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The relationship between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical sensible heat advection over the loess plateau

Li Hong-Yu Zhang Qiang

The relationship between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical sensible heat advection over the loess plateau

Li Hong-Yu, Zhang Qiang
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  • The surface energy imbalance problem has been an important challenge in the study of surface land process since it was found in the late 1980s. By utilizing the observed data in the land surface process experiment carried out over the Loess Plateau region in the middle part of Gansu, the characteristics of climate unclosure and short-term unclosure of the surface energy balance are analyzed and the relationship between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical velocity is studied in the paper. It is found that there is a good correlation between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical velocity. Furthermore, the paper estimates the values of vertical sensible heat advection in the surface layer. After considering the vertical sensible heat advection, characteristics of the surface energy balance condition are analyzed again and there is a significant improvement in the surface energy balance unclosure.This means vertical velocity plays an important role in the surface energy buget and the vertical sensible heat advection has a significant influence on the surface energy balance unclosure over the Loess Plateau region.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Qiao J, Zhang Q, Zhang J 2008 Arid Meteor. 26 73 (in Chinese) [乔 娟、张 强、张 杰 2008 干旱气象 26 73]

    [2]

    Foken T, Oncley S P 1995 Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 76 1191

    [3]

    Sakai R K, Fitzjarrald D R, Moore K E 2001 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 2178

    [4]

    Tsvang L R, Fedorov M M, Kader B A, Zubkovskii S L, Foken T, Richter S H, Zeleny J 1991 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 55 141

    [5]

    Kanemasu E T, Verma S B, Smith E A, Fritschen L Y,Wesely M, Fild R T, Kustas W P Weaver H, Steawart Y B, Geney R, Panin G N, Moncrieff J B 1992 J. Geophys. Res. 97 18547

    [6]

    Oncley S P 2007 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 123 1

    [7]

    Zhang Q, Wang S, Zhang J, Wang R Y, Liu H Y, Li Y Y 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 1185 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜、张 杰、王润元、刘宏谊、李岩瑛 2009 地球科学进展 24 1185]

    [8]

    Foken T 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18 1351

    [9]

    Brotzge J A, Crawford K C 2003 J. Hydrometeor. 14 160

    [10]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Ao Y H, Sun F L, Wang S G 2007 Adv. Earth Sci. 22 791 (in Chinese) [王介民、王维真、奥银焕、孙方林、王树果 2007 地球科学进展 22 791]

    [11]

    Foken T, Wimmer F, Mauder M, Thomas C, Liebethal C 2006 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 4395

    [12]

    Moore C J 1986 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 37 17

    [13]

    Nakai T, Molen M K, Gash J H C, Kodama Y 2006 Agric. For. Meteor. 136 19

    [14]

    Liebethal C, Huwe B, Foken T 2005 Agric. For. Meteorol. 132 253

    [15]

    Kanda M, Inagaki A, Letzel M O, Raacsh S, Watanabe T 2004 Bound. -Layer Meteorol. 110 381

    [16]

    Gao Z, Fan X, Bian L 2003 Soil Sci. 168 99

    [17]

    Yang H W, Xie Z H 2003 Prog. Nat. Sci. 13 615 (in Chinese) [杨宏伟、谢正辉 2003自然科学进展 13 615]

    [18]

    Finnigan J J, Clement R, Malhi Y, Leuning R, Cleugh H A 2003 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 107 1

    [19]

    Guo J X, Bian L G, Dai Y J 2008 Sci. Chin. Ser. D (in Chinese) 38 1103 (in Chinese) [郭建侠、卞林根、戴永久 2008 中国科学 (D) 38 1103]

    [20]

    Ping F, Luo Z X 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 4319 (in Chinese) [平 凡、罗哲贤 2009 物理学报 58 4319]

    [21]

    Lian Q X, Guo H 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 2226 (in Chinese) [连祺祥、郭 辉 2004 物理学报 57 2226]

    [22]

    Meng Q G, Cai Q D 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 3090 (in Chinese) [孟庆国、蔡庆东 2004 物理学报 53 3090]

    [23]

    Chen J Y, Chen S G, Wang G R 2005 Acta Phys. Sin. 54 3123 (in Chinese) [陈京元、陈式刚、王光瑞 2005 物理学报 54 3123]

    [24]

    Li L, Hu F, Cheng X L, Jiang J H, Ma X G 2006 Chin.Phys. 15 149

    [25]

    Zhang G X, Zhao R F, Zhang Y C, Zhao P T 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 7390 (in Chinese) [张改霞、赵日峰、张寅超、赵培涛 2008 物理学报 57 7390]

    [26]

    Cui X P 2008 Chin.Phys. B 17 2304

    [27]

