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Estimation of low-dose-rate degradation on bipolar linear circuits using different accelerated evaluation methods

Li Xiao-Long Lu Wu Wang Xin Guo Qi He Cheng-Fa Sun Jing Yu Xin Liu Mo-Han Jia Jin-Cheng Yao Shuai Wei Xin-Yu

Estimation of low-dose-rate degradation on bipolar linear circuits using different accelerated evaluation methods

Li Xiao-Long, Lu Wu, Wang Xin, Guo Qi, He Cheng-Fa, Sun Jing, Yu Xin, Liu Mo-Han, Jia Jin-Cheng, Yao Shuai, Wei Xin-Yu
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  • The linear bipolar devices and integrated circuits (ICs) which are subjected to ionizing radiation exhibit parametric degradations due to current-gain decrease, and the amount of degradation on various types of bipolar devices is much more significant at low-dose-rate than at high-dose-rate. Such an enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) is considered to be one of the major challenges for radiation-tolerance testing intended for space systems. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore an efficient and practical test for the ELDRS in the linear bipolar devices and ICs. The different experiments have been implemented on four types of bipolar ICs for evaluating their responses to low-dose-rate irradiation. The experiments involve the dose rate switching approach performed under high to low-dose-rate irradiation and temperature switching approach performed under high to low temperature irradiation. Good agreement is observed between predictive curves obtained at dose rate switching irradiation and the low-dose-rate results, and the irradiation time for the dose rate switching approach is reduced from 4 months to a week. Further, the results also suggest that the device degradation rate can affect the prediction of the total dose. This is because the curves examined at different doses have a lot of overlap when the devices with fast degradation rates are performed. In addition to temperature switching irradiation, the radiation response of the same type of device is much more significant than that obtained in low-dose rate irradiation, and this method will shorten the irradiation time to 12 h. Based on the analysis of mechanisms behind the switched dose rate and temperature irradiation, switching temperature irradiation can accelerate the release of protons and buildup of interface traps, which is the key physical mechanism for ELDRS. Firstly, a higher irradiation temperature can enhance the transport of holes and release of protons to form interface traps, resulting in the enhanced degradation occurring at first dose examined. Further, the reducing temperature sequence suppresses the hydrogen dimerization process during the irradiation that follows, which is strongly temperature dependent and contributes to interface trap annealing. Moreover, further decrease in temperature can restrict the interface trap annealing because the barrier for this process is higher and it has less opportunity to take place at lower temperature. Additionally, the hydrogen molecules converted from hydrogen dimerization may extend the liberation of protons, by the hydrogen molecules cracking mechanisms, leading to the additional degradation. Therefore, the temperature switching irradiation is shown to be a conservative and efficient method for ELDRS in bipolar devices, and this provides an insight into hardness assurance testing.
      Corresponding author: Lu Wu, luwu@ms.xjb.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1532261, U1630141) and the West Light Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences China (Grant No. 2016-QNXZ-B-7).
    [1]

    Enlow E W, Pease R L, Combs S, Schrimpf R D, Nowlin R N 1991 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38 1342

    [2]

    Barnaby H J, Tausch H J, Turfer R, Cole P, Baker P, Pease R L 1996 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 3040

    [3]

    Pease R L, Adell P C, Rax B G 2008 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55 3169

    [4]

    Hjalmarson H P, Pease R L, Witczak S C, Shaneyfelt M R, Schwank J R, Edwards A H, Hembree C E, Mattsson T R 2003 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50 1901

    [5]

    Chavez R M, Rax B G, Scheickrad L Z, Jonston A H 2005 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop Record Washington, USA, July 11-15, 2005 p144

    [6]

    Fleetwood D M, Kosier S L, Nowlin R N, Schrimpf R D, Reber R A, DeLaus M, Winokur P S, Wei A, Combs W E, Pease R L 1994 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41 1871

    [7]

    McLean F B 1980 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27 1651

    [8]

    Ma W Y, Wang Z K, Lu W, Xi S B, Guo Q, He C F, Wang X, Liu M H, Jiang K 2014 Acta Phys. Sin. 63 116101 (in Chinese) [马武英, 王志宽, 陆妩, 席善斌, 郭旗, 何承发, 王信, 刘默寒, 姜柯 2014 物理学报 63 116101]

