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Fiber modal content analysis based on spatial and spectral Fourier transform

Zhang Shu-Lin Feng Guo-Ying Zhou Shou-Huan

Fiber modal content analysis based on spatial and spectral Fourier transform

Zhang Shu-Lin, Feng Guo-Ying, Zhou Shou-Huan
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  • Received Date:  01 March 2016
  • Accepted Date:  27 May 2016
  • Published Online:  05 August 2016

Fiber modal content analysis based on spatial and spectral Fourier transform

    Corresponding author: Feng Guo-Ying, guoing_feng@scu.edu.cn
  • 1. Institute of Laser and Micro/Nano Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China;
  • 2. North China Research Institute of Electro-optics, Beijing 100015, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574221).

Abstract: As is well known, a typical measure of the quality of an optical beam is the M2 parameter, but characterizing the beam quality only by M2 is insufficient. A low value of M2 is generally considered to be equivalent to the single-mode operation with a stable beam. However, even when a large amount of power is contained in high-order modes, the existence of a low value of M2is still possible. Hence, a low value of M2 does not guarantee the single-mode operation. Therefore, a new measurement technique, which aims at measuring modal content of high power fiber laser, is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This method is named spatial and spectral Fourier transform, or F2 transform in short, and it is based on measuring Fourier transform of both spatial domain and spectral domain of output laser. The experimental set is simple in structure and high in robustness. Another advantage of the method is that it requires no prior detailed knowledge of the fiber properties. In this paper, the patterns of the high-order modes between and after Fourier transform are simulated. From the graph it is evident that the energy of spot diffuses outward and is convenient to measure. We also simulate and compare the group delay difference curve of F2 with existing S2, which are well matched with each other. Experimentally, the high-order modes are stimulated by extruding the fiber periodically, which ensures that we can measure it. Firstly, by scanning two-dimensional (2D) pattern of beam after spatial domain Fourier transform and recording the experimental data, and then through the Fourier transform of data in spectral domain, the group delay differences between the high-order modes and the fundamental mode can be obtained. Finally, different modes in spatial domain are reconstructed and the relative power of every mode is calculated. Additionally, we set up an automatic measuring device to verify the effectiveness of the method. The reconstructed modal patterns are presented in the final section of this paper. We can clearly identify the fundamental mode and the high-order modes, such as LP01, LP02, LP03, LP21, LP11, LP12, LP13 and LP14. It reconfirms that this method is feasible. Compared with the S2 method, this method reduces the requirement for precision of mobile platform greatly and thus it is suited to measure the modal content of high power fiber laser output beam. This technique can be effectively applied to a wide variety of measurements, such as dispersion compensator of large-mode-area fiber, bend loss measurement of the high-order modes, refractive index profiles measurement of fiber and mode convertor fiber.

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