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电子的谷自由度

孙家涛 孟胜

电子的谷自由度

孙家涛, 孟胜
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  • 电子在晶格周期性势场影响下的运动遵循布洛赫定理. 布洛赫电子除了具有电荷和自旋两个内禀自由度外, 还有其他内禀自由度. 能带色散曲线上的某些极值点作为谷自由度, 具有独特的电子结构和运动规律. 本文从布洛赫电子的谷自由度出发, 简单介绍传统半导体的谷电子性质研究现状, 并重点介绍新型二维材料体系, 如石墨烯、硅烯、硫族化合物等材料中谷相关的物理特性. 有效利用谷自由度的新奇输运特性, 将其作为信息的载体可以制作出新颖的纳米光电子器件, 并有望造就下一代纳电子器件的新领域, 即谷电子学(valleytronics).
      通信作者: 孙家涛, jtsun@iphy.ac.cn;smeng@iphy.ac.cn ; 孟胜, jtsun@iphy.ac.cn;smeng@iphy.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61306114, 11222431)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2013CBA01600, 2012CB921403)和中国科学院战略性B类先导科技专项 (批准号: XDB07030100)资助的课题.
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  • [1]

    Tikhonenko F V, Horsell D W, Gorbachev R V, Savchenko A K 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 056802

    [2]

    Wu G Y, Lue N Y, Chen Y C 2013 Phys. Rev. B 88 125422

    [3]

    Zhu Z, Collaudin A, Fauqué B, Kang W, Behnia K 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 89

    [4]

    Gunlycke D, White C T 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 136806

    [5]

    Liu Y, Song J, Li Y, Liu Y, Sun Q F 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 195445

    [6]

    Guinea F, Katsnelson M I, Geim A K 2009 Nat. Phys. 6 30

    [7]

    Jiang Y J, Low T, Chang K, Katsnelson M I, Guinea F 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 046601

    [8]

    Prada E, San-Jose P, Schomerus H 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 245414

    [9]

    Low T, Jiang Y J, Katsnelson M I, Guinea F 2012 Nano Lett. 12 850

    [10]

    Wu Z, Zhai F, Peeters F M, Xu H Q, Chang K 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 176802

    [11]

    Ezawa M 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 195413

    [12]

    Xiao D, Liu G, Feng W, Xu X, Yao W 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 196802

    [13]

    Mak K F, McGill K L, Park J, McEuen P L 2014 Science 344 1489

    [14]

    Gong Z, Liu G B, Yu H, Xiao D, Cui X, Xu X, Yao W 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 2053

    [15]

    Zhang L F, Niu Q 2014 arXiv:1502.02573

    [16]

    Loss D, DiVincenzo D P 1998 Phys. Rev. A 57 120

    [17]

    Friesen M, Rugheimer P, Savage D E, Lagally M G, van der Weide D W, Joynt R, Eriksson M A 2003 Phys. Rev. B 67 121301

    [18]

    Ando T, Fowler A B, Stern F 1982 Rev. Mod. Phys. 54 437

    [19]

    McWhorter A L 1957 Semiconductor Surface Physics (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press) p55

    [20]

    Ramos L E, Teles L K, Scolfaro L M R, Castineira J L P, Rosa A L, Leite J R 2001 Phys. Rev. B 63 165210

    [21]

    Dziekan T, Zahn P, Meded V, Mirbt S 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 195213

    [22]

    Yu D C, Zhang Y, Liu F 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 245204

    [23]

    Grosso G, Parravicini G P, Piermarocchi C 1996 Phys. Rev. B 54 16393

    [24]

    Koiller B, Hu X D, Das Sarma S 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 027903

    [25]

    Gunawan O, Shkolnikov Y P, Vakili K, Gokmen T, de Poortere E P, Shayegan M 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 186404

    [26]

    Fowler A B, Fang F F, Howard W E, Stiles P J 1966 Phys. Rev. Lett. 16 901

    [27]

    Khrapai V S, Shashkin A A, Dolgopolov V T 2003 Phys. Rev. B 67 113305

    [28]

    Shkolnikov Y P, de Poortere E P, Tutuc E, Shayegan M 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 226805

    [29]

    Takashina K, Ono Y, Fujiwara A, Takahashi Y, Hirayama Y 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 236801

