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Atmospheric channel model of maritime visible light communication based on repeated coding

Zheng Xiao-Tong Guo Li-Xin Cheng Ming-Jian1\2 Li Jiang-Ting

Atmospheric channel model of maritime visible light communication based on repeated coding

Zheng Xiao-Tong, Guo Li-Xin, Cheng Ming-Jian1\2, Li Jiang-Ting
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  • Visible light communication (VLC) is a new type of wireless communication technology, and its applications in offshore ships and ship-shore lamp signal systems are drawing increasing attention as a supplement of communication net. In maritime environment, VLC system is affected by many factors, of which the wave fluctuation and atmospheric turbulence are the most noticeable. The turbulence will make signal intensity fluctuate randomly, and thus reducing the performance of VLC system operating in the atmosphere. To establish an effective VLC network in the actual marine environment, an effective channel transmission model needs to be established and used to study the performance of the maritime VLC link. Considering large aperture diameter receiver with the aperture averaging effect, log-normal distribution model is employed to deduce the mathematical expression of average bit error rate of maritime VLC system in atmospheric turbulence. By using time-diversity to transmit interleaved symbols with repeated coding in a maritime VLC system, it is possible to ensure that the code-word passes through multiple channels to resist the deep fade performance, and to reduce the bit error rate due to the occurrence of deep fading in a single channel. In the actual application process, in order to improve the system performance, the average signal-to-noise ratio usually increases with the transmission power increasing, but for a VLC system, there are some difficulties in making the high-power high-rate visible light transmitters. And the power will produce light pollution and even damage the naked eye. The implementation of the repetitive coding principle is simple, and in some special cases it is even better than the complex orthogonal space-time coding and other schemes, so studying the system performance of the repetitive coding scheme is of considerable value for practical application. Based on the modified Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, the effect of wave height, transmission distance, atmospheric turbulence intensity, receiver aperture size and visibility on the average bit error rate of VLC system are analyzed. The performance of the VLC system between lighthouse and ship is affected by the fluctuations of the sea waves, and the average bit error rate changes with randomness and complexity like the sea waves in a short distance. As the wind speed increases, the marine environment becomes worse and the average bit error rate is undulate. The average bit error rate of maritime VLC increases with the increasing of transmission distance and atmospheric turbulence intensity, and with the decreasing of receiver aperture size, wavelength and average signal-to-noise ratio. Atmospheric turbulence intensity and visibility have a significant effect on the system performance, and it should be emphatically considered to take measures to reduce the influence. Increasing receiver aperture and repetitive coding are effective to a certain extent. In the present work a new model is proposed for evaluating the performance of a maritime VLC system and providing reference for practical application.
      Corresponding author: Guo Li-Xin, lxguo@xidian.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Key Industrial Innovation Chain Project in Industrial Domain of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2017ZDCXL-GY-06-02), the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, China (Grant No. SKL2016KF05), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. CJT150502), the Innovation Fund of Xidian University, China (Grant No. 20108183448), and the Huawei Innovation Research Program, China (Grant No. HO2017050001AG).
    [1]

    Mo Q Y, Zhao Y L 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 072902 (in Chinese)[莫秋燕, 赵彦立 2015 物理学报 60 072902]

    [2]

    Jovicic A, Li J, Richardson T, Research Q 2013 IEEE Commun. Mag. 51 26

    [3]

    Grobe L, Paraskevopoulos A, Hilt J, Schulz D, Lassak F, Hartlieb F, Kottke C, Jungnickel V, Langer K, Institute H H 2013 IEEE Commun. Mag. 51 60

    [4]

    Chai S R, Guo L X 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 060301 (in Chinese)[柴水荣, 郭立新 2015 物理学报 64 060301]

    [5]

    Ergul O, Dinc E, Akan O B 2015 Phys. Commun. 17 72

    [6]

    Vetelino F S, Young C, Andrews L, Recolons J 2007 Appl. Opt. 46 2099

    [7]

    Pang G, Kwan T, Chan C H, Liu H 1999 IEEE/IEEJ/JSAI International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems Proceedings Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 1999 p788

    [8]

    Zhu N, Zhong Q, Zhu J 2008 Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Ⅲ Hangzhou, China, October 26-30, 2008 p71350E-1

    [9]

    Kim H, Sewaiwar A, Chung Y H 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19 514

    [10]

    Kim H, Chung Y H 2015 J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng. 19 1773

