydrodynamic model of transient Ni-like X-ray lasers driven by Gaussian laser pulse
Lu Xin, Zhang Jie, Pang Hai-Long, Li Ying-Jun
2006, 55 (12): 6382-6386. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6382
Abstract +
The self-similarity model of hydrodynamics of transient collisional excitation X-ray lasers is modified for drive laser pulse with a Gaussian temporal profile. The results show that the modified model can more accurately describe the hydrodynamic process of tramsient collision emission X-ray laser than the self-similarity model. Using the modified model, the experimental design of the Ni-like Mo X-ray lasers is optimized.
Application of quantitative imaging to elimination of scattering effect on X-ray in-line outline imaging
Liu Li-Xiang, Du Guo-Hao, Hu Wen, Luo Yu-Yu, Xie Hong-Lan, Chen Min, Xiao Ti-Qiao
2006, 55 (12): 6387-6394. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6387
Abstract +
X-ray in-line outline imaging (XILOI) attracts much attention in recent years, for its simple setup compared with other approaches. Unfortunately, scattering effect cannot be removed directly, which restricts seriously the applications of this method to fields like biomedical radiography. The scattering effect in XILOI was investigated by digital simulation, in which the sample-detector distance (SDD) was changed step by step. The results show that there is a best imaging distance for the direct outline imaging and it is impossible to eliminate the scattering by arbitrarily changing the distance in this case. This difficulty could be overcome by quantitative phase contrast imaging(QPCI), in which SDD can be adjusted freely using a reconstruction algorithm. According to the investigation using QPCI, the scattering effect can be reduced to a minimum by increasing the SDD to a critical value, at which distinct improvement of the image quality can be achieved.
Measurement of refractive index profile of holey fiber using quantitative phase tomography
Huang Yan-Ping, Qi Chun-Yuan
2006, 55 (12): 6395-6398. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6395
Abstract +
A method to determine three-dimensional refractive index profile of holey fiber using a combination of quantitative phase microscopy and tomographic reconstruction techniques is described. Results show that the method based on the transport-of-intensity equation for phase retrieval is straightforward to measure phase profile, nondestructive to the measured fiber, and valuable to determine three-dimensional refractive index profile of holey fiber.
Intelligent control of video monitoring system based on the color histogram analysis
Shen Hui-Ting, Li Jiang-Wei, Zhang Bian-Li, Chang Sheng-Jiang, Wang Kai, Zhang Yan-Xin, Zhai Hong-Chen
2006, 55 (12): 6399-6404. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6399
Abstract +
The intelligent control of video monitoring system in a fixed background scene is realized by comparing color histogram distance between reference image and objective image. The impacts on reference images caused by the variation with time and sunlight are eliminated by renewing reference images on-line. In order to reduce computational complexity and speed up the processing, a uniform compressional algorithm of real color space based on fuzzy method is proposed. The simulations show that an image can be processed in 10 ms, which meets the requirement of real-time processing.
Design and fabrication of holographic variable line-spacing gratings for position sensor
Fu Shao-Jun, Xu Xiang-Dong, Lou Jun, He Shi-Ping
2006, 55 (12): 6405-6409. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6405
Abstract +
Variable line-spacing gratings are widely used in spacial spectroscopic and synchrotron radiation devices, but their design and fabrication are difficult. In this paper, the geometrical theory of aspheric wave-front recording optics is briefly reviewed. The genetic algorithm is introduced to optimize parameters of holographic variable line-spacing gratings. In order to improve the efficiency of calculation. the integral expression of the objective function is also derived. Design example of holographic variable line-spacing gratings for position sensor is given to demonstrate the capability of this method. Holographic variable line-spacing gratings with large density gradient are fabricated successfully.
The hole burning and optical bistability of quasi-Λ-type four-level atom system
You Su-Ping, Chen Jun, Liu Zheng-Dong
2006, 55 (12): 6410-6413. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6410
Abstract +
In this paper we study the quantum interference effects of a quasi-Λ-type four-level atom system interacting with two light fields. When the probe field is weak, our calculations show that along with the change of Rabi frequencies of the driving field, the system appears to be hole burning in the dispersion curve,and two big electromagnetic induced transparency windows with approximately the same width are demonstrated. In addition, the evolution of dispersion with the Rabi phase of probe field shows optical bistability.
Spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide trans parent ceramics
Ding Jun, Yang Qiu-Hong, Tang Zai-Feng, Xu Jun, Su Liang-Bi
2006, 55 (12): 6414-6418. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6414
Abstract +
Nd3+-doped Y2-2x La2x O3 (x=0.08) transparent ceramics were fabricated by conventional fabrication process. Spectroscopic properties of the samples were investigated. The absorption band of Nd3+: Y1.84La0.16O3 was broad covering the wavelength range 780—850 nm. When doped with 1.5at% Nd3+, the cross sections of the sample at 820 nm and laser diode pumped 808 nm were 1.81×10-20cm2 and 1.54×10-20cm2, respectively. The strongest emission peak of the sample was centered at 1078 nm with long fluorescent lifetime, broad emission bandwidth and high quantum efficiency. Because of the additive La2O3, the spectroscopic quality parameter (XNd) of matrix was decreased from 1.6 to 0.46, thus the fluorescence branch ratio of 4F3/2—4I11/2 transition was increased to 56.82%. These properties of Nd3+: Y1.84La0.16O3 transparent ceramic are benefitial to achieve high efficient laser output and ultrashort modelocked pulse.
Influence of introducing chirp on bistable characteristics of linear negative tapered Bragg gratings
Tian Jian-Feng, Wu Zheng-Mao, Xia Guang-Qiong
2006, 55 (12): 6419-6423. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6419
Abstract +
Based on the coupled mode theory, the influence of introducing the chirp on the bistable characteristics of linear negative tapered Bragg gratings is investigated. The results show that introducing positive chirp improves the bistable performance of linear negative tapered Bragg gratings, and the bistable performance can be further optimized by reasonably selecting the length of the linear negative tapered Bragg gratings with positive chirp.