    Mahrt L 1998 J.Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 15 416

    [28]

    Lee X H 1998 Agric. For.Meteor. 91 39

    [29]

    Zhang Q, Zeng X B, Dickinson R E, Johnson D E, Tao W K 2001 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 23 133 (in Chinese) [张 强,Zeng X B, Dickinson R E, Johnson D E, Tao W K 2001 海洋学报 23 133]

    [30]

    Zeng X B, Zhang Q, Johnson D, Tao W K 2002 Mon. Wea. Rev. 130 2125

    [31]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2008 Adv. Earth Sci. 23 167 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2008 地球科学进展 23 167]

    [32]

    Zhang Q, Hu X J, Wang S, Liu H Y 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 363 (in Chinese) [张 强、胡向军、王 胜、刘宏谊 2009 地球科学进展 24 363]

    [33]

    Huang J P 2008 Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25 906

    [34]

    Stull R B (Translated by Yang C X) 1991 Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology(Beijing:Meteorological Press) (in Chinese) pp719—720

    [35]

    Cava D, Contini D, Donateo A 2008 Agric. For.Meteor. 148 82

    [36]

    Twine T E, Kustas W P, Norman J M, Cook D R, Houser P R, Meyers T P, Prueger J H, Starks P J, Wesely M L 2000 Agric. For. Meteor. 103 279

    [37]

    Tanaka K, Tamagawa I, Ishikawa H, Ma Y M, Hu Z Y 2003 J. Hydrol 283 169

    [38]

    Finnigan J J 2005 Agric. For.Meteor. 136 108

    [39]

    Xiong K G, Yang J, Wan S Q, Feng G L,Hu J G 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 2843 (in Chinese) [熊开国、杨 杰、万仕全、封国林、胡经国 2009 物理学报 58 2843]

    [40]

    Zhang Q,Lü S H 2001 Plateau Meteor. 20 118 [张 强、吕世华 2001 高原气象 20 118]

    [41]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2005 Acta Ecol. Sin. 25 2459 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2005 生态学报 25 2459]

    [42]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2005 J. Glac. Geoc. 27 282 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2005 冰川冻土 27 282]

  • [1]

    Qiao J, Zhang Q, Zhang J 2008 Arid Meteor. 26 73 (in Chinese) [乔 娟、张 强、张 杰 2008 干旱气象 26 73]

    [2]

    Foken T, Oncley S P 1995 Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 76 1191

    [3]

    Sakai R K, Fitzjarrald D R, Moore K E 2001 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 2178

    [4]

    Tsvang L R, Fedorov M M, Kader B A, Zubkovskii S L, Foken T, Richter S H, Zeleny J 1991 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 55 141

    [5]

    Kanemasu E T, Verma S B, Smith E A, Fritschen L Y,Wesely M, Fild R T, Kustas W P Weaver H, Steawart Y B, Geney R, Panin G N, Moncrieff J B 1992 J. Geophys. Res. 97 18547

    [6]

    Oncley S P 2007 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 123 1

    [7]

    Zhang Q, Wang S, Zhang J, Wang R Y, Liu H Y, Li Y Y 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 1185 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜、张 杰、王润元、刘宏谊、李岩瑛 2009 地球科学进展 24 1185]

    [8]

    Foken T 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18 1351

    [9]

    Brotzge J A, Crawford K C 2003 J. Hydrometeor. 14 160

    [10]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Ao Y H, Sun F L, Wang S G 2007 Adv. Earth Sci. 22 791 (in Chinese) [王介民、王维真、奥银焕、孙方林、王树果 2007 地球科学进展 22 791]

    [11]

    Foken T, Wimmer F, Mauder M, Thomas C, Liebethal C 2006 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 4395

    [12]

    Moore C J 1986 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 37 17

    [13]

    Nakai T, Molen M K, Gash J H C, Kodama Y 2006 Agric. For. Meteor. 136 19

    [14]

    Liebethal C, Huwe B, Foken T 2005 Agric. For. Meteorol. 132 253

    [15]

    Kanda M, Inagaki A, Letzel M O, Raacsh S, Watanabe T 2004 Bound. -Layer Meteorol. 110 381

    [16]

    Gao Z, Fan X, Bian L 2003 Soil Sci. 168 99

    [17]

    Yang H W, Xie Z H 2003 Prog. Nat. Sci. 13 615 (in Chinese) [杨宏伟、谢正辉 2003自然科学进展 13 615]

    [18]

    Finnigan J J, Clement R, Malhi Y, Leuning R, Cleugh H A 2003 Bound. -Layer Meteor. 107 1

    [19]

