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Numerical calculation and discussion on return photons of polychromatic laser guide stars by a laser beam with 330 nm wavelength

Liu Xiang-Yuan Qian Xian-Mei Zhu Wen-Yue Liu Dan-Dan Fan Chuan-Yu Zhou Jun Yang Huan

Numerical calculation and discussion on return photons of polychromatic laser guide stars by a laser beam with 330 nm wavelength

Liu Xiang-Yuan, Qian Xian-Mei, Zhu Wen-Yue, Liu Dan-Dan, Fan Chuan-Yu, Zhou Jun, Yang Huan
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  • The properties of return photons of polychromatic laser guide stars excited by a modeless laser with 330 nm wavelength are investigated in this paper by numerical simulation. The repetition rate, linewidth, initial diameter of laser spot and atmospheric transmittance have great influences on the return photons at 330 nm and 2207 nm from polychromatic laser guide stars. First, the laser linewidth is optimized by solving the rate equations of interaction between laser and sodium atoms. We find that the 0.6 GHz linewidth for the continuous wave laser and the 1.0 GHz linewidth for the pulse laser are beneficial to obtaining the higher excited probability of sodium atoms. Based on the fitted relation between the excitation probability of sodium atoms and laser intensity, considering the random distributions of laser intensity at the mesosphere due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence, the return photons from polychromatic laser guide stars are numerically calculated. The results show that the return photons at 330 nm excited by the continuous-wave laser are more than those excited by the pulse laser. And the return photons excited by continuous-wave laser almost do not fluctuate when laser power arriving at sodium layer is 1 W. Furthermore, effects of the repetition rate of pulse laser and the laser initial diameter on the return photons at 330 nm are studied. The two results are obtained as follows. The first result is that the increment of return photons at 330 nm will converge to a constant value when the repetition rate of pulse laser is over 50 kHz. The second result is that the initial diameter of continuous wave laser has no effect on the return photons but the effect of pulse laser is more obvious. Particularly, the atmospheric transmittance is an important factor of influence because it causes a severe loss of light power at 330 nm wavelength. Under the conditions of 5 km atmospheric visibility and 12.8 cm atmospheric turbulence coherence length, the launched power of pulse laser with 50 ns duration should be more than 34 W for obtaining enough return photons required for the effective detection of atmospheric turbulence tip-tilt with the natural stars. But for the continuous-wave laser, the launched power should be more than 20 W. In the case of 10 km atmospheric visibility, if the same return photons at 330 nm are required, the launched power of pulse laser will also be more than that of the continuous-wave laser under the same conditions. Therefore, the continuous-wave laser has more advantages than the pulse laser in exciting the polychromatic laser guide stars. We hope that the above results will be beneficial to the further experimental research.
      Corresponding author: Qian Xian-Mei, qianxianmei@aiof.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics in Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. 2015JJ01) and the Key Projects of College Natural Foundation of Anhui Province and Anhui Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant Nos. KJ2017A401, KJ2016A749).
    [1]

    Olivier S S, Gavel D T 1994 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 11 368

    [2]

    Foy R, Migus A, Biraben F, Grynberg G, McCullough P R, Tallon M 1995 Astrop. Astrophys. 111 569

    [3]

    Foy R, Tallon M, Tallon-Bosc I, Thibaut E, Vaillant J, Foy F C, Daniel R, Friedman H, Biraben F, Grynberg G, Gex J P, Mens A, Migus A, Weulersse J M, Butler D J 2000 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 17 2236

    [4]

    Schck M, Foy R, Pique J P, Chevrou P, Ageorges N, Petit A D, Bellanger V, Fews H, Foy F C, Hoegemann C K, Laubscher M, Peillet O, Segonds P, Tallon M, Weulersse J M 2000 Proc. SPIE 4007 296

    [5]

    Pique J P, Moldovan I C, Fesquet V 2006 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 23 2817

    [6]

    Chatellus H G, Pique J P, Moldovan I C 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 25 400

    [7]