Spectral properties of hydrogen-containing organic solution of neodymium chelate
Yu Ke-Han, Qian Lie-Jia, Peng Bo, Fan Dian-Yuan, Ye Yun-Xia
2006, 55 (12): 6424-6429. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6424
Abstract +
Tris-thenoyltrifluroacetonate of Nd3+ has been prepared and dissolved in DMF solation with very high concentration, and the contained hydrogen has not been substituted by deuterium. The absorption spectrum, emission spectrum, and fluorescence lifetime of the solution were measured. Very obvious characteristic fluorescence peaks were observed at 898 and 1058 nm. Based on Judd-Ofelt theory, three intensity parameters were obtained: Ω2=4.9×10-20 cm2, Ω4=5.1×10-20 cm2 and Ω6=2.5×10-20 cm2. Line strengths Scal, oscillator strengths fcal, radiative transition probabilities Aed, radiative lifetimes τr and branch ratios β were calculated too. The measured lifetime τ of 1058 nm peak is 460 μs, and that of 898 nm 505 μs. Comparison between theoretically computed radiative lifetime τr (682 μs) and the measured lifetime indicates that the non-radiative transition probability of the solution is very low and the fluorescence quantum efficiency very high. High values of three intensity parameters prove the high asymmetric surroundings of Nd3+, which is important for Nd3+ to absorb the excitation energy. Spectropic quality factor Ω4/Ω6>1 makes radiation at 898 nm stronger than at 1058 nm.
Photon localization in amorphous photonic crystal
Xu Xing-Sheng, Chen Hong-Da, Zhang Dao-Zhong
2006, 55 (12): 6430-6434. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6430
Abstract +
The photon localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied by use of multiple-scattering method. The disorder degree can be controlled by adjusting the random rotating angle of the square cell. It is found that the transmission in the band decreases and that in the gap increases as the disorder degree increases, and localization induced by disorder will spread from the band gap edge to the band center and the gap center. Moreover, the mean transmission of the band will decrease exponentially with disorder increasing.
Microwave transmission behavior of the single dissymmetrical hexagonal split-ring resonators
Zhao Jing, Yao Yuan, Zhao Xiao-Peng, Zhou Xin
2006, 55 (12): 6435-6440. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6435
Abstract +
Inspired by the dendritic geometry in nature, we designed the single dissymmetrical hexagonal split ring resonators (SRRs). The SRRs were fabricated on one side of the dielectric substrate using shadow mask/etching technique. By experiments and computer simulations, we have researched the microwave transmission behavior of the SRRs in the frequency band of 7—12 GHz. The results show that, for an individual hexagonal SRR, the resonance frequency is affected by the size of the SRR; for two SRRs, there are two resonance peaks in the transmittion curve when they are close to each other. For three SRRs or the radialized rings, the resonance frequency of the structure with high-level branches shifts towards lower values compared with that with no branches. The simulations are in agreement with the experimental results.
Regulating ability of defects on the negative refraction of left-handed metamaterials
Zhao Jing, Zheng Qing, Zhao Xiao-Peng, Li Ming-Ming
2006, 55 (12): 6441-6446. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6441
Abstract +
We have investigated the defect effect on negative refraction of the left-handed metamaterials (LHMs). The printed circuit boards with LHMs are fabricated using a shadow mask/etching technique. The negative refraction of wedge-shaped LHMs samples with and without defects is investigated respectively. The experimental result shows that when two kinds of point defects are introduced into the sample, the ratio of the maximum power of samples with point defects to that without defects are 1.035 and 1.256, and the absolute value of the negative refraction index increases by 9.6% and 19.6%, respectively. When three kinds of vacant defects are introduced into the sample, the ratios of the maximum power of samples with vacant defects to that without defects have the highest value of 1.973 and the lowest value of 0.364, and the absolute values of the negative refraction index have increased by 68.33% and 9.6% accordingly. We think that the defect breaks the periodic structure of the sample, resulting in a new condition of the electromagnetism resonance which leads to the changes of the negative refraction index and the maximum power. So we can regulate the negative refraction index of LHMs by adjusting the defects.
Numerical simulation of a novel rectangular-lattice single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber
Zhang Fang-Di, Liu Xiao-Yi, Zhang Min, Ye Pei-Da
2006, 55 (12): 6447-6453. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6447
Abstract +
A novel structure of single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and analyzed numerically based on a full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers. Through optimization a fiber with confinement loss less than 0.1 dB/km in the wavelengths range of 1.38 to 1.61 μm is obtained. The corresponding design procedures for the novel SPSM-PCF are also presented.
Time-frequency analysis for phase retrieval from traces of frequency resolved optical gating
Wang Qing-Yue, Zhang Zhi-Gang, Deng Yu-Qiang
2006, 55 (12): 6454-6458. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6454
Abstract +
Based on the theory of wavelet-transform analysis for spectral phase retrieval from spectral shearing interferogram, we extract phases from the traces of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) with time-frequency analysis method. The method enables the phases to be extracted from the ridges of FROG traces directly, and requires no iterative algorithm. For the flap ridges, accurate phases can be extracted. However, for the frequency-varying ridges, the results have great error at the tails of the pulses, and the reasons for error generation are analyzed.
Study on the mechanism and measurement of stress of TiO2 and SiO2 thin-films
Gu Pei-Fu, Zheng Zhen-Rong, Zhao Yong-Jiang, Liu Xu
2006, 55 (12): 6459-6463. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6459
Abstract +
The stress of TiO2 and SiO2 thin films has been researched, including stress model, measurement method and experimental results for different preparation conditions. Based on the model of curvature of deformed substrate, the stress of the films deposited with and without ion assist as well as with different substrate temperature has been measured and some useful results for both single layers and multilayer system of TiO2 and SiO2 have been obtained. The effect of packing density of the layer on stress is found as follows: the film with lower packing density shows a tensile and that with high pacing density shows a compress stress. The accumulated stress in multilayer system even can be diminished to zero by adjusting the preparation parameters.
Experimental research of coherent combining of three fiber amplifiers
Xiao Rui, Hou Jing, Jiang Zong-Fu, Liu Ming
2006, 55 (12): 6464-6469. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6464
Abstract +
Combining coherent laser beams is an important and challenging area of laser science and is now still in a state of laboratory. We have succeeded in the coherent combination of three-element fiber-laser array based on ytterbium-doped polarization-maintaining single-mode power amplifiers with good experimental results. In this paper, we introduce the experimental setup and detailedly describe the method of measurement and control of phase noise. A single signal arm is taken as example, the measured phase noise are presented. At last, we give the results of coherent combination in the far field and briefly discuss a few factors having effect on the far field properties. We conclude that the combining method can be scaled to a large number of lasers.
