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Research on automobile exhaust particles by STXM and NEXAFS

Yang Chuan-Jun Guo Zhi Zhang Xiang-Zhi Tai Ren-Zhong Bao Liang-Man Li Xiao-Lin Zhang Gui-Lin Li Yan

Research on automobile exhaust particles by STXM and NEXAFS

Yang Chuan-Jun, Guo Zhi, Zhang Xiang-Zhi, Tai Ren-Zhong, Bao Liang-Man, Li Xiao-Lin, Zhang Gui-Lin, Li Yan
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  • In order to understand the structures of automobile exhaust particles and the components of nitrogen inside them,automobile exhaust particles from Santana 3000 and Golcars are investigated with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. The results of STXM show that single particulate has a size of 500 nm and a nonuniform mass distribution with an empty hole inside it. Compared with the NEXAFS spectra,(NH4)2SO4 and NaNO3 spectra show many different σ* resonances at 406 eV,the spectrum of ammonium has a shoulder structure. NaNO3 and automobile exhaust particles show significant σ resonances at 412 eV and 418.5 eV. However,(NH4)2SO4 shows wider σ resonances 413.5 eV and 421.8 eV. Nitrates are main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. In an energy range from 395 eV to 418 eV,Santana 3000 automobile exhaust particles are stack scanned. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis indicate that there exist nitrates in surface layer and minor ammonium inside it.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Sthr J 1996 NEXAFS spectroscopy. Springer 1

    [2]

    Braun A,Shah N,Huggins F,Huffman G,Wirick S,Jacobsen C,Kelly K,Sarofim A 2004 Fuel 83 997

    [3]

    Braun A,Mun B,Huggins F,Huffman G 2007 Environ. Sci. Technol 41 173

    [4]

    Braun A 2005 J. Environ. Monit. 7 1059

    [5]

    Chen J 1997 Surface Science Reports 30 1

    [6]

    Tang Y H,Lin L W,Guo C 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 4197 (in Chinese) [唐元洪、林良武、郭 池 2006 物理学报 55 4197]

    [7]

    Fang C Y,Zhang X S,Tang J C,Sui H,Xu Y B,Xu S H,Pang H B,Xu P S 1997 Acta Phys. Sin. 46 122 (in Chinese) [范朝阳、张训生、唐景昌、隋 华、徐亚伯、徐世红、潘海斌、徐彭寿 1997 物理学报 46 122]

    [8]

    Wu T Q,Tang J C,Zhu P,Li H Y 2005 Acta Phys. Sin. 54 5837 (in Chinese) [吴太权、唐景昌、朱 萍、李海洋 2005 物理学报 54 5837]

    [9]

    Brandes J A,Cody G D,Rumble D,Haberstroh P,Wirick S,Gelinas Y 2008 Carbon 46 1424

    [10]

    Braun A,Huggins F,Kubátová A,Wirick S,Maricq M,Mun B,McDonald J,Kelly K,Shah N,Huffman G 2007 Environ. Sci. Techno 42 374

    [11]

    Hitchcock A,Morin C,Li L,Brash J,Scholl A,Doran A 2004 Microsc. Microanal. 10 1050

    [12]

    Sluder C,Storey J,Lewis S,Lewis L 2005 SAE Technical Paper 1 1

    [13]

    Matti Maricq M 2007 J. Aerosol Sci 38 1079

    [14]

    Wichmann H 2007 Inhalation Toxicol. 19 241

    [15]

    Nicolai T,Carr D,Weiland S,Duhme H,Von Ehrenstein O,Wagner C,Von Mutius E 2003 Eur. Respir. J. 21 956

    [16]

    Van Vliet P,Knape M,de Hartog J,Janssen N,Harssema H,Brunekreef B 1997 Environ. Res. 74 122

    [17]

    Zeng F G 2002 Journal of The Central University for Nationalities (Natural Sciences Edition) 2 137 (in Chinese) [曾凡刚 2002 中央民族大学学报(自然科学版) 2 137]

    [18]

    Jiang D,Qiu Z J,Lu R R,Qiu H Y,Zhu J Q,Li X L 2002 Nucl. Sci. Tech. 13 57

    [19]

    Cheng P,Chu Y N,Zhang W J,Patrik S,David S 2004 Chin. J. Anal. Chem. 32 113 (in Chinese) [程 平、储焰南、张为俊、Patrik S、David S 2004 分析化学 32 113 Dou L X,Shen J N,Li YD,Cheng K Y,Wang W L,Liu B T 2007 Vehicle Engine 2 65 (in Chinese) 〖豆立新、沈 健、李永丹、程魁玉、王务林、刘伯谭 2007 车用发动机 2 65 Yang S S,Shao L Y 2007 Acta Sci. Circumst. 27 185 (in Chinese) 〖杨书申、邵龙义 2007 环境科学学报 27 185]

    [20]

    Leinweber P,Kruse J,Walley F,Gillespie A,Eckhardt K,Blyth R,Regier T 2007 J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14 500

    [21]