    [9]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Ducret S, Dusseau L, David J P, Fesquet J, Gasiot J, Ecoffet R 2004 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 2896

    [10]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Schrimpf R D, Vaille J R, Dusseau L, Ducret S, Bernard M, Lorfevre E, Chatry C 2005 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52 2616

    [11]

    Boch J, Velo Y G, Saigne F, Roche N J H, Schrimpf R D, Vaille J R, Dusseau L, Chatry C, Lorfevre E, Ecoffet R, Touboul A D 2009 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56 3347

    [12]

    Velo Y G, Boch J, Saigne F, Roche N H, Perez S, Vaille J R, Deneau C, Dusseau L, Lorfevre E, Schrimpf R D 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2953

    [13]

    Lu W, Ren D Y, Zheng Y Z, Wang Y Y, Guo Q, Yu X F 2009 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 43 769 (in Chinese) [陆妩, 任迪远, 郑玉展, 王义元, 郭旗, 余学峰 2009 原子能科学技术 43 769]

    [14]

    Deng W, Lu W, Guo Q, He C F, Wu X, Wang X, Zhang J X, Zhang X F, Zheng Q W, Ma W Y 2014 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 48 727 (in Chinese) [邓伟, 陆妩, 郭旗, 何承发, 吴雪, 王信, 张晋新, 张孝富, 郑齐文, 马武英 2014 原子能科学技术 48 727]

    [15]

    Ma W Y, Lu W, Guo Q, Wu X, Sun J, Deng W, Wang X, Wu Z X 2014 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 48 2170 (in Chinese) [马武英, 陆妩, 郭旗, 吴雪, 孙静, 邓伟, 王信, 吴正新 2014 原子能科学技术 48 2170]

    [16]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Carlotti J F 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 232113

    [17]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Touboul A D, Schrimpf R D 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 042108

    [18]

    Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2009 Phys. Rev. B 77 115206

    [19]

    Rowsey N L, Lw M E, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2937

    [20]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2930

    [21]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Rowsey N L, Lw M E, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2012 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59 3087

  • [1]

    Enlow E W, Pease R L, Combs S, Schrimpf R D, Nowlin R N 1991 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 38 1342

    [2]

    Barnaby H J, Tausch H J, Turfer R, Cole P, Baker P, Pease R L 1996 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 3040

    [3]

    Pease R L, Adell P C, Rax B G 2008 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55 3169

    [4]

    Hjalmarson H P, Pease R L, Witczak S C, Shaneyfelt M R, Schwank J R, Edwards A H, Hembree C E, Mattsson T R 2003 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50 1901

    [5]

    Chavez R M, Rax B G, Scheickrad L Z, Jonston A H 2005 IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop Record Washington, USA, July 11-15, 2005 p144

    [6]

    Fleetwood D M, Kosier S L, Nowlin R N, Schrimpf R D, Reber R A, DeLaus M, Winokur P S, Wei A, Combs W E, Pease R L 1994 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41 1871

    [7]

    McLean F B 1980 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27 1651

    [8]

    Ma W Y, Wang Z K, Lu W, Xi S B, Guo Q, He C F, Wang X, Liu M H, Jiang K 2014 Acta Phys. Sin. 63 116101 (in Chinese) [马武英, 王志宽, 陆妩, 席善斌, 郭旗, 何承发, 王信, 刘默寒, 姜柯 2014 物理学报 63 116101]

    [9]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Ducret S, Dusseau L, David J P, Fesquet J, Gasiot J, Ecoffet R 2004 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 2896

    [10]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Schrimpf R D, Vaille J R, Dusseau L, Ducret S, Bernard M, Lorfevre E, Chatry C 2005 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52 2616

    [11]

    Boch J, Velo Y G, Saigne F, Roche N J H, Schrimpf R D, Vaille J R, Dusseau L, Chatry C, Lorfevre E, Ecoffet R, Touboul A D 2009 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56 3347

    [12]

    Velo Y G, Boch J, Saigne F, Roche N H, Perez S, Vaille J R, Deneau C, Dusseau L, Lorfevre E, Schrimpf R D 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2953