Transmission properties of one-dimensional qusi-periodical phononic crystal
Cao Yong-Jun, Dong Chun-Hong, Zhou Pei-Qin
2006, 55 (12): 6470-6475. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6470
Abstract +
In this paper, the model of a one-dimensional (1D) phononic crystal with quasi-periodical structure is proposed. The transmission coefficients of elastic waves through the 1D qusi-periodical phononic crystal are numerically calculated, and the obtained transmission coefficients are compared with those of the phononic crystal with periodical structure. The results show that the band gap can also be found in the phononic crystal with quasi-periodical structure, and the frequency range of the gap is the same as that of the periodical structure. However, the only difference is that strongly localized resonant modes appear in the gap of the qusi-periodical phononic crystal. This study to the properties of the localized modes is useful to the fabrication of the acoustic or elastic wave filters.
Investigation of bubble dynamics in ultrasonic sonoporation
Chen Qian, Zou Xin-Ye, Cheng Jian-Chun
2006, 55 (12): 6476-6481. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6476
Abstract +
During the process of quickly producing pathologic sections of the living tissues with ultrasonic sonoporation, it has been found that the exciting ultrasonic signal has an evident effect on the pathologic section. For the sake of understanding the effect and obtaining the best state of quickly producing pathologic section, the bubble dynamics in ultrasonic sonoporation is investigated by constructing a model of cavitated bubbles and altering the parameters, such as the ultrasonic signal frequency, acoustic pressure, bubbles' original radius and viscosity of the fluid. Numerical simulations indicate that radial vibration of cavitating bubble can keep on a steady process of expanding, shrinking, and vibrating in a given rang of frequencies, and one can find out the best original radius for obtaining the maximal cavitation. There exist a best cavitation regions which are determined by the parameters, i.e., the ultrasonic signal frequency, acoustic pressure, bubbles' original radius and viscosity of body fluid.
Harmonic velocity noise and its frequency resonance with the potential
Song Yan-Li
2006, 55 (12): 6482-6487. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6482
Abstract +
A noise with frequency structure, i.e. the harmonic velocity noise is investigated to describe the complicated noise environment. We studied the noise's occurrence, correlation function, power spectrum, as well as some behaviors caused by its frequency characteristics when it acts as a thermal noise. The results show that the harmonic velocity noise is band-passing in frequency spectral space with a peak frequency and the band width is determined by Γ. If a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential is driven by a thermal harmonic velocity noise, its maximum energy appears when the two frequencies are equal. This testifies that there is a dynamical resonance between the frequencies of the noise and the potential, which controls the particle's energy.
On the nonlinear oscillation of internal sliding friction in particulate matter
Hu Lin, Kong Wei-Shu, Wang Wei-Ming, Wu Yu, Du Xue-Neng
2006, 55 (12): 6488-6493. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6488
Abstract +
Experiments are designed to explore the sliding friction that the particulate material bears in the movement when the detecting rod goes vertically through the material contained in a round tube. The research result shows that the sliding friction makes nonlinear oscillations about an average value when the depth of the particulate pile with 2 mm particulate diameter is greater than 0.5 to 2 times the diameter of the container. When the detecting rod goes up with the uniform velocity of less than 2×10-3 m/s, the average value of the sliding friction is 0.2 to 0.5 times greater than the maximum static friction F0 and the value fluctuates within the range from F0 to 2F0. When the frequency is lower than 1.35 Hz, the intensity of various frequencies goes down exponentially with increasing frequency. The average period T of the main frequency is inversely proportional to the velocity v of the detecting rode.
PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES
Numerical simulation of the internal flow in microwave plasma thruster in magnetic field
Yang Juan, Su Wei-Yi, Mao Gen-Wang, Xia Guang-Qing
2006, 55 (12): 6494-6499. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6494
Abstract +
Recent experiments show that the performance of microwave plasma thruster is a little too low because the energy absorbed by plasma depends on the relationship of plasma and microwave frequency. One potential solution is to use external magnetic field to improve the transfer process of microwave in plasma. This paper presents numerical study about how a magnetic field affects the thermal plasma flow field and its temperature in microwave plasma thruster. Out purpose is to see if the magnetic field can enhance the thermal plasma core temperature. Assuming that the plasma within the thruster is under the condition of local thermal equilibrium and the external magnetic fields is uniform, coupled Navier-Stokes, Maxwell and Saha equations are set up to describe the plasma flow under microwave electromagnetic and external magnetic fields. Solving Navier-Stokes equations with semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations and Maxwell equations with finite-difference time-domain method, the result shows that when the magnetic field intensity is 0.5 T the temperature of plasma core is increased by 24% compared with that at zero magnetic field. Thus the magnetic field improves the performance of microwave plasma thruster.
CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
Static properties of a femtosecond electron diffraction system
Liu Yun-Quan, Liang Wen-Xi, Zhang Jie, Wu Jian-Jun, Tian Jin-Shou, Wang Jun-Feng, Zhao Bao-Sheng
2006, 55 (12): 6500-6505. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6500
Abstract +
Ultrafast electron diffraction is an important technique to study the ultrafast phenomenon in physical, chemical and biological processes. This paper introduces a femtosecond electron diffractometer. The diameter of electron beam and deflection sensitivity of X-Y deflection plates are reported. We also demonstrate the static diffraction pattern of a 300 nm thick gold film taken by the femtosecond electron diffractometer.
The structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of double-atom filled skutterudite compounds
Li Han, Tang Xin-Feng, Zhao Wen-Yu, Zhang Qing-Jie
2006, 55 (12): 6506-6510. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6506
Abstract +
Double-atom filled single-phase CamCenFexCo4-xSb12 compounds were synthesized through a melting—quenching—diffusion—annealing procedure. Ca and Ce were used as filling atoms. The structure of double-atom filled skutterudite compounds was investigated via Rietveld refinement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results of Rietveld refinement indicate that CamCenFexCo4-xSb12 compounds have skutterudite structure, and the Sb-icosahedron voids were filled with Ca or Ce. The thermal parameter (B) of Ca/Ce is much larger than those of Sb and Fe/Co in the compounds. The specific chemical states of atoms were obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy quantitative analysis, the results show that the Sb atoms have five chemical states, and the relative percentages of Sb atoms in different chemical states are correlative with the total filling fraction. The filling atoms tend to be located at the center of the voids of the Sb-icosahedrons preferentially.
