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Analyses of wavelength dependence of the electro-optic overlap integral factor for LiNbO3 channel waveguides

Li Jin-Yang Lu Dan-Feng Qi Zhi-Mei

Analyses of wavelength dependence of the electro-optic overlap integral factor for LiNbO3 channel waveguides

Li Jin-Yang, Lu Dan-Feng, Qi Zhi-Mei
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  • Wavelength dependence of the electro-optic overlap integral factor (Γ) for a single-mode LiNbO3 (LN) channel waveguide was analyzed experimentally and theoretically. By measuring the half-wave voltage (Vπ) of the LN waveguide at different wavelengths and then substituting the measured values into a formula that describes the relationship between Vπ and Γ, the quantitative dependence of Γ on wavelength was obtained; and it showed that Γ rapidly decreases with increasing wavelength. On the other hand, numerical simulations of the modulating electric field distribution, the modal field distribution, and Γ at different wavelengths were carried out; the calculated relationship between Γ and wavelength is in good agreement with the measured results. Further simulations indicate that as the wavelength increases, the center of the modal field profile gradually moves toward the weak electric field side from the waveguide surface, thus leading to a smaller Γ at a longer wavelength. Such a relationship between Γ and wavelength is partially responsible for the nonlinear dependence of Vπ on wavelength obtained experimentally. This would be useful for designing and optimization of LN waveguide-based devices.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61078039), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. 3131001), the State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian (Grant No. SKLNBC2012-01K2), and the Research Equipment Development Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. YZ201106).
    [1]

    Wooten E L, Kissa K M, Yi-Yan A, Murphy E J, Lafaw D A, Hallemeier P F, Maack D, Attanasio D V, Fritz D J, McBrien G J, Bossi D E 2000 IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6 69

    [2]

    Lee Y L, Eom T J, Shin W, Yu B A, Ko D K, Kim W K, Lee H Y 2009 Opt. Express 17 10718

    [3]

    Xue T, Yu J, Yang T X, Ni W J, Li S C 2002 Acta Phys. Sin. 51 1521 (in Chinese)[薛挺, 于建, 杨天新, 倪文俊, 李世忱2002 物理学报51 1521]

    [4]

    Li G H, Jiang H L, Xu X Y 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 064201

    [5]

    Lin H Y, Ning J P, Geng F 2004 Chin. Opt. Lett. 2 89

    [6]

    Wang D L, Sun J Q, Wang J 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 252 (in Chinese)[汪大林, 孙军强, 王健2008 物理学报57 252]

    [7]

    Wei Z J, Wan W, Wang J D, Liao C J, Liu S H 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 094216 (in Chinese)[魏正军, 万伟, 王金东, 廖常俊, 刘颂豪2011 物理学报60 094216]

    [8]

    Bentini G G, Bianconi M, Cerutti A, Chiarini M, Pennestr G, Sada C, Argiolas N, Bazzan M, Mazzoldi P 2007 Opt. Laser Eng. 45 368

    [9]

    Chen F, Liu R P, Qi Z M 2011 Acta Optica Sinica 31 513001 (in Chinese) [陈方, 刘瑞鹏, 祁志美2011 光学学报 31 513001]

    [10]

    Grusemann U, Zeitner B, Rottschalk M, Ruske J P, Tnnermann A, Rasch A 2002 Appl. Opt. 41 6211

    [11]

    Yim Y S, Shin S Y 1998 Opt. Commun. 152 225

    [12]

    Miyakawa T, Nishikawa K, Nishida K 2005 Electron. Comn. Jpn. Part 2 88(4) 18

    [13]

    Yang Y J, Chen F S, Sun B 2006 Chin. Opt. Lett. 4 110643

    [14]

    Jung H S 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16 47

    [15]

    Strake E, Bava G P, Montrosset I 1988 J. Lightwave Technol. 6 1126

    [16]

    Fouchet S, Carenco A, Daguet C, Guglielmi R, Riviere L 1987 J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5 700

