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Study on the electro-optic modulation properties of graphene-coated hollow optical fiber

Bi Wei-Hong Wang Yuan-Yuan Fu Guang-Wei Wang Xiao-Yu Li Cai-Li

Study on the electro-optic modulation properties of graphene-coated hollow optical fiber

Bi Wei-Hong, Wang Yuan-Yuan, Fu Guang-Wei, Wang Xiao-Yu, Li Cai-Li
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  • Active manipulation of light in optical fibers has been extensively studied with great interest because of the structure simplicity, small footprint, low insertion loss and the compatibility with diverse fiber-optic systems. While graphene can be seen to exhibit a strong electro-optic effect originating from its gapless Dirac-fermionic band structure, there is no report on the electro-absorption properties of all-fiber graphene devices. Here a novel tunable graphene-based hollow optical fiber structure is designed with graphene coated on the inner wall of the fiber central core. Evanescent field of the guided mode propagating in the hollow optical fiber interacts with a monolayer or stacked multilayer graphene, which could modulate the intensity of the propagating mode via altering the chemical potential of the graphene by an external electric field. A full vector finite element method is adopted to analyse the influences of the chemical potential, the air-hole's radius and layers of graphene on the electro-optic modulation properties of the structure. Numerical simulation results show that by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene, the phase and on-off features of the fiber can be tuned correspondingly, as well as the position, magnitude and width of the loss peak and the sub-peak. However, the air-hole's radius and layers of graphene will only affect the loss variation, the magnitude and width of the loss peak and the sub-peak, but have no influence on the on-off point and the position of the loss peak and the sub-peak. In addition, the loss variation caused by N-layer graphene is N times that of the monolayer graphene. Since it is the dielectric constant of graphene that determines the effective refractive index and the loss of the fiber, the dielectric constant is only related to its chemical potential while independent of the air-hole's radius and the layers of graphene. Finally, an optimal electro-absorptive modulator based on the penta-layer graphene-coated hollow optical fiber is proposed for its advantage of ultra-compact footprint (5 mm 125 m), ultrawide optical bandwidth (580 nm), high extinction ratio (16 dB), high modulation bandwidth (64 MHz) and low insertion loss (1.23 dB), as well as a broad operational spectrum that ranges from 1180 to 1760 nm. Our results can provide theoretical references for the design and application of graphene-based tunable photonic fiber devices.
      Corresponding author: Bi Wei-Hong, whbi@ysu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575170, 61475133).
    [1]

    Malmstrm M, Margulis W, Tarasenko O, Pasiskevicius V, Laurell F 2012 Opt. Express 20 2905

    [2]

    Wang J L, Du M Q, Zhang L L, Liu Y J, Sun W M 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 120702 (in Chinese) [王家璐, 杜木清, 张伶俐, 刘永军, 孙伟民 2015 物理学报 64 120702]

    [3]

    Wang L M, Monte T D 2008 Opt. Lett. 33 1078

    [4]

    Yang X H, Liu Y X, Tian F J, Yuan L B, Liu Z H, Luo S Z, Zhao E M 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2115

    [5]

    Chen Y F, Han Q, Liu T G 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 014214

    [6]

    Liu C, Pei L, Wu L Y, Wang Y Q, Weng S J, Yu S W 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 174207 (in Chinese) [刘超, 裴丽, 吴良英, 王一群, 翁思俊, 余少伟 2015 物理学报 64 174207]

    [7]

    Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 183

    [8]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [9]

    Vakil A, Engheta N 2011 Science 332 1291

    [10]

    Obraztsov P A, Rybin M G, Tyurnina A V, Garnov S V, Obraztsova E D, Obraztsov A N, Svirko Y P 2011 Nano Lett. 11 1540

    [11]

    Jablan M, Buljan H, Soljacic M 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 245435

    [12]

    Lu Z L, Zhao W S 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 1490

    [13]

    Zhou F, Hao R, Jin X F, Zhang X M, Li E P 2014 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26 1867

    [14]

    Hao R, Du W, Chen H S, Jin X F, Yang L Z, Li E P 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 061116

    [15]

    Sorianello V, Midrio M, Romagnoli M 2015 Opt. Express 23 6478

    [16]

    Bao Q L, Loh K P 2012 ACS Nano 6 3677

    [17]

    Bao Q L, Zhang H, Wang B, Ni Z H, Lim C H Y X, Wang Y, Tang D Y, Loh K P 2011 Nat. Photon. 5 411

    [18]

    Feng D J, Huang W Y, Jiang S Z, Ji W, Jia D F 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 054202 (in Chinese) [冯德军, 黄文育, 姜守振, 季伟, 贾东方 2013 物理学报 62 054202]

    [19]

    Lee E J, Choi S Y, Jeong H, Park N H, Yim W, Kim M H, Park J K, Son S, Bae S, Kim S J, Lee K, Ahn Y H, Ahn K J, Hong B H, Park J Y, Rotermund F, Yeom D I 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6851

    [20]

    Gusynin V P, Sharapov S G, Carbotte J P 2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 026222

    [21]

    Capmany J, Domenech D, Muoz P 2014 Opt. Express 22 5283

    [22]

    Lee S, Park J, Jeong Y, Jung H, Oh K 2009 J. Lightwave Technol. 27 4919

    [23]