    Milonni P W, Fugate R Q, Telle J M 1998 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 15 218

    [8]

    Martin J M, Flatte S M 1988 Appl. Opt. 27 2111

    [9]

    Coles W A, Filice J P, Frehlich R G, Yadlowsky M 1995 Appl. Opt. 34 2089

    [10]

    Qian X M, Zhu W Y, Rao R Z 2012 Chin. Phys.. 21 094202

    [11]

    Shao W Y, Xian H 2016 Chin. Phys.. 11 114212

    [12]

    Orphala J, Chanceb K 2003 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82 491

    [13]

    Erlick C R, Frederick J E, Saxena V K, Wenny B N 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103 541

    [14]

    Rao R Z 2012 Modern Atmospheric Optics. (Beijing: Science Press) p320 (in Chinese) [饶瑞中 2012 现代大气光学(北京: 科学出版社) 第320 页]

    [15]

    Moldovan I C 2008 Ph. D. Dissertation (Grenoble: Universit de Grenoble 1 Joseph Fourier) (in French)

    [16]

    Pique J P, Farinotti S 2003 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 20 2093

    [17]

    Liu X Y, Qian X M, Li Y J, Rao R Z 2014 Chin. Phys.. 23 240

    [18]

    Sandler D G, Stahl S, Angel J R P, Lloyd-Hart M, McCarthy D 1994 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 11 925

    [19]

    Hillman P D, Drummond J D, Denman C A, Fugate R Q 2008 Proc. SPIE 7015 70150L-1

    [20]

    Liu X Y, Qian X M, Zhang S M, Cui C L 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 094206(in Chinese) [刘向远, 钱仙妹, 张穗萌, 崔朝龙 2015 物理学报 64 094206]

    [21]

    Wizinovich P L, Mignant D L, Bouchez A H, Randy D C, Jason C Y C, Adam R C, Marcos A V D, Scott K H, Erik M J, Lafon R E, Lewis H, Stomski P J, Douglas M S 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118 297

    [22]

    McLean I S, Adkins S 2004 Proc. SPIE 5492 1

  • [1]

    Olivier S S, Gavel D T 1994 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 11 368

    [2]

    Foy R, Migus A, Biraben F, Grynberg G, McCullough P R, Tallon M 1995 Astrop. Astrophys. 111 569

    [3]

    Foy R, Tallon M, Tallon-Bosc I, Thibaut E, Vaillant J, Foy F C, Daniel R, Friedman H, Biraben F, Grynberg G, Gex J P, Mens A, Migus A, Weulersse J M, Butler D J 2000 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 17 2236

    [4]

    Schck M, Foy R, Pique J P, Chevrou P, Ageorges N, Petit A D, Bellanger V, Fews H, Foy F C, Hoegemann C K, Laubscher M, Peillet O, Segonds P, Tallon M, Weulersse J M 2000 Proc. SPIE 4007 296

    [5]

    Pique J P, Moldovan I C, Fesquet V 2006 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 23 2817

    [6]

    Chatellus H G, Pique J P, Moldovan I C 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 25 400

    [7]

    Milonni P W, Fugate R Q, Telle J M 1998 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 15 218

    [8]

    Martin J M, Flatte S M 1988 Appl. Opt. 27 2111

    [9]

    Coles W A, Filice J P, Frehlich R G, Yadlowsky M 1995 Appl. Opt. 34 2089

    [10]

    Qian X M, Zhu W Y, Rao R Z 2012 Chin. Phys.. 21 094202

    [11]

    Shao W Y, Xian H 2016 Chin. Phys.. 11 114212

    [12]

    Orphala J, Chanceb K 2003 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82 491

    [13]

    Erlick C R, Frederick J E, Saxena V K, Wenny B N 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103 541

    [14]

    Rao R Z 2012 Modern Atmospheric Optics. (Beijing: Science Press) p320 (in Chinese) [饶瑞中 2012 现代大气光学(北京: 科学出版社) 第320 页]

    [15]