    [13]

    Lu W, Ren D Y, Zheng Y Z, Wang Y Y, Guo Q, Yu X F 2009 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 43 769 (in Chinese) [陆妩, 任迪远, 郑玉展, 王义元, 郭旗, 余学峰 2009 原子能科学技术 43 769]

    [14]

    Deng W, Lu W, Guo Q, He C F, Wu X, Wang X, Zhang J X, Zhang X F, Zheng Q W, Ma W Y 2014 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 48 727 (in Chinese) [邓伟, 陆妩, 郭旗, 何承发, 吴雪, 王信, 张晋新, 张孝富, 郑齐文, 马武英 2014 原子能科学技术 48 727]

    [15]

    Ma W Y, Lu W, Guo Q, Wu X, Sun J, Deng W, Wang X, Wu Z X 2014 Atomic Energy Science and Technology 48 2170 (in Chinese) [马武英, 陆妩, 郭旗, 吴雪, 孙静, 邓伟, 王信, 吴正新 2014 原子能科学技术 48 2170]

    [16]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Carlotti J F 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 232113

    [17]

    Boch J, Saigne F, Touboul A D, Schrimpf R D 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 042108

    [18]

    Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2009 Phys. Rev. B 77 115206

    [19]

    Rowsey N L, Lw M E, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2937

    [20]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2930

    [21]

    Hughart D R, Schrimpf R D, Fleetwood D M, Rowsey N L, Lw M E, Tuttle B R, Pantelides S T 2012 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59 3087

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  • Received Date:  04 January 2018
  • Accepted Date:  09 February 2018
  • Published Online:  05 May 2018

Estimation of low-dose-rate degradation on bipolar linear circuits using different accelerated evaluation methods

    Corresponding author: Lu Wu, luwu@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 1. Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China;
  • 2. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Material and Device, Urumqi 830011, China;
  • 3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1532261, U1630141) and the West Light Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences China (Grant No. 2016-QNXZ-B-7).

Abstract: The linear bipolar devices and integrated circuits (ICs) which are subjected to ionizing radiation exhibit parametric degradations due to current-gain decrease, and the amount of degradation on various types of bipolar devices is much more significant at low-dose-rate than at high-dose-rate. Such an enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) is considered to be one of the major challenges for radiation-tolerance testing intended for space systems. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore an efficient and practical test for the ELDRS in the linear bipolar devices and ICs. The different experiments have been implemented on four types of bipolar ICs for evaluating their responses to low-dose-rate irradiation. The experiments involve the dose rate switching approach performed under high to low-dose-rate irradiation and temperature switching approach performed under high to low temperature irradiation. Good agreement is observed between predictive curves obtained at dose rate switching irradiation and the low-dose-rate results, and the irradiation time for the dose rate switching approach is reduced from 4 months to a week. Further, the results also suggest that the device degradation rate can affect the prediction of the total dose. This is because the curves examined at different doses have a lot of overlap when the devices with fast degradation rates are performed. In addition to temperature switching irradiation, the radiation response of the same type of device is much more significant than that obtained in low-dose rate irradiation, and this method will shorten the irradiation time to 12 h. Based on the analysis of mechanisms behind the switched dose rate and temperature irradiation, switching temperature irradiation can accelerate the release of protons and buildup of interface traps, which is the key physical mechanism for ELDRS. Firstly, a higher irradiation temperature can enhance the transport of holes and release of protons to form interface traps, resulting in the enhanced degradation occurring at first dose examined. Further, the reducing temperature sequence suppresses the hydrogen dimerization process during the irradiation that follows, which is strongly temperature dependent and contributes to interface trap annealing. Moreover, further decrease in temperature can restrict the interface trap annealing because the barrier for this process is higher and it has less opportunity to take place at lower temperature. Additionally, the hydrogen molecules converted from hydrogen dimerization may extend the liberation of protons, by the hydrogen molecules cracking mechanisms, leading to the additional degradation. Therefore, the temperature switching irradiation is shown to be a conservative and efficient method for ELDRS in bipolar devices, and this provides an insight into hardness assurance testing.

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