    [17]

    Zelmon D E, Small D L, Jundt D 1997 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14 3319

    [18]

    Lang T, Thévenaz L, Ren Z B, Robert P 1994 Meas. Sci. Technol. 5 1124

    [19]

    Lee H Y, Yang W S, Kim W K 2004 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8 90

    [20]

    Marcuse D 1982 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18 393

    [21]

    Kim C M, Ramaswamy R V 1989 J. Lightwave Technol. 7 1063

    [22]

    Becker R A, Kincaid B E 1993 J. Lightwave Technol. 11 2076

    [23]

    Chang S J, Tsai C L, Lin Y B, Liu J F, Wang W S 1999 J. Lightwave Technol. 17 843

    [24]

    Wu Y K, Wang W S 2008 J. Lightwave Technol. 26 286

    [25]

    Yonekura K, Jin L, Takizawa K 2008 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47 5503

    [26]

    Toro J A de, Serrano M D, Cabañes A G, Cabrera J M 1998 Opt. Commun. 154 23

    [27]

    He H Y 2004 Calculation Method for Electro-magnetic Field in Matlab (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science & Technology Press) p100 (in Chinese) [何红雨2004 电磁场数值计算法与Matlab 实现(武汉: 华中科技大学出版社) 第100 页]

    [28]

    Chen J J, Li Z, Zhang J S, Gong Q H 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 5893 (in Chinese)[陈建军, 李智, 张家森, 龚旗煌 2008 物理学报57 5893]

    [29]

    Li J Y, Yao Y Q, Wu J J, Qi Z M 2013 Acta Optica Sinica 33 196 (in Chinese) [李金洋, 要彦清, 吴建杰, 祁志美2013 光学学报33 196]

    [30]

    Kawano K, Kitoh T 2001 Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis(New York: John Wiley & Sons) pp117-164

    [31]

    Cao Z Q 2007 Wave guiding Optics (Beijing: Science Press) p26 (in Chinese) [曹庄琪2007 导波光学(北京: 科学出版社) 第26 页]

  • [1]

    Wooten E L, Kissa K M, Yi-Yan A, Murphy E J, Lafaw D A, Hallemeier P F, Maack D, Attanasio D V, Fritz D J, McBrien G J, Bossi D E 2000 IEEE J.Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6 69

    [2]

    Lee Y L, Eom T J, Shin W, Yu B A, Ko D K, Kim W K, Lee H Y 2009 Opt. Express 17 10718

    [3]

    Xue T, Yu J, Yang T X, Ni W J, Li S C 2002 Acta Phys. Sin. 51 1521 (in Chinese)[薛挺, 于建, 杨天新, 倪文俊, 李世忱2002 物理学报51 1521]

    [4]

    Li G H, Jiang H L, Xu X Y 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 064201

    [5]

    Lin H Y, Ning J P, Geng F 2004 Chin. Opt. Lett. 2 89

    [6]

    Wang D L, Sun J Q, Wang J 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 252 (in Chinese)[汪大林, 孙军强, 王健2008 物理学报57 252]

    [7]

    Wei Z J, Wan W, Wang J D, Liao C J, Liu S H 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 094216 (in Chinese)[魏正军, 万伟, 王金东, 廖常俊, 刘颂豪2011 物理学报60 094216]

    [8]

    Bentini G G, Bianconi M, Cerutti A, Chiarini M, Pennestr G, Sada C, Argiolas N, Bazzan M, Mazzoldi P 2007 Opt. Laser Eng. 45 368

    [9]

    Chen F, Liu R P, Qi Z M 2011 Acta Optica Sinica 31 513001 (in Chinese) [陈方, 刘瑞鹏, 祁志美2011 光学学报 31 513001]

    [10]

    Grusemann U, Zeitner B, Rottschalk M, Ruske J P, Tnnermann A, Rasch A 2002 Appl. Opt. 41 6211

    [11]

    Yim Y S, Shin S Y 1998 Opt. Commun. 152 225

    [12]

