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Thermomigration in micro interconnects in integrated circuits

Wu Yi-Ping Tao Yuan Zhang Jin-Song Wang Yong-Guo

Thermomigration in micro interconnects in integrated circuits

Wu Yi-Ping, Tao Yuan, Zhang Jin-Song, Wang Yong-Guo
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  • With the reduction of feature size of integrated circuits, higher current density has been introduced in electronic devices which produces a significant Joule heating effect. This also brings about an increase of the temperature which induces a very high temperature gradient in some local regions of micro interconnects. As a result, thermomigration will occur and metal atoms will move opposite to the direction of the temperature gradient. Thermomigration is one of common modes in reliability failures in electronic devices. This paper reviews and analyzes the previous researches on the thermomigration theory and experiment in stripe and solder interconnects under the temperature loading and the current/temperature loading. The challenges of thermomigration are discussed for interconnects in electronic devices in the future.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    [1]Pecht M, Chan Y C 2004 China’s Electronics Industry (College Park: Calce Epsc Press) p18

    [2]

    [2]Tu K N, Gusak A M, Li M 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 1335

    [3]

    [3]Lee T Y, Tu K N 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 3189

    [4]

    [4]Wu Y P, Zhang J S, Wu F S, An B 2006 J. Semicond. 27 1136 (in Chinese) [吴懿平、张金松、吴丰顺、安兵 2006 半导体学报 27 1136]

    [5]

    [5]Van Gurp G J, De Waard P J, Du Chatenier F J 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 1054

    [6]

    [6]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2004 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Las Vegas: IEEE) p988

    [7]

    [7]Huang A T, Gusak A M, Tu K N, Lai Y S 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 141911

    [8]

    [8]Chuang Y C, Liu C Y 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 174105

    [9]

    [9]Johns R A, Blackburn D A 1975 Thin Solid Films 25 291

    [10]

    ]Morozumi S, Goto S, Yoshida T 1976 Scripta Mater. 10 537

    [11]

    ]Fee D C, Johnson C E 1981 J. Nucl. Mater. 96 71

    [12]

    ]McKee R A, Stark J P 1975 Acta Mater. 23 1145

    [13]

    ]Van Gurp G J, De Waard P J, Du Chatenier F J 1985 J. Appl. Phys. 58 728

    [14]

    ]Morillon B, Dilhac J M, Auriel G, Ganibal C, Anceau C 2002 32nd European Solid-State Device Research Conference(Firenze: IEEE) p327

    [15]

    ]De Munari I, Speroni F, Reverberi M, Neva C, Lonzi L, Fantini F 1996 Microelectron. Reliab. 36 1875

    [16]

    ]Van Gurp G J 1976 Thin Solid Films 38 295

    [17]

    ]Oldham D J, Bleay J A, Blackburn D A 1977 Acta Mater. 25 1345

    [18]

    ]Nguyen H V, Salm C, Krabbenbrg B, Weide-Zaage K, Bisschopb J, Mouthma A J, Kuper F G 2004 42nd Annual International Reliability Physics Symposium (Phoenix: IEEE) p619

    [19]

    ]Ru C Q 1999 Acta Mater. 47 3571

    [20]

    ]Ru C Q 2000 J. Mater. Sci. 35 5575

    [21]

    ]Tan C M, Zhang G, Gan Z H 2004 IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 4 450

    [22]

    ]Basaran C, Ye H, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2005 Adv. Packaging 10 14

    [23]

    ]Basaran C, Ye H, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2005 J. Electron. Packaging 127 157

    [24]

    ]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 1045

    [25]

    ]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C 2003 Int. J. Solids Struct. 40 7269

    [26]

    ]Roush W, Jaspal J 1982 32nd Electronic Components Conference (San Diego: IEEE) p342

    [27]

    ]Hsiao H Y, Chen C 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 152105

    [28]

    ]Ouyang F Y, Tu K N, Lai Y S, Gusak M A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 221906

    [29]

    ]Rinne G A 2003 28th Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (San Jose: IEEE) p177

    [30]

    ]Yang D, Wu B Y, Chan Y C, Tu K N 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 102 043502

    [31]

    ]Chen H Y, Chen C, Tu K N 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 122103

    [32]

    ]Hsiao H Y, Chen C 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 092107

    [33]

    ]Basaran C, Li S D, Abdulhamid M F 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 123520

    [34]

    ]Abdulhamid M F, Basaran C 2009 J. Electron. Packaging 131 011002

    [35]

    ]Gu X, Chan Y C 2009 J. Appl. Phys. 105 093537

    [36]

    ]Rinne G A 2003 Microelectron. Reliab. 43 1975

    [37]

    ]Zhang J S 2008 Ph. D. Dissertation (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology) (in Chinese) [张金松 2008 博士学位论文 (武汉:华中科技大学)]

    [38]

    ]Zhang J S, Chan Y C, Wu Y P, Xi H J, Wu F S, Wu B Y 2008 J. Alloys Compd. 458 492

    [39]

    ]Zhang J S, Xi H J, Wu Y P, Wu F S 2008 J. Semicond. 29 174 (in Chinese) [张金松、奚弘甲、吴懿平、吴丰顺 2008 半导体学报 29 174]

    [40]

    ]Zhang J S, Xi H J, Wu Y P, Wu F S 2009 J. Electron. Mater. 38 678

  • [1]

