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The high efficiency sub-micrometer Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cell prepared on low temperature

Han An-Jun Sun Yun Li Zhi-Guo Li Bo-Yan He Jing-Jing Zhang Yi Liu Wei

The high efficiency sub-micrometer Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cell prepared on low temperature

Han An-Jun, Sun Yun, Li Zhi-Guo, Li Bo-Yan, He Jing-Jing, Zhang Yi, Liu Wei
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  • In the presence of Se, Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 (CIGS) thin films are prepared by the sequential evaporation of Ga, In, Cu at a constant substrate temperature between 250 ℃ and 550 ℃ on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The thickness values of films are about 0.7 μm. The structural and phase properties of CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer, the morphology and crystalline quality are characterized by a scanning electron microscope, the depth profiles of elements are measured by a secondary ion mass spectroscopy, the surface compositions are analyzed by a Raman spectrometer, and the optical properties of CIGS films are measured by a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. It is found that the films prepared at substrate temperature above 450 ℃ each exhibite a single Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 phase, and the homogenization of Ga/(Ga+In) distribution in the Ga-In-Se precursor is achieved by the diffusion of In atoms through grain boundaries. As the substrate temperature is less than 400 ℃, a serious Ga phase separation is observed and the high content of Ga phase mainly exists at the top and bottom of CIGS films. Below 300 ℃, a serious deterioration of crystalline quality is found, and Ga atoms cannot effectively enter into the CIS lattice position to form CIGS. The films prepared at the substrate temperature less than 400 ℃ are covered with lots of Cu(In0.5Ga0.5)Se2 small grains, which results in the enhancement of the surface roughness and the formation of a light trapping structure at the interface of Cd/CIGS. Thus, the light absorption of solar cell is improved. In addition, the smaller gap value of the low Ga content phase also facilitats the light absorption, then the short-circuit current density of thinned solar cell is greatly improved. The analysis shows that the short-circuit current density is the main factor affecting the conversion efficiency of thinned solar cell prepared between 550 ℃-350 ℃. However, when the substrate temperature is below 350 ℃, the reduction of VOC and FF has become the main reason for the deterioration of solar cell. In conclusion, the efficiency of solar cell with 0.7 μm CIGS absorber prepared at substrate temperature of 350 ℃ reaches 10.3% due to the improvement of short-circuit current density.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2004AA513020), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60906033, 50902074, 90922037, 61076061), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 11JCYBJC01200).
    [1]

    Jackson P, Hariskos D, Lotter E, Paetel S, Wuerz R, Menner R, Wischmann W, Powalla M 2011 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 19 894

    [2]

    Han S H, Hermann A M, Hasoon F S, Al-Thani H A, Levi D H 2004 Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 576

    [3]

    Powalla M, Dimmler B 2000 Thin Solid Films 361-362 540

    [4]

    Han A J, Zhang Y, Song W, Li B Y, Liu W, Sun Y 2012 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 035022

    [5]

    Gloeckler M, Sites J R 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 103703

    [6]

    Edoff M, Schleussner S, Wallin E, Lundberg O 2011 Thin Solid Films 519 7530

    [7]

    Zhang L, Liu F F, Li F Y, He Q, Li B Z, Li C J 2012 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 99 356

    [8]

    Caballero R, Kaufmann C A, Eisenbarth T, Cancela M, Hesse R, Unold T, Eicke A, Klenk R, Schock H W 2009 Thin Solid Films 517 2187

    [9]

    Zhang L, He Q, Jiang W L, Li C J, Sun Y 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 734

    [10]

    Schöldström J, Kessler J, Edoff M 2005 Thin Solid Films 480-481 61

    [11]

    Ao J P, Yang L, Yan L, Sun G Z, He Q, Zhou Z Q, Sun Y 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1870 (in Chinese) [敖建平, 杨亮, 闫礼, 孙国忠, 何青, 周志强, 孙 云2009物理学报 58 1870]

    [12]

    Djessas K, Yapi S, Massé G, Ibannain M, Gauffier J L 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 4111

    [13]

    Gabor A M, Tuttle J R, Bode M H, Franz A, Tennant A L, Contreras M A, Noufi R, Jensen D G, Hermann A M 1996 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 41/42 247

    [14]

    Schleussner S M, Törndah T, Linnarsson M, Zimmermann U, Wätjen T, Edoff M 2012 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 20 284

    [15]

    Otte K, Lippold G, Hirsch D, Schindler A, Bigl F 2000 Thin Solid Films 361-362 498

    [16]

    Roy S, Guha P, Kundu S N, Hanzawa H, Chaudhuri S, Pal A K 2002 Mater. Chem. Phys. 73 24

    [17]

    Zhang Y W, Bi D W, Gong X N, Bian H, Wan L, Tang D S 2011 Sci. China: Phys. Mech. Astron. 41 845 (in Chinese) [张有为, 毕大炜, 公祥南, 边惠, 万里, 唐东升 2011中国科学: 物理学 力学 天文学 41 845]

    [18]

    Han A J, Zhang Y, Li B Y, Liu W, Sun Y 2012 Appl. Surf. Sci. 258 9747

    [19]

    Li W, Sun Y, Liu W, Li F Y, Zhou L 2006 Chin. Phys. 15 878

    [20]

    Han A J, Zhang J J, Li L N, Zhang H, Liu C C, Geng X H, Zhao Y 2011 Acta Energiae Sol. Sin. 5 698 (in Chinese) [韩安军, 张建军, 李林娜, 张洪, 刘彩池, 耿新华, 赵颖 2011太阳能学报 5 698]