    Guo J X, Bian L G, Dai Y J 2008 Sci. Chin. Ser. D (in Chinese) 38 1103 (in Chinese) [郭建侠、卞林根、戴永久 2008 中国科学 (D) 38 1103]

    [20]

    Ping F, Luo Z X 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 4319 (in Chinese) [平 凡、罗哲贤 2009 物理学报 58 4319]

    [21]

    Lian Q X, Guo H 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 2226 (in Chinese) [连祺祥、郭 辉 2004 物理学报 57 2226]

    [22]

    Meng Q G, Cai Q D 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 3090 (in Chinese) [孟庆国、蔡庆东 2004 物理学报 53 3090]

    [23]

    Chen J Y, Chen S G, Wang G R 2005 Acta Phys. Sin. 54 3123 (in Chinese) [陈京元、陈式刚、王光瑞 2005 物理学报 54 3123]

    [24]

    Li L, Hu F, Cheng X L, Jiang J H, Ma X G 2006 Chin.Phys. 15 149

    [25]

    Zhang G X, Zhao R F, Zhang Y C, Zhao P T 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 7390 (in Chinese) [张改霞、赵日峰、张寅超、赵培涛 2008 物理学报 57 7390]

    [26]

    Cui X P 2008 Chin.Phys. B 17 2304

    [27]

    Mahrt L 1998 J.Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 15 416

    [28]

    Lee X H 1998 Agric. For.Meteor. 91 39

    [29]

    Zhang Q, Zeng X B, Dickinson R E, Johnson D E, Tao W K 2001 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 23 133 (in Chinese) [张 强,Zeng X B, Dickinson R E, Johnson D E, Tao W K 2001 海洋学报 23 133]

    [30]

    Zeng X B, Zhang Q, Johnson D, Tao W K 2002 Mon. Wea. Rev. 130 2125

    [31]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2008 Adv. Earth Sci. 23 167 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2008 地球科学进展 23 167]

    [32]

    Zhang Q, Hu X J, Wang S, Liu H Y 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 363 (in Chinese) [张 强、胡向军、王 胜、刘宏谊 2009 地球科学进展 24 363]

    [33]

    Huang J P 2008 Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25 906

    [34]

    Stull R B (Translated by Yang C X) 1991 Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology(Beijing:Meteorological Press) (in Chinese) pp719—720

    [35]

    Cava D, Contini D, Donateo A 2008 Agric. For.Meteor. 148 82

    [36]

    Twine T E, Kustas W P, Norman J M, Cook D R, Houser P R, Meyers T P, Prueger J H, Starks P J, Wesely M L 2000 Agric. For. Meteor. 103 279

    [37]

    Tanaka K, Tamagawa I, Ishikawa H, Ma Y M, Hu Z Y 2003 J. Hydrol 283 169

    [38]

    Finnigan J J 2005 Agric. For.Meteor. 136 108

    [39]

    Xiong K G, Yang J, Wan S Q, Feng G L,Hu J G 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 2843 (in Chinese) [熊开国、杨 杰、万仕全、封国林、胡经国 2009 物理学报 58 2843]

    [40]

    Zhang Q,Lü S H 2001 Plateau Meteor. 20 118 [张 强、吕世华 2001 高原气象 20 118]

    [41]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2005 Acta Ecol. Sin. 25 2459 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2005 生态学报 25 2459]

    [42]

    Zhang Q, Wang S 2005 J. Glac. Geoc. 27 282 (in Chinese) [张 强、王 胜 2005 冰川冻土 27 282]

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  • Received Date:  30 September 2009
  • Accepted Date:  18 November 2009
  • Published Online:  05 April 2010

The relationship between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical sensible heat advection over the loess plateau

  • 1. (1)Institute of Arid Meteorology,CMA;Key laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province; Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of CMA, Lanzhou 730020, China; (2)Institute of Arid Meteorology,CMA;Key laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province; Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of CMA, Lanzhou 730020, China; Gansu Provincial Meteorological Bureau, Lan

Abstract: The surface energy imbalance problem has been an important challenge in the study of surface land process since it was found in the late 1980s. By utilizing the observed data in the land surface process experiment carried out over the Loess Plateau region in the middle part of Gansu, the characteristics of climate unclosure and short-term unclosure of the surface energy balance are analyzed and the relationship between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical velocity is studied in the paper. It is found that there is a good correlation between surface energy balance unclosure and vertical velocity. Furthermore, the paper estimates the values of vertical sensible heat advection in the surface layer. After considering the vertical sensible heat advection, characteristics of the surface energy balance condition are analyzed again and there is a significant improvement in the surface energy balance unclosure.This means vertical velocity plays an important role in the surface energy buget and the vertical sensible heat advection has a significant influence on the surface energy balance unclosure over the Loess Plateau region.

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