    [1]Pecht M, Chan Y C 2004 China’s Electronics Industry (College Park: Calce Epsc Press) p18

    [2]

    [2]Tu K N, Gusak A M, Li M 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 1335

    [3]

    [3]Lee T Y, Tu K N 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 3189

    [4]

    [4]Wu Y P, Zhang J S, Wu F S, An B 2006 J. Semicond. 27 1136 (in Chinese) [吴懿平、张金松、吴丰顺、安兵 2006 半导体学报 27 1136]

    [5]

    [5]Van Gurp G J, De Waard P J, Du Chatenier F J 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 1054

    [6]

    [6]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2004 54th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Las Vegas: IEEE) p988

    [7]

    [7]Huang A T, Gusak A M, Tu K N, Lai Y S 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 141911

    [8]

    [8]Chuang Y C, Liu C Y 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 174105

    [9]

    [9]Johns R A, Blackburn D A 1975 Thin Solid Films 25 291

    [10]

    ]Morozumi S, Goto S, Yoshida T 1976 Scripta Mater. 10 537

    [11]

    ]Fee D C, Johnson C E 1981 J. Nucl. Mater. 96 71

    [12]

    ]McKee R A, Stark J P 1975 Acta Mater. 23 1145

    [13]

    ]Van Gurp G J, De Waard P J, Du Chatenier F J 1985 J. Appl. Phys. 58 728

    [14]

    ]Morillon B, Dilhac J M, Auriel G, Ganibal C, Anceau C 2002 32nd European Solid-State Device Research Conference(Firenze: IEEE) p327

    [15]

    ]De Munari I, Speroni F, Reverberi M, Neva C, Lonzi L, Fantini F 1996 Microelectron. Reliab. 36 1875

    [16]

    ]Van Gurp G J 1976 Thin Solid Films 38 295

    [17]

    ]Oldham D J, Bleay J A, Blackburn D A 1977 Acta Mater. 25 1345

    [18]

    ]Nguyen H V, Salm C, Krabbenbrg B, Weide-Zaage K, Bisschopb J, Mouthma A J, Kuper F G 2004 42nd Annual International Reliability Physics Symposium (Phoenix: IEEE) p619

    [19]

    ]Ru C Q 1999 Acta Mater. 47 3571

    [20]

    ]Ru C Q 2000 J. Mater. Sci. 35 5575

    [21]

    ]Tan C M, Zhang G, Gan Z H 2004 IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 4 450

    [22]

    ]Basaran C, Ye H, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2005 Adv. Packaging 10 14

    [23]

    ]Basaran C, Ye H, Hopkins D C, Frear D, Lin J K 2005 J. Electron. Packaging 127 157

    [24]

    ]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 1045

    [25]

    ]Ye H, Basaran C, Hopkins D C 2003 Int. J. Solids Struct. 40 7269

    [26]

    ]Roush W, Jaspal J 1982 32nd Electronic Components Conference (San Diego: IEEE) p342

    [27]

    ]Hsiao H Y, Chen C 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 152105

    [28]

    ]Ouyang F Y, Tu K N, Lai Y S, Gusak M A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 221906

    [29]

    ]Rinne G A 2003 28th Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (San Jose: IEEE) p177

    [30]

    ]Yang D, Wu B Y, Chan Y C, Tu K N 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 102 043502

    [31]

    ]Chen H Y, Chen C, Tu K N 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 122103

    [32]

    ]Hsiao H Y, Chen C 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 092107

    [33]

    ]Basaran C, Li S D, Abdulhamid M F 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 123520

    [34]

    ]Abdulhamid M F, Basaran C 2009 J. Electron. Packaging 131 011002

    [35]

    ]Gu X, Chan Y C 2009 J. Appl. Phys. 105 093537

    [36]

    ]Rinne G A 2003 Microelectron. Reliab. 43 1975

    [37]

    ]Zhang J S 2008 Ph. D. Dissertation (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology) (in Chinese) [张金松 2008 博士学位论文 (武汉:华中科技大学)]

    [38]

    ]Zhang J S, Chan Y C, Wu Y P, Xi H J, Wu F S, Wu B Y 2008 J. Alloys Compd. 458 492

    [39]

    ]Zhang J S, Xi H J, Wu Y P, Wu F S 2008 J. Semicond. 29 174 (in Chinese) [张金松、奚弘甲、吴懿平、吴丰顺 2008 半导体学报 29 174]

    [40]

    ]Zhang J S, Xi H J, Wu Y P, Wu F S 2009 J. Electron. Mater. 38 678

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  • Received Date:  08 July 2009
  • Accepted Date:  20 November 2009
  • Published Online:  15 June 2010

Thermomigration in micro interconnects in integrated circuits

  • 1. (1)华中科技大学材料科学与工程学院,武汉 430074; (2)上海大学机电工程与自动化学院,上海 200072

Abstract: With the reduction of feature size of integrated circuits, higher current density has been introduced in electronic devices which produces a significant Joule heating effect. This also brings about an increase of the temperature which induces a very high temperature gradient in some local regions of micro interconnects. As a result, thermomigration will occur and metal atoms will move opposite to the direction of the temperature gradient. Thermomigration is one of common modes in reliability failures in electronic devices. This paper reviews and analyzes the previous researches on the thermomigration theory and experiment in stripe and solder interconnects under the temperature loading and the current/temperature loading. The challenges of thermomigration are discussed for interconnects in electronic devices in the future.

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