    [30]

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    [31]

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    [32]

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    [33]

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    [34]

    Novoselov K S, Jiang D, Schedin F, Booth T J, Khotkevich V V, Morozov S V, Geim A K 2005 PNAS 102 10451

    [35]

    Castro NetoA H, Guinea F, Peres N M R, Novoselov K S, Geim A K 2009 Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 109

    [36]

    Fujita M, Wakabayashi K, Nakada K, Kusakabe K 1996 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 65 1920

    [37]

    Son Y W, Cohen M L, Louie S G 2006 Nature 444 347

    [38]

    Son Y W, Cohen M L, Louie S G 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 216803

    [39]

    Rycerz A, Tworzydlo J, Beenakker C W J 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 172

    [40]

    Akhmerov A R, Bardarson J H, Rycerz A, Beenakker C W J 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 205416

    [41]

    Zhang Z Z, Chang K, Chan K S 2008 App. Phys. Lett. 93 062106

    [42]

    Gunlycke D, Vasudevan S, White C T 2013 Nano Lett. 13 259

    [43]

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    [44]

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    [45]

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    [46]

    Chen J H, Autes G, Alem N, Gargiulo F, Gautam A, Linck M, Kisielowski C, Yazyev O V, Louie S G, Zettl A 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 121407

    [47]

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    [48]

    Garcia-Pomar J L, Cortijo A, Nieto-Vesperinas M 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 236801

    [49]

    Wang Z, Liu F 2010 ACS Nano 4 2459

    [50]

    Pereira Jr J M, Peeters F M, Costa Filho R N, Farias G A J 2009 Phys. Condens. Matter 21 045301

    [51]

    Giovannetti G, Khomyakov P A, Brocks G, Kelly P J 2007 Phys. Rev. B 76 073103

    [52]

    Shinde P P, Kumar V 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 125401

    [53]

    Zhou S Y, Gweon G H, Fedorov A V, First P N, de Heer W A, Lee D H, Guinea F, Castro Neto A H, Lanzara A 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 770

    [54]

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    Naumov I I, Bratkovsky A M 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 245444

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    Ni Z H, Yu T, Lu Y H, Wang Y Y, Feng Y P, Shen Z X 2008 ACS Nano 2 2301

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    Wang J, Chan K W, Lin Z 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 013105

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    Xiao D, Yao Y, Fang Z, Niu Q 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 026603

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    Chang M, Niu Q 1996 Phys. Rev. B 53 7010

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    Xiao D, Yao W, Niu Q 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 236809

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    Gorbachev R V, Song J C W, Yu G L, Kretinin A V, Withers F, Cao Y, Mishchenko A, Grigorieva I V, Novoselov K S, Levitov L S, Geim A K 2014 Science 346 448

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    Sui M, Chen G, Ma L, Shan W, Tian D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Jin X, Yao W, Xiao D, Zhang Y 2014 arXiv: 1501.04685

    [83]

    Wang Q H, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kis A, Coleman J N, Strano M S 2012 Nat. Nano 7 699

    [84]

    Mak K F, Lee C, Hone J, Shan J, Heinz T F 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 136805

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    Law M, Goldberger J, Yang P D 2004 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34 83

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-04-28
  • 修回日期:  2015-05-29
  • 刊出日期:  2015-09-20

电子的谷自由度

    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61306114, 11222431)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2013CBA01600, 2012CB921403)和中国科学院战略性B类先导科技专项 (批准号: XDB07030100)资助的课题.

摘要: 电子在晶格周期性势场影响下的运动遵循布洛赫定理. 布洛赫电子除了具有电荷和自旋两个内禀自由度外, 还有其他内禀自由度. 能带色散曲线上的某些极值点作为谷自由度, 具有独特的电子结构和运动规律. 本文从布洛赫电子的谷自由度出发, 简单介绍传统半导体的谷电子性质研究现状, 并重点介绍新型二维材料体系, 如石墨烯、硅烯、硫族化合物等材料中谷相关的物理特性. 有效利用谷自由度的新奇输运特性, 将其作为信息的载体可以制作出新颖的纳米光电子器件, 并有望造就下一代纳电子器件的新领域, 即谷电子学(valleytronics).

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