Molds for nanoimprinting made by modified photoresist
Guo Yan-Feng, Guo Xi, Tang Wei-Hua, Chen Lei-Ming
2006, 55 (12): 6511-6514. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6511
Abstract +
The molds for nanoimprint is very important for nanoimprinting. Many hard materials have been used to make molds. But these materials are difficult to fabricate. In this paper we present a novel technique for making molds based on the modification of polymer by focused ion beam irradiation. This technique is very fast and simple. It can be used in many other domainus of nanofabrication.
Structure, magnetic properties and atomic immigration of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles
Wang Li, Wang Hai-Bo, Wang Tao, Li Fa-Shen
2006, 55 (12): 6515-6521. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6515
Abstract +
CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been prepared by sol-gel method. M?ssbauer spectra at temperature varying from 80 to 873 K showed that the atomic site preference of nanoparticles is different from that of the bulk material. The results also showed that the Tc of nanosized CoFe2O4 is much lower than that of the bulk counterpart. This decrease of Tc in the nanoparticles may be attributed to the redistribution of Fe and Co cations at the A and B sites. The M?ssbauer spectra also revealed that the hyperfine field varied with the temperature and the hyperfine interaction follows T3/2+T5/2 law approximately. The average isomer shift decreases almost linearly with increasing temperature.
Atomic modeling on the elastic properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes under tension
Yin Jian-Wei, Ni Xiang-Gui
2006, 55 (12): 6522-6525. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6522
Abstract +
The stress versus strain relations and the Poisson's ratios under tension of 4 double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with diameters greater than 1 nm were numerically studied with the molecular dynamics method. The simulation shows that in the elastic range the stress and the strain have nonlinear relation, and the tangent elastic moduli of the DWCNTs decrease from 720 to 570 GPa with increasing strain. As the strain increases, the value of Poisson's ratio changes from 0.3 to 0.17, and the sizes of the DWCNTs have little influences on the Poisson's ratio.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

The effects of axial magnetic field on electronic properties of carbon nanotubes
Zhang Zhu-Hua, Guo Wan-Lin, Guo Yu-Feng
2006, 55 (12): 6526-6531. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6526
Abstract +
The effects of the external magnetic field on the energy gap of carbon nanotubes were investigated by using the tight-bonding method. It was found that, under the applied magnetic field, the peak of energy gap induced by magnetic field and the slope of energy gap versus magnetic field depend on their diameters tightly; when tubes with the same diameters are used, the metal type tubes have the highest energy gap peak. Furthermore, under the magnetic field, the density of states of carbon nanotubes near the Fermi level are also calculated, showing that the Van Hove singularities will exhibit a periodic phenomenon of splitting, moving and merging. Our calculations meet the results from Green's function method, so they are reasonable.
Single crystal growth and magnetic properties of strong geometric frustrated magnetic pyrochlore Dy2Ti2O7
Tang Zheng, Li Chang-Zhen, Yin Di, Zhu Ben-Peng, Wang Li-Li, Wang Jun-Feng, Xiong Rui, Wang Qu-Quan, Shi Jing
2006, 55 (12): 6532-6537. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6532
Abstract +
Large, high quality single crystals of Dy2Ti2O7 have been successfully grown by the floating zone technique in an infrared image furnace. The obtained single crystal has been characterized by X-ray diffraction at room temperature and is shown to have the face centred cubic structure, Fd3m, with a room temperature lattice parameter a=1.0112(2) nm. The full-width at half-maximum of rocking curves of [111] and [400] Bragg peaks are 0.07° and 0.05°, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility measurements give a Van Vleck paramagnetic parameter of 2.46×10-5m3/mol, the effective moment μeff=10.24(4)μB and Cure-Weiss temperature ΘCW=1.1 K, indicating weak ferromagnetism for the Dy2Ti2O7 single crystal. The comparative studies of the experiment and theoretical analysis reveal that the long-ranged dipole-dipole interactions dominate the magnetic behaviors of this kind of spin ice system, and the dipolar energy scale Dnn=3.00 K.
Phase transition from amorphous carbon to diamond nanocrystalline induced by 40Ar+
Wang Zhen-Xia, Zhu Zhi-Yuan, Hu Jian-Gang, Yong Zhen-Zhong, Li Qin-Tao
2006, 55 (12): 6538-6542. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6538
Abstract +
Large-scale diamond nanocrystals of different sizes were synthesized by 60 keV 40Ar+ irradiation on amorphous carbon. Investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy diffraction X-ray spectrum, electron diffraction and Raman spectrum, the diamond crystallites embeded in graphitic film have a high nucleation density (about 1013/cm2) and can grow to large sizes even of the micrometer order. The mechanism of phase transition is discussed preliminarily.
Thermodynamic characteristics of metallic glass-forming liquids
Ma Chao-Li, Xia Ming-Xu, Meng Qing-Ge, Zhang Shu-Guang, Li Jian-Guo
2006, 55 (12): 6543-6549. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6543
Abstract +
On the basis of analyzing the thermodynamic model of regular melt, the mixing enthalpy ΔHmix and the mixing entropy ΔSmix of typical metallic glass melts were calculated. The distribution of ΔHmix vs. ΔSmix for typical metallic glasses was generalized, and a strategy for pinpointing metallic glass formers has been proposed by combining the critical cooling rate Rc based on the atomic intrinsic characteristics of the alloys including atom size, composition, and mixing enthalpy of binary systems among the components. On the condition of ΔSmix greater than 0.6 J·K-1mol-1 and ΔH less than -15 kJ·mol-1, the alloy tends to form a bulk metallic glass(BMG). It shows that Rc is intimately related with ΔSmix, and can be expressed as Rc=42.24×104 exp(-13.91 ΔSmix)+19.66. Two new glass formers, Zr40Al10Ni15Cu35, located far from the glass forming area of the existing Zr-Al-Ni-Cu BMGs with a content of 55at%—65at% zirconium, and Fe53Co5Nd12B30 of quaternary Fe-B-based BMG, were successfully prepared with this approach.
Diffusion and interface reaction of Cu and Si in Cu/SiO2/Si (111) systems
Cao Bo, Bao Liang-Man, Li Gong-Ping, He Shan-Hu
2006, 55 (12): 6550-6555. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6550
Abstract +
The Cu thin films were deposited on p-type Si (111) substrates by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The diffusion and interface reaction of Cu/SiO2/Si (111) systems were studied for different annealing temperatures by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS).We obtained some useful results in the following aspects:The onset temperature of interdiffusion was 450℃ for the Cu/SiO2/Si (111) systems.With the increase of annealing temperature, the interdiffusion was more apparent. There were no copper silicides formed below annealing temperature of 450℃ for the Cu/SiO2/Si (111) systems. The onset temperature of silicification was 500℃. Copper silicides were formed on the samples after annealing at 500℃.