  • [1]

    Jackson P, Hariskos D, Lotter E, Paetel S, Wuerz R, Menner R, Wischmann W, Powalla M 2011 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 19 894

    [2]

    Han S H, Hermann A M, Hasoon F S, Al-Thani H A, Levi D H 2004 Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 576

    [3]

    Powalla M, Dimmler B 2000 Thin Solid Films 361-362 540

    [4]

    Han A J, Zhang Y, Song W, Li B Y, Liu W, Sun Y 2012 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27 035022

    [5]

    Gloeckler M, Sites J R 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 103703

    [6]

    Edoff M, Schleussner S, Wallin E, Lundberg O 2011 Thin Solid Films 519 7530

    [7]

    Zhang L, Liu F F, Li F Y, He Q, Li B Z, Li C J 2012 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 99 356

    [8]

    Caballero R, Kaufmann C A, Eisenbarth T, Cancela M, Hesse R, Unold T, Eicke A, Klenk R, Schock H W 2009 Thin Solid Films 517 2187

    [9]

    Zhang L, He Q, Jiang W L, Li C J, Sun Y 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 734

    [10]

    Schöldström J, Kessler J, Edoff M 2005 Thin Solid Films 480-481 61

    [11]

    Ao J P, Yang L, Yan L, Sun G Z, He Q, Zhou Z Q, Sun Y 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1870 (in Chinese) [敖建平, 杨亮, 闫礼, 孙国忠, 何青, 周志强, 孙 云2009物理学报 58 1870]

    [12]

    Djessas K, Yapi S, Massé G, Ibannain M, Gauffier J L 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 4111

    [13]

    Gabor A M, Tuttle J R, Bode M H, Franz A, Tennant A L, Contreras M A, Noufi R, Jensen D G, Hermann A M 1996 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 41/42 247

    [14]

    Schleussner S M, Törndah T, Linnarsson M, Zimmermann U, Wätjen T, Edoff M 2012 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 20 284

    [15]

    Otte K, Lippold G, Hirsch D, Schindler A, Bigl F 2000 Thin Solid Films 361-362 498

    [16]

    Roy S, Guha P, Kundu S N, Hanzawa H, Chaudhuri S, Pal A K 2002 Mater. Chem. Phys. 73 24

    [17]

    Zhang Y W, Bi D W, Gong X N, Bian H, Wan L, Tang D S 2011 Sci. China: Phys. Mech. Astron. 41 845 (in Chinese) [张有为, 毕大炜, 公祥南, 边惠, 万里, 唐东升 2011中国科学: 物理学 力学 天文学 41 845]

    [18]

    Han A J, Zhang Y, Li B Y, Liu W, Sun Y 2012 Appl. Surf. Sci. 258 9747

    [19]

    Li W, Sun Y, Liu W, Li F Y, Zhou L 2006 Chin. Phys. 15 878

    [20]

    Han A J, Zhang J J, Li L N, Zhang H, Liu C C, Geng X H, Zhao Y 2011 Acta Energiae Sol. Sin. 5 698 (in Chinese) [韩安军, 张建军, 李林娜, 张洪, 刘彩池, 耿新华, 赵颖 2011太阳能学报 5 698]

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  • Received Date:  27 July 2012
  • Accepted Date:  25 September 2012
  • Published Online:  05 February 2013

The high efficiency sub-micrometer Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cell prepared on low temperature

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology of Tianjin, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2004AA513020), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60906033, 50902074, 90922037, 61076061), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 11JCYBJC01200).

Abstract: In the presence of Se, Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 (CIGS) thin films are prepared by the sequential evaporation of Ga, In, Cu at a constant substrate temperature between 250 ℃ and 550 ℃ on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The thickness values of films are about 0.7 μm. The structural and phase properties of CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer, the morphology and crystalline quality are characterized by a scanning electron microscope, the depth profiles of elements are measured by a secondary ion mass spectroscopy, the surface compositions are analyzed by a Raman spectrometer, and the optical properties of CIGS films are measured by a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. It is found that the films prepared at substrate temperature above 450 ℃ each exhibite a single Cu(In0.7Ga0.3)Se2 phase, and the homogenization of Ga/(Ga+In) distribution in the Ga-In-Se precursor is achieved by the diffusion of In atoms through grain boundaries. As the substrate temperature is less than 400 ℃, a serious Ga phase separation is observed and the high content of Ga phase mainly exists at the top and bottom of CIGS films. Below 300 ℃, a serious deterioration of crystalline quality is found, and Ga atoms cannot effectively enter into the CIS lattice position to form CIGS. The films prepared at the substrate temperature less than 400 ℃ are covered with lots of Cu(In0.5Ga0.5)Se2 small grains, which results in the enhancement of the surface roughness and the formation of a light trapping structure at the interface of Cd/CIGS. Thus, the light absorption of solar cell is improved. In addition, the smaller gap value of the low Ga content phase also facilitats the light absorption, then the short-circuit current density of thinned solar cell is greatly improved. The analysis shows that the short-circuit current density is the main factor affecting the conversion efficiency of thinned solar cell prepared between 550 ℃-350 ℃. However, when the substrate temperature is below 350 ℃, the reduction of VOC and FF has become the main reason for the deterioration of solar cell. In conclusion, the efficiency of solar cell with 0.7 μm CIGS absorber prepared at substrate temperature of 350 ℃ reaches 10.3% due to the improvement of short-circuit current density.

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