    Moldovan I C 2008 Ph. D. Dissertation (Grenoble: Universit de Grenoble 1 Joseph Fourier) (in French)

    [16]

    Pique J P, Farinotti S 2003 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 20 2093

    [17]

    Liu X Y, Qian X M, Li Y J, Rao R Z 2014 Chin. Phys.. 23 240

    [18]

    Sandler D G, Stahl S, Angel J R P, Lloyd-Hart M, McCarthy D 1994 J. Opt. Soc. Am.. 11 925

    [19]

    Hillman P D, Drummond J D, Denman C A, Fugate R Q 2008 Proc. SPIE 7015 70150L-1

    [20]

    Liu X Y, Qian X M, Zhang S M, Cui C L 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 094206(in Chinese) [刘向远, 钱仙妹, 张穗萌, 崔朝龙 2015 物理学报 64 094206]

    [21]

    Wizinovich P L, Mignant D L, Bouchez A H, Randy D C, Jason C Y C, Adam R C, Marcos A V D, Scott K H, Erik M J, Lafon R E, Lewis H, Stomski P J, Douglas M S 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118 297

    [22]

    McLean I S, Adkins S 2004 Proc. SPIE 5492 1

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  • Received Date:  07 May 2017
  • Accepted Date:  07 October 2017
  • Published Online:  05 January 2018

Numerical calculation and discussion on return photons of polychromatic laser guide stars by a laser beam with 330 nm wavelength

    Corresponding author: Qian Xian-Mei, qianxianmei@aiof.ac.cn
  • 1. Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China;
  • 2. School of Electrical and Photoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Atom, Molecule and Applied Optics, West Anhui University, Lu'an 237012, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics in Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. 2015JJ01) and the Key Projects of College Natural Foundation of Anhui Province and Anhui Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant Nos. KJ2017A401, KJ2016A749).

Abstract: The properties of return photons of polychromatic laser guide stars excited by a modeless laser with 330 nm wavelength are investigated in this paper by numerical simulation. The repetition rate, linewidth, initial diameter of laser spot and atmospheric transmittance have great influences on the return photons at 330 nm and 2207 nm from polychromatic laser guide stars. First, the laser linewidth is optimized by solving the rate equations of interaction between laser and sodium atoms. We find that the 0.6 GHz linewidth for the continuous wave laser and the 1.0 GHz linewidth for the pulse laser are beneficial to obtaining the higher excited probability of sodium atoms. Based on the fitted relation between the excitation probability of sodium atoms and laser intensity, considering the random distributions of laser intensity at the mesosphere due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence, the return photons from polychromatic laser guide stars are numerically calculated. The results show that the return photons at 330 nm excited by the continuous-wave laser are more than those excited by the pulse laser. And the return photons excited by continuous-wave laser almost do not fluctuate when laser power arriving at sodium layer is 1 W. Furthermore, effects of the repetition rate of pulse laser and the laser initial diameter on the return photons at 330 nm are studied. The two results are obtained as follows. The first result is that the increment of return photons at 330 nm will converge to a constant value when the repetition rate of pulse laser is over 50 kHz. The second result is that the initial diameter of continuous wave laser has no effect on the return photons but the effect of pulse laser is more obvious. Particularly, the atmospheric transmittance is an important factor of influence because it causes a severe loss of light power at 330 nm wavelength. Under the conditions of 5 km atmospheric visibility and 12.8 cm atmospheric turbulence coherence length, the launched power of pulse laser with 50 ns duration should be more than 34 W for obtaining enough return photons required for the effective detection of atmospheric turbulence tip-tilt with the natural stars. But for the continuous-wave laser, the launched power should be more than 20 W. In the case of 10 km atmospheric visibility, if the same return photons at 330 nm are required, the launched power of pulse laser will also be more than that of the continuous-wave laser under the same conditions. Therefore, the continuous-wave laser has more advantages than the pulse laser in exciting the polychromatic laser guide stars. We hope that the above results will be beneficial to the further experimental research.

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