Heat conduction in one-dimensional systems with damping
Li Xin-Xia, Tang Yi
2006, 55 (12): 6556-6561. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6556
Abstract +
By making use of the method of molecular dynamics, we study the behaviors of heat conduction in one-dimensional systems under the influence of damping. The results show that when the integrability of the systems is destroyed by the damping, linear temperature profiles appear even in the harmonic lattices. Weak damping acts as a sort of perturbation in nonintegable systems and does not substantially change their temperature profiles and the thermal conductivity, while it causes essential change in integrable systems. However, in the case of strong damping, because of the excessive dissipation of energy, temperature profiles in a sunken shape and the convergent thermal conductivity appear.
CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
Study of the stability of gallium-arsenic ion clusters
Yang Jian-Song, Li Bao-Xing
2006, 55 (12): 6562-6569. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6562
Abstract +
Using full-muffin-tin-orbital molecular-dynamics method, the electronic and geometric structures of GanAsn (n=4,5,6) ion clusters and their stability have been investigated in detail. The lowest energy structures are found. Our calculations suggest that they are obviously different from the ground state structures of their corresponding neutral clusters. In addition, the stable ionic structures have more severe structural distortion than the neutral structures. Gallium atoms occupy the cap atom positions more easily than arsenic atoms in the mixed GanAsn clusters.
Electronic theoretical study on the influence of rare earth on the stress corrosion in magnesium alloy
Liu Gui-Li
2006, 55 (12): 6570-6573. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6570
Abstract +
The atomic models of pure boundary and that with Mg17Al12 of α phase in magnesium alloy were set up. The segregation energies of Al and rare earth atoms, the interaction energies between Al and/or rare earth atoms, and the Fermi energy levels of different systems were calculated by using recursion method. The Al and rare earth segregation at the grain boundaries, the relationship between the interaction of Al or rare earth atoms and the ordering tendency, as well as the physical nature of the influence of rare earth on the stress corrosion of magnesium alloy were discussed. Calculation results show that: Al and rare earth atoms segregate at grain boundaries, and Al atoms repel each other, leading to the formation of the ordered Mg17Al12 phases in the grain boundaries. But rare earth atoms attract each other, so atom clusters are formed in the grain boundaries. The rare earth atom cluster can attract Al atoms, make the Al atoms to infiltrate into the rare earth atom cluster, forming rare earth compound. Therefore, rare earth have the effect of restraining the forming of Mg17Al12 along grain boundaries which functions as the cathode of magnesium alloy that leads to corrosion, this reducing the sensibility of stress corrosion.
Electronic structure of intrinsic defects and mechanism of donor-acceptor pair luminescence in CuI crystal
Liu Hai-Lan, Gu Mu, Zhang Rui, Ouyang Xiao-Ping, Xu Rong-Kun, Li Guang-Wu
2006, 55 (12): 6574-6579. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6574
Abstract +
The electronic structures of γ phase copper iodide crystal and the intrinsic point defects associated with iodine and copper have been studied with relativistic density functional theory and embedded cluster method. The simulations for point defects show that the tetrahedron interstitial copper atoms and copper vacancies may lead to the shallow donor and acceptor levels in the energy gap, which is related with the origins of the broad donor-acceptor pair recombination luminescence band 420—430 nm of CuI crystal.
Virtual-crystal doping study in novel superconductor MgCNi3
Ma Rong, Zhang Jia-Hong, Du Jin-Li, Liu Su, Liu Mei
2006, 55 (12): 6580-6584. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6580
Abstract +
Using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method and considering local spin density approximation, we study superconducting and magnetic properties in virtual-crystal doped MgCNi3. The electronic band structure, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, magnetic moment and its variation rate are calculated. It is found that: for electron-doped Mg1-xAlxCNi3(0≤x≤0.5), the superconductivity and magnetic fluctuations decrease gradually with increasing doping. For hole-doped Mg1-xNaxCNi3 with x=0.12, a ferromagnetic phase transition occurs and superconductivity disappears. In the hole doping range of 0≤x<0.12, there is the unstable superconducting state with spin fluctuations.
Study of single-walled carbon nanotube's differential conductance in high magnetic field under high pressure
Zhu Hong-Wei, Liu Feng, Wu De-Hai, Cai Jian-Zhen, Lü Li
2006, 55 (12): 6585-6588. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6585
Abstract +
Accompanied by the structural phase transition, the electron transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes bundles undergo a metal-semiconductor transition at a hydrostatic pressure of 1.5 GPa. In the semiconducting phase there coexist two effects——electron phase coherence which leads to two-dimensional electron weak localization, and Coulomb correlation which leads to the environmental quantum fluctuation of charge transport. We applied hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa to single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, and studied the bias voltage dependence of the differential conductance at low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields. Our results show that phase coherence and Coulomb correlation are two effects that independently influence on the electron transport process in the semiconducting phase of the single walled carbon nanotube bundles.
The division of iron's core and valence states under high pressures via first-principles calculation
Sun Bo, Liu Shao-Jun, Zhu Wen-Jun
2006, 55 (12): 6589-6594. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6589
Abstract +
We performed first-principles calculation for the body-centered cubic iron based on density-function theory, employing the pseudopotentionals and plane-wave method. We set the computational precision of the energy of one atom to 0.01 eV and make the spin-polarized total-energy calculation. The calculated results show that the 3p state should be treated as valence state when pressure is higher than 140 GPa, while the contribution to the total energy due to the dispersion of 3s state can be ignored for the whole range of earth's core condition.
Effects of nonlinearity on the transmission property of superlattices
Liu Bing-Can, Pan Xue-Qin, Ren Zhi-Ming
2006, 55 (12): 6595-6599. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6595
Abstract +
We investigate the effects of nonlinearity on the transmission property of superlattices. The nonlinear Schr?dinger equation leads to a second order nonlinear difference equation, and we obtain transmission spectrum of wave by iterating the difference equation. The transmission spectrum shows that the nonlinear coefficient has a distinctive modulation effect on the transmission coefficient.