    Reed G T, Mashanovich G, Gardes F Y, Thomson D J 2010 Nat. Photon. 4 518

  • [1]

    Malmstrm M, Margulis W, Tarasenko O, Pasiskevicius V, Laurell F 2012 Opt. Express 20 2905

    [2]

    Wang J L, Du M Q, Zhang L L, Liu Y J, Sun W M 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 120702 (in Chinese) [王家璐, 杜木清, 张伶俐, 刘永军, 孙伟民 2015 物理学报 64 120702]

    [3]

    Wang L M, Monte T D 2008 Opt. Lett. 33 1078

    [4]

    Yang X H, Liu Y X, Tian F J, Yuan L B, Liu Z H, Luo S Z, Zhao E M 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2115

    [5]

    Chen Y F, Han Q, Liu T G 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 014214

    [6]

    Liu C, Pei L, Wu L Y, Wang Y Q, Weng S J, Yu S W 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 174207 (in Chinese) [刘超, 裴丽, 吴良英, 王一群, 翁思俊, 余少伟 2015 物理学报 64 174207]

    [7]

    Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 183

    [8]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [9]

    Vakil A, Engheta N 2011 Science 332 1291

    [10]

    Obraztsov P A, Rybin M G, Tyurnina A V, Garnov S V, Obraztsova E D, Obraztsov A N, Svirko Y P 2011 Nano Lett. 11 1540

    [11]

    Jablan M, Buljan H, Soljacic M 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 245435

    [12]

    Lu Z L, Zhao W S 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 1490

    [13]

    Zhou F, Hao R, Jin X F, Zhang X M, Li E P 2014 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26 1867

    [14]

    Hao R, Du W, Chen H S, Jin X F, Yang L Z, Li E P 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 061116

    [15]

    Sorianello V, Midrio M, Romagnoli M 2015 Opt. Express 23 6478

    [16]

    Bao Q L, Loh K P 2012 ACS Nano 6 3677

    [17]

    Bao Q L, Zhang H, Wang B, Ni Z H, Lim C H Y X, Wang Y, Tang D Y, Loh K P 2011 Nat. Photon. 5 411

    [18]

    Feng D J, Huang W Y, Jiang S Z, Ji W, Jia D F 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 054202 (in Chinese) [冯德军, 黄文育, 姜守振, 季伟, 贾东方 2013 物理学报 62 054202]

    [19]

    Lee E J, Choi S Y, Jeong H, Park N H, Yim W, Kim M H, Park J K, Son S, Bae S, Kim S J, Lee K, Ahn Y H, Ahn K J, Hong B H, Park J Y, Rotermund F, Yeom D I 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6851

    [20]

    Gusynin V P, Sharapov S G, Carbotte J P 2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 026222

    [21]

    Capmany J, Domenech D, Muoz P 2014 Opt. Express 22 5283

    [22]

    Lee S, Park J, Jeong Y, Jung H, Oh K 2009 J. Lightwave Technol. 27 4919

    [23]

    Reed G T, Mashanovich G, Gardes F Y, Thomson D J 2010 Nat. Photon. 4 518

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  13 September 2015
  • Accepted Date:  04 December 2015
  • Published Online:  20 February 2016

Study on the electro-optic modulation properties of graphene-coated hollow optical fiber

    Corresponding author: Bi Wei-Hong, whbi@ysu.edu.cn
  • 1. Key Laboratory for Special Fiber and Fiber Sensor of Hebei Province, School of Information Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61575170, 61475133).

Abstract: Active manipulation of light in optical fibers has been extensively studied with great interest because of the structure simplicity, small footprint, low insertion loss and the compatibility with diverse fiber-optic systems. While graphene can be seen to exhibit a strong electro-optic effect originating from its gapless Dirac-fermionic band structure, there is no report on the electro-absorption properties of all-fiber graphene devices. Here a novel tunable graphene-based hollow optical fiber structure is designed with graphene coated on the inner wall of the fiber central core. Evanescent field of the guided mode propagating in the hollow optical fiber interacts with a monolayer or stacked multilayer graphene, which could modulate the intensity of the propagating mode via altering the chemical potential of the graphene by an external electric field. A full vector finite element method is adopted to analyse the influences of the chemical potential, the air-hole's radius and layers of graphene on the electro-optic modulation properties of the structure. Numerical simulation results show that by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene, the phase and on-off features of the fiber can be tuned correspondingly, as well as the position, magnitude and width of the loss peak and the sub-peak. However, the air-hole's radius and layers of graphene will only affect the loss variation, the magnitude and width of the loss peak and the sub-peak, but have no influence on the on-off point and the position of the loss peak and the sub-peak. In addition, the loss variation caused by N-layer graphene is N times that of the monolayer graphene. Since it is the dielectric constant of graphene that determines the effective refractive index and the loss of the fiber, the dielectric constant is only related to its chemical potential while independent of the air-hole's radius and the layers of graphene. Finally, an optimal electro-absorptive modulator based on the penta-layer graphene-coated hollow optical fiber is proposed for its advantage of ultra-compact footprint (5 mm 125 m), ultrawide optical bandwidth (580 nm), high extinction ratio (16 dB), high modulation bandwidth (64 MHz) and low insertion loss (1.23 dB), as well as a broad operational spectrum that ranges from 1180 to 1760 nm. Our results can provide theoretical references for the design and application of graphene-based tunable photonic fiber devices.

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