    Trk S,Osan J,Beckhoff B,Ulm G 2004 Powder Diffr. 19 81

    [22]

    Jeong H,Kim C 2007 Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 28 413

  • [1]

    Sthr J 1996 NEXAFS spectroscopy. Springer 1

    [2]

    Braun A,Shah N,Huggins F,Huffman G,Wirick S,Jacobsen C,Kelly K,Sarofim A 2004 Fuel 83 997

    [3]

    Braun A,Mun B,Huggins F,Huffman G 2007 Environ. Sci. Technol 41 173

    [4]

    Braun A 2005 J. Environ. Monit. 7 1059

    [5]

    Chen J 1997 Surface Science Reports 30 1

    [6]

    Tang Y H,Lin L W,Guo C 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 4197 (in Chinese) [唐元洪、林良武、郭 池 2006 物理学报 55 4197]

    [7]

    Fang C Y,Zhang X S,Tang J C,Sui H,Xu Y B,Xu S H,Pang H B,Xu P S 1997 Acta Phys. Sin. 46 122 (in Chinese) [范朝阳、张训生、唐景昌、隋 华、徐亚伯、徐世红、潘海斌、徐彭寿 1997 物理学报 46 122]

    [8]

    Wu T Q,Tang J C,Zhu P,Li H Y 2005 Acta Phys. Sin. 54 5837 (in Chinese) [吴太权、唐景昌、朱 萍、李海洋 2005 物理学报 54 5837]

    [9]

    Brandes J A,Cody G D,Rumble D,Haberstroh P,Wirick S,Gelinas Y 2008 Carbon 46 1424

    [10]

    Braun A,Huggins F,Kubátová A,Wirick S,Maricq M,Mun B,McDonald J,Kelly K,Shah N,Huffman G 2007 Environ. Sci. Techno 42 374

    [11]

    Hitchcock A,Morin C,Li L,Brash J,Scholl A,Doran A 2004 Microsc. Microanal. 10 1050

    [12]

    Sluder C,Storey J,Lewis S,Lewis L 2005 SAE Technical Paper 1 1

    [13]

    Matti Maricq M 2007 J. Aerosol Sci 38 1079

    [14]

    Wichmann H 2007 Inhalation Toxicol. 19 241

    [15]

    Nicolai T,Carr D,Weiland S,Duhme H,Von Ehrenstein O,Wagner C,Von Mutius E 2003 Eur. Respir. J. 21 956

    [16]

    Van Vliet P,Knape M,de Hartog J,Janssen N,Harssema H,Brunekreef B 1997 Environ. Res. 74 122

    [17]

    Zeng F G 2002 Journal of The Central University for Nationalities (Natural Sciences Edition) 2 137 (in Chinese) [曾凡刚 2002 中央民族大学学报(自然科学版) 2 137]

    [18]

    Jiang D,Qiu Z J,Lu R R,Qiu H Y,Zhu J Q,Li X L 2002 Nucl. Sci. Tech. 13 57

    [19]

    Cheng P,Chu Y N,Zhang W J,Patrik S,David S 2004 Chin. J. Anal. Chem. 32 113 (in Chinese) [程 平、储焰南、张为俊、Patrik S、David S 2004 分析化学 32 113 Dou L X,Shen J N,Li YD,Cheng K Y,Wang W L,Liu B T 2007 Vehicle Engine 2 65 (in Chinese) 〖豆立新、沈 健、李永丹、程魁玉、王务林、刘伯谭 2007 车用发动机 2 65 Yang S S,Shao L Y 2007 Acta Sci. Circumst. 27 185 (in Chinese) 〖杨书申、邵龙义 2007 环境科学学报 27 185]

    [20]

    Leinweber P,Kruse J,Walley F,Gillespie A,Eckhardt K,Blyth R,Regier T 2007 J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14 500

    [21]

    Trk S,Osan J,Beckhoff B,Ulm G 2004 Powder Diffr. 19 81

    [22]

    Jeong H,Kim C 2007 Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 28 413

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  11 January 2010
  • Accepted Date:  25 January 2010
  • Published Online:  15 August 2010

Research on automobile exhaust particles by STXM and NEXAFS

  • 1. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Shanghai 201800,China

Abstract: In order to understand the structures of automobile exhaust particles and the components of nitrogen inside them,automobile exhaust particles from Santana 3000 and Golcars are investigated with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. The results of STXM show that single particulate has a size of 500 nm and a nonuniform mass distribution with an empty hole inside it. Compared with the NEXAFS spectra,(NH4)2SO4 and NaNO3 spectra show many different σ* resonances at 406 eV,the spectrum of ammonium has a shoulder structure. NaNO3 and automobile exhaust particles show significant σ resonances at 412 eV and 418.5 eV. However,(NH4)2SO4 shows wider σ resonances 413.5 eV and 421.8 eV. Nitrates are main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. In an energy range from 395 eV to 418 eV,Santana 3000 automobile exhaust particles are stack scanned. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis indicate that there exist nitrates in surface layer and minor ammonium inside it.

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