Research of two-dimensional hole gas in p-GaN/Al0.35Ga0.65N/GaN strained quantum-well
You Da, Xu Jin-Tong, Tang Ying-Wen, He Zheng, Xu Yun-Hua, Gong Hai-Mei
2006, 55 (12): 6600-6605. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6600
Abstract +
In this paper, the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced in the heterojunction were investigated in detail. The density of the 2DHG was calculated at first, then, based on the semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor and superlattice critical thickness model and using the self consistent Poisson-Schrdinger calculations, the influence of the AlGaN barrier and the top GaN layer thickness on the distribution of the 2DHG were calculated when the barrier layer is fully strained and half strained. The Schottky device with this structure was fabricated and C-V measurement was made to verify the existence of the 2DHG and the validity of calculation results. Finally, the 2DHG effects on p-GaN/AlGaN/GaN Schottky photodetector were investigated. Due to the polarization and Stark effect, the spectral responses with the 10nm blue shift are observed. Under zero bias, the peak responsivity of the device is about 0.022A/W, and increases to 0.19A/W under 1V reverse bias, which approaches the theoretical limit.
Quantum tunnelling time of cold atom passing through a laser beam
Huang Jian-Hua, Duan Zheng-Lu, Zhang Wei-Ping, Zhou Zhao-Ying, Feng Yan-Ying, Zhu Rong, Tang Lin
2006, 55 (12): 6606-6611. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6606
Abstract +
Atoms can be prepared at low temperatures by laser cooling. The center of mass motion of the cold atoms exhibits wave nature of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we study the quantum tunneling effect of a cold atomic beam propagating through a laser beam which is blue detuned. The blue detuned laser beam is physically equal to a quantum potential barrier. According to two-level model of atom, we systematically analyze the quantum reflection and transmission of the vector atomic matter wave with internal structures propagating through a laser beam. Quantum tunneling time the atomic beam spends in transmitting the laser beam is studied in details. Because of quantum wave nature, cold atoms tunneling through a laser beam can obviously have a completely different feature from that of a classical particle (hot atom).
Investigation on stability of microcrystalline silicon thin film transistors
Zhang Fang, Li Juan, Wu Chun-Ya, Zhao Shu-Yun, Liu Jian-Ping, Meng Zhi-Guo, Xiong Shao-Zhen
2006, 55 (12): 6612-6616. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6612
Abstract +
Instability of a bottom gate microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) thin film transistor (TFT), of which the active layer was deposited by very high frequency-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with silane concentration of 4% diluted by H2, was measured and compared under two different gate bias stress conditions. A new instability phenomenon of TFT under the voltage bias stress of Vgs=Vds=10 V was found, where the ratio of the source-drain current of μc-Si TFT to its initial value decreases first, then stays flat for a period of time, then increases. However, under the voltage bias stress of Vgs=10 V(Vds=0 V), the source-drain current of μc-Si TFT decreases as normal exponential decay. Analysis on the change of sub-threshold swing S and threshold voltage Vth with stress time indicated the recoverable degradation could have resulted from the electron trapping and releasing in μc-Si TFT treated by gate-bias stress with Vds≠0.
Transport properties and photo-induced effect in La0.82Te0.18MnO3 thin film
Wang Jian-Yuan, Chen Chang-Le, Han Li-An, Jin Ke-Xin, Gao Guo-Mian
2006, 55 (12): 6617-6621. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6617
Abstract +
The transition from the metallic phase to the nonconductive phase occurred at 283 K in La0.82Te0.18MnO3 thin film prepared by pulse laser deposition method. The transport results show that the data satisfy the formula of electro-electro and electro-magnon scattering for TTMI; when T>TMI it agrees with small polaron transport model. The effect of the continuous wave laser(532 nm,40 mW) on the film was also investigated. Below TMI, the resistivity has a photo-induced increase. The maximum rate of resistivity changes(Δρ/ρ0) can reach 51.1%, which is much greater than that of hole-doped manganites. Above TMI there is a photoconduction. The relaxation was observed in the experiment when the laser was turned on and off. The resistively is exponentially related with the time.
The distribution and origination of electric field and charge in interface layer of superconductor
Yang Peng-Fei, Chen Wen-Xue
2006, 55 (12): 6622-6629. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6622
Abstract +
Based on relativistic field equations of superconducting state, the structure and forming mechanism of interface layer of superconductor are studied for the condition of weak magnetic field. It is shown that electric field, potential difference, Hall effect and sandwich of charge density exist in this layer,which originate from the measurable effect of potential field limited by relativistic covariance. In order to verify the result of this paper, a design of experiment is given.
Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of Sb-doped type-Ⅰ Ge clathrates Ba8Ga16-xSbxGe30
Xiong Cong, Tang Xin-Feng, Qi Qiong, Deng Shu-Kang, Zhang Qing-Jie
2006, 55 (12): 6630-6636. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6630
Abstract +
The single-phase Sb-doped n-type Ba8Ga16-xSbxGe30 compounds were synthesized by melting reaction combined with spark plasma sintering. Influences of substituting Sb for Ga on the thermoelectric properties of the compounds were investigated. The results indicate that with the increase of Sb substitution fraction the Seebeck coefficient is decreased gradually, and the temperature which corresponds to the peak value of Seebeck coefficient moves to low-temperature. The electrical conductivity of the compounds increases at first and then decreases with the increase of x; when x=2, it reaches maximum. Substituting Sb for Ga has a great influence on the thermal properties of the compounds. Both the thermal conductivity and lattice thermal conductivity decrease in various degrees. Of all n-type Ba8Ga16-xSbxGe30 compounds, the compound Ba8Ga14Sb2Ge30 has the greatest ZT value, the maximal value of which reaches 1.1 at about 950 K.
The dc Josephson current in superconductor-ferromagnet/insulator/spin-triplet p-wave superconductor junctions
Li Xiao-Wei
2006, 55 (12): 6637-6642. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6637
Abstract +
From the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we obtain the self-consistent equation for a ferromagnetic superconductor. Using the Furusaki-Tsukada formula, we calculate the dc Josephson current in superconductor-ferromagnet/insulator/spin-triplet p-wave superconductor (FS/I/p) junctions. It is found that the dc Josephson currents in FS/I/p are suppressed by the presence of exchange field and insulating barrier scattering. The period of oscillation curves of the Josephson current is π when there exist px-wave symmetries for the pairing symmetries of spin-triplet superconductor.