    Miyakawa T, Nishikawa K, Nishida K 2005 Electron. Comn. Jpn. Part 2 88(4) 18

    [13]

    Yang Y J, Chen F S, Sun B 2006 Chin. Opt. Lett. 4 110643

    [14]

    Jung H S 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16 47

    [15]

    Strake E, Bava G P, Montrosset I 1988 J. Lightwave Technol. 6 1126

    [16]

    Fouchet S, Carenco A, Daguet C, Guglielmi R, Riviere L 1987 J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5 700

    [17]

    Zelmon D E, Small D L, Jundt D 1997 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14 3319

    [18]

    Lang T, Thévenaz L, Ren Z B, Robert P 1994 Meas. Sci. Technol. 5 1124

    [19]

    Lee H Y, Yang W S, Kim W K 2004 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8 90

    [20]

    Marcuse D 1982 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18 393

    [21]

    Kim C M, Ramaswamy R V 1989 J. Lightwave Technol. 7 1063

    [22]

    Becker R A, Kincaid B E 1993 J. Lightwave Technol. 11 2076

    [23]

    Chang S J, Tsai C L, Lin Y B, Liu J F, Wang W S 1999 J. Lightwave Technol. 17 843

    [24]

    Wu Y K, Wang W S 2008 J. Lightwave Technol. 26 286

    [25]

    Yonekura K, Jin L, Takizawa K 2008 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47 5503

    [26]

    Toro J A de, Serrano M D, Cabañes A G, Cabrera J M 1998 Opt. Commun. 154 23

    [27]

    He H Y 2004 Calculation Method for Electro-magnetic Field in Matlab (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science & Technology Press) p100 (in Chinese) [何红雨2004 电磁场数值计算法与Matlab 实现(武汉: 华中科技大学出版社) 第100 页]

    [28]

    Chen J J, Li Z, Zhang J S, Gong Q H 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 5893 (in Chinese)[陈建军, 李智, 张家森, 龚旗煌 2008 物理学报57 5893]

    [29]

    Li J Y, Yao Y Q, Wu J J, Qi Z M 2013 Acta Optica Sinica 33 196 (in Chinese) [李金洋, 要彦清, 吴建杰, 祁志美2013 光学学报33 196]

    [30]

    Kawano K, Kitoh T 2001 Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis(New York: John Wiley & Sons) pp117-164

    [31]

    Cao Z Q 2007 Wave guiding Optics (Beijing: Science Press) p26 (in Chinese) [曹庄琪2007 导波光学(北京: 科学出版社) 第26 页]

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  • Received Date:  20 November 2013
  • Accepted Date:  20 December 2013
  • Published Online:  05 April 2014

Analyses of wavelength dependence of the electro-optic overlap integral factor for LiNbO3 channel waveguides

  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61078039), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. 3131001), the State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian (Grant No. SKLNBC2012-01K2), and the Research Equipment Development Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. YZ201106).

Abstract: Wavelength dependence of the electro-optic overlap integral factor (Γ) for a single-mode LiNbO3 (LN) channel waveguide was analyzed experimentally and theoretically. By measuring the half-wave voltage (Vπ) of the LN waveguide at different wavelengths and then substituting the measured values into a formula that describes the relationship between Vπ and Γ, the quantitative dependence of Γ on wavelength was obtained; and it showed that Γ rapidly decreases with increasing wavelength. On the other hand, numerical simulations of the modulating electric field distribution, the modal field distribution, and Γ at different wavelengths were carried out; the calculated relationship between Γ and wavelength is in good agreement with the measured results. Further simulations indicate that as the wavelength increases, the center of the modal field profile gradually moves toward the weak electric field side from the waveguide surface, thus leading to a smaller Γ at a longer wavelength. Such a relationship between Γ and wavelength is partially responsible for the nonlinear dependence of Vπ on wavelength obtained experimentally. This would be useful for designing and optimization of LN waveguide-based devices.

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