Kondo interactions in the CeOs4Sb12 skutterudite studied by inelastic neutron scattering
Zhou Zhi-Hui, Wang Hao, Yang Chang-Ping, K. Iwasa, M. Kohgi
2006, 55 (12): 6643-6646. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6643
Abstract +
The energy gap near Fermi surface due to the hybridization of Ce3+ 4f1 and conduction electrons is the key to understand the physical properties of the CeOs4Sb12 compound, such as Kondo insulating behavior, moment quench of Ce3+ at low temperatures and the characteristics of heavy fermion. In this work, inelastic neutron scattering spectra of powder CeOs4Sb12 sample were collected at different temperatures using LAM-D neutron spectrometer at KEK pulsed neutron source. The result indicates that the CeOs4Sb12 skutterudite is a Kondo insulator with a c-f interaction of 3.1 meV. The Debye temperature is determined as 317 K.
The formation and thermal stability of exchange bias in NiFe/PtMn bilayers
Li Yan, Chen Qing-Yong, Jiang Hong-Wei, Wang Ai-Ling, Zheng Wu
2006, 55 (12): 6647-6650. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6647
Abstract +
(Ni0.81Fe0.19)1-xCrx/NiFe/PtMn films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The formation and thermal stablitity of NiFe/PtMn bilayers were systematically investigated. The experiment shows that the grain size of PtMn layer depends strongly on the change in Cr concent ration. Thermal stability of exchange bias indicates that (Ni0.81Fe0.19)1-xCrx/NiFe/PtMn films with larger PtMn grains have a higher blocking temperature, and the bigger grain size is helpful in reducing the critical thickness of PtMn layer, which is consistent with Mauri's model.
Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor
Wang Yi, Sun Lei, Han De-Dong, Liu Li-Feng, Kang Jin-Feng, Liu Xiao-Yan, Zhang Xing, Han Ru-Qi
2006, 55 (12): 6651-6655. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6651
Abstract +
The room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of Co-doped zinc oxide are reported in this paper. The Zn1-xCoxO (x=0.02, 0.06, 0.10) specimens were synthesized by solid state reaction of the mixture of ZnO and Co2O3 powders. The specimens were then annealed in the hydrogenation ambience. The RTFM was found in the hydrogenated samples, and the hysteresis loops of the hydrogenated Co-doped ZnO samples were measured at 300 K by using the superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The samples were further measured by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.
The effect of a Bi underlayer on FePt thin film
Feng Chun, Han Gang, Teng Jiao, Jiang Yong, Liu Quan-Lin, Yu Guang-Hua, Li Bao-He
2006, 55 (12): 6656-6660. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6656
Abstract +
In this paper, the FePt films with Bi underlayer were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The L10-FePt films were obtained after the deposited samples were subjected to vacuum annealing at various temperatures. The effect of a Bi underlayer on the ordering temperature and magnetic properties of FePt films was studied. Experimental results show that the FePt film can realize the low-temperature ordering at 350℃ after introduction of a Bi underlayer. Moreover, the Bi underlayer can also obviously enhance the coercivity Hc of the film and enlarge the concentration range of FePt films with high Hc. We studied the distribution of Bi atoms by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the change of crystal structure of FePt films by X-ray diffraction. The cause of the above observatious is associated with enhanced ordering degree of FePt films by the Bi diffusion during annealing process.
Microstructures and electrical properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics
Shao Shou-Fu, Zheng Peng, Zhang Jia-Liang, Niu Xiao-Kun, Wang Chun-Lei, Zhong Wei-Lie
2006, 55 (12): 6661-6666. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6661
Abstract +
CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics are prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method with various sintering temperatures. Microstructures are examined by scanning electronic microscopy, and it is found that they could be categorized into three different types. Dielectric properties and complex impedances are investigated in the frequency range of 40 Hz—110 MHz over a temperature range of 25—280℃. The room temperature dielectric constant increases with sintering temperature. With increasing the measuring temperature, ceramics with different microstructures show diverse electrical properties. However, some common features exist among the electrical properties. For all of the ceramics, dielectric dispersion shows a low-frequency response and two Debye-type relaxations, and there exist three semicircles in the complex impedance plane at high temperatures. The observed electrical properties are ascribed to the detailed internal polycrystalline microstructure, i.e., to come from the contributions of the domains, the grain boundaries and defects inside grains such as domain boundaries, etc.
Self-similarity of the electro-optical effects
Tong Yong-Zai, Yu Ben-Hai, Hu Xue-Hui, Wang Xi-An
2006, 55 (12): 6667-6672. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6667
Abstract +
Based on the electro-optical coefficients, the Miller-δ coefficients of KNbO3, LiNbO3, BaTiO3 and several semiconductor crystals were calculated. The results show that the coefficients are frequency independent and are the same for unclamped and clamped values, so it is feasible to take the Miller-δ coefficients to characterize the nonlinear optical properties. Furthermore, a novel mechanism of the electro-optical effects is presented which maintains that the electro-optical effect results from the self-similarity of the nonlinear system, manifested as the recopy of the linear properties and the Miller-δ coefficients are the proportion factors of self-copy.
Small angle X-ray scattering research of the relaxation and crystallization process in Cu60Zr30Ti10 amorphous alloy
Liu Xiong-Jun, Cheng Wei-Dong, Sun Min-Hua, Li Jia-Yun, Wang Ai-Ping, Sun Yong-Li, Liu Fang
2006, 55 (12): 6673-6676. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6673
Abstract +
Small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to investigate the evolution of microstructure in Cu60Zr30Ti10 amorphous alloy heated at temperatures from 300 to 813 K. It is confirmed that the Cu-rich domains in the diameter range about 30 nm exist in the as-quenched state. The structural relaxation can be divided into the low temperature structure relaxation in the temperature range from 300 to 573 K and the high temperature structure relaxation in the temperature range from 573 K to the temperature of glass transition. The Cu-rich domains with ordered clusters are the basis of crystallization. Porod curves indicate that there is a sharp boundary between the nano body-centred-cubic CuZr precipitates and the matrix.
Improved performance of the dispenser cathode with a Re intermediate layer
Li Yu-Tao, Zhang Hong-Lai, Liu Pu-Kun, Zhang Ming-Chen
2006, 55 (12): 6677-6683. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6677
Abstract +
A new type dispenser cathode with Os-W/Re dual-layer has been developed. Emission performance and surface microstructure of the cathode with the dual-layer before and after ageing were studied. The performance of the dispenser cathode is improved by introducing a Re intermediate leyer. DC current density of the dispenser cathodes coated with Os-W alloy and Os-W/Re were compared. It is found that the cathode with Os-W/Re shows better emission performance than the cathode with Os-W alloy. Both cathodes were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after full activation. Ternary alloy coating being formed for the cathode with Os-W/Re is the major reason for its better emission performance. Scanning electron microscopy was used for investigating surface microstructures of both kinds of cathodes and the results show that the emitting surface of the cathode with Os-W alloy after ageing appeared non-adherent (flaking) in localized areas. This is one of the reasons for its non-uniform emission. However, surface of the cathode with Os-W/Re does not suffer from peeling under the same conditions, thus ensuring better emission uniformity and functional reliability of the dispenser cathode.
Investigation on the crystal structure, optical and electrical properties of Er3+ implanted CdTe thin film
Hou Juan, Zheng Yu-Feng, Dong You-Zhong, Kuang Dai-Hong, Sun Yan-Fei, Li Qiang
2006, 55 (12): 6684-6690. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6684
Abstract +
The structure, optical and electrical properties of the CdTe polycrystalline thin film prepared by close-space sublimation and doped with rare earth element erbium using ion implantation had been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, Hall effect and impedance measurement. The results indicate that the crystallinity of the samples can be improved with suitable doping concentration. It is believed that the grain-boundary barrier of the thin film CdTe:Er can be decreased due to the appearance of electron traps at grain boundaries. It is found that the implantation of Er3+ in CdTe thin film causes a great change in conductivity but only a little influence on optical energy band gap of the samples.
The critical phenomena of the dilute-to-dense transition in two-dimensional granular flow
Shi Qing-Fan, Peng Zheng, Wu Yao-Yu, Lu Kun-Quan, Hou Mei-Ying, Zhong Jie
2006, 55 (12): 6691-6696. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6691
Abstract +
The criticality of the dilute-to-dense transition in an inclined two-dimensional(2D) granular channel flow is investigated. The waiting time t before the transition occurs and after the flow is initiated is recorded. It is found that the probability function C(t) for the flow remaining dilute at time t decays exponentially with a characteristic time α-1(d). The characteristic time is found to be fitted well by a power law a(dc-d)-γ, where dc is the critical opening size: as for d>dc, the transition will never happen. The existence of a critical opening size at the exit confirms that the dilute-to-dense transition in 2D granular flow is a critical transition.
Investigation of improved conversion efficiency of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells
Zhang Xiao-Dan, Zhao Ying, Gao Yan-Tao, Chen Fei, Zhu Feng, Wei Chang-Chun, Sun Jian, Geng Xin-Hua, Xiong Shao-Zhen
2006, 55 (12): 6697-6700. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6697
Abstract +
A series of microcrystalline silicon thin films solar cells were fabricated by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different total gas flow rates and on different back reflectors. The results of I-V measurements of solar cells showed that the characteristic parameters of solar cells were all improved with the increase of total flow rate, so conversion efficiency of solar cells were increased. In addition, short circuit current (Jsc) of solar cells was greatly reduced, as a result, conversion efficiency of solar cells were improved when ZnO/Ag/Al back reflector were incorporated into solar cells. The details can be seen in the paper.
Information processing of multidimensional simultaneity fluorescence with two-photon array excitation
Lin Zi-Yang, Fu Zhe, Liu Li-Xin, Hu Tao, Qu Jun-Le, Guo Bao-Ping, Niu Han-Ben
2006, 55 (12): 6701-6707. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6701
Abstract +
Microscopical imaging method of five-dimensional simultaneity fluorescence information is a new technology for acquiring fluorescence information, which makes use of two-photon array excitation to acquire information of fluorescence position, fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence lifetime for each array element. It removes the limitation on existing fluorescence detection technology in which different functional informations are not obtained simultaneously. In this paper, the methods for deriving geometrical intensity image, different spectral intensity images and different spectral life-time images from the complex information of the new technology are presented. Because of array excitation, there is asymmetry in the array excitation intensity, which influences the excited fluorescence intensity. A method based on the excitation fluorescence intensity correction coefficient matrix is put forward, which eliminates effectively the influence of the asymmetry of array excitation intensity. Data collection and processing for actual samples are made and imaging results are got. The experimental results show the validity of the processing methods and some unsolved problems in the processing methods are discussed.
GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS
Approaches to convergence enhancement of multiframe blind deconvolution of astronomical images
Cheng Wei-Dong, Wang Li, Luo Lin, Shen Mang-Zuo
2006, 55 (12): 6708-6714. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6708
Abstract +
The convergence property of multiframe blind deconvolution applied to improve the resolution of astronomical images is influenced by initial object estimate, constraint conditions and photon noise. A method of determining band limitation of the point-spread function from the optical imaging system parameters is proposed. The initial object estimate of blind deconvolution algorithm is formed by using Knox-Thompson method to reconstruct object phase from short-exposure images. A novel method,which is used to decrease photon noise, edge effects and ringing of restoration images is developed. An improved multiframe blind deconvolution algorithm with a strict constrained optimization method of the expectation-maximization based on maximum-likelihood estimation is presented. The restored images of the simulation data,and real Mars and solar-granulation data show that the proposed multiframe blind deconvolution algorithm is valid for overcoming effects of atmospheric turbulence and photon noise and improving the resolution of real observed astronomical images, and capabel of partly removing th diffraction effect of optical system on restored images.
Numerical analysis of the scaling laws about focused beam spreading induced by the atmosphere
Huang Yin-Bo, Wang Ying-Jian
2006, 55 (12): 6715-6719. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6715
Abstract +
Using typical sets of numerical parameters under characteristic laser beam propagation conditions, focused beam spreading induced by atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming is analyzed by numerical simulation. In the analysis of the combined effect, we assume that the thermal blooming effect arises in consequence of the increase in beam radius induced by atmospheric turbulence and beam jitter. The scaling relations between the laser propagation effects and characteristic parameters describing the propagation in atmosphere are obtained. Based upon these relations, we can efficiently estimate atmospheric propagation effects and learn the performance of a particular system design under various environmental conditions, as well as conduct laser system design optimization.
The new algorithm for standalone positioning with global positioning system and numerical experiments
Huang Si-Xun, Sheng Zheng
2006, 55 (12): 6720-6726. doi: 10.7498/aps.55.6720
Abstract +
To determine the approximate position of a global positioning system receiver, the Bancroft method can provide the initial value for linearization of the observation equation, which can then be solved by the least-square (LS) method. Because the solution of LS method is not unique and the observation data have noise, the solution is ill-posed. In order to solve the problem, we introduce the regularization method combined with the optimum choice of regularization parameter. The experimental result indicates that it can enhance the resistance to bad errors, which has significance in real-time fast positioning.