    [11]

    Kim H J, Tiwari S V, Chung Y H 2016 Chin. Opt. Lett. 14 050607

    [12]

    Lin Y X, Ai Y, Shan X, Liu H Y 2014 J. Optoelectron. Laser 25 478 (in Chinese)[林贻翔, 艾勇, 单欣, 刘宏阳 2014 光电子·激光 25 478]

    [13]

    Safari M, Uysal M 2008 IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7 5441

    [14]

    Wang T Y, Zhuang S L 2009 International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology Shanghai, China, October 19-22, 2009 p251

    [15]

    Sewaiwar A, Han P P, Tiwari S V, Chung Y H 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19 74

    [16]

    Ghassemlooy Z, Popoola W, Rajbhandari S 2012 Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB (Florida: CRC Press) pp138-146

    [17]

    Grayshan K J, Vetelino F S, Young C Y 2008 Waves Random Complex Medium 18 173

    [18]

    Cheng M J, Guo L X, Zhang Y X 2015 Opt. Express 23 32606

    [19]

    Naboulsi M C A, Sizun H 2004 Opt. Eng. 43 319

    [20]

    Li Y Q, Wu Z S, Zhang Y Y, Zhang H L 2012 Adv. Mater. Res. 571 337

    [21]

    Gracheva M E, Gurvich A S 1965 Soviet Radiophys. 8 717

    [22]

    Cheng M J, Zhang Y X, Gao J, Wang F, Zhao F 2014 Appl. Opt. 53 4011

    [23]

    Tse D, Viswanath P 2005 Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p62

    [24]

    Li F 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China) (in Chinese)[李菲 2013 博士学位论文(合肥: 中国科学技术大学)]

  • [1]

    Mo Q Y, Zhao Y L 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 072902 (in Chinese)[莫秋燕, 赵彦立 2015 物理学报 60 072902]

    [2]

    Jovicic A, Li J, Richardson T, Research Q 2013 IEEE Commun. Mag. 51 26

    [3]

    Grobe L, Paraskevopoulos A, Hilt J, Schulz D, Lassak F, Hartlieb F, Kottke C, Jungnickel V, Langer K, Institute H H 2013 IEEE Commun. Mag. 51 60

    [4]

    Chai S R, Guo L X 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 060301 (in Chinese)[柴水荣, 郭立新 2015 物理学报 64 060301]

    [5]

    Ergul O, Dinc E, Akan O B 2015 Phys. Commun. 17 72

    [6]

    Vetelino F S, Young C, Andrews L, Recolons J 2007 Appl. Opt. 46 2099

    [7]

    Pang G, Kwan T, Chan C H, Liu H 1999 IEEE/IEEJ/JSAI International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems Proceedings Tokyo, Japan, October 5-8, 1999 p788

    [8]

    Zhu N, Zhong Q, Zhu J 2008 Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Ⅲ Hangzhou, China, October 26-30, 2008 p71350E-1

    [9]

    Kim H, Sewaiwar A, Chung Y H 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19 514

    [10]

    Kim H, Chung Y H 2015 J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng. 19 1773

    [11]

    Kim H J, Tiwari S V, Chung Y H 2016 Chin. Opt. Lett. 14 050607

    [12]

    Lin Y X, Ai Y, Shan X, Liu H Y 2014 J. Optoelectron. Laser 25 478 (in Chinese)[林贻翔, 艾勇, 单欣, 刘宏阳 2014 光电子·激光 25 478]

    [13]

    Safari M, Uysal M 2008 IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7 5441

    [14]

    Wang T Y, Zhuang S L 2009 International Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Technology Shanghai, China, October 19-22, 2009 p251

    [15]

    Sewaiwar A, Han P P, Tiwari S V, Chung Y H 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Korea 19 74

    [16]

    Ghassemlooy Z, Popoola W, Rajbhandari S 2012 Optical Wireless Communications System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB (Florida: CRC Press) pp138-146

    [17]

    Grayshan K J, Vetelino F S, Young C Y 2008 Waves Random Complex Medium 18 173

    [18]

    Cheng M J, Guo L X, Zhang Y X 2015 Opt. Express 23 32606

    [19]

    Naboulsi M C A, Sizun H 2004 Opt. Eng. 43 319

    [20]

    Li Y Q, Wu Z S, Zhang Y Y, Zhang H L 2012 Adv. Mater. Res. 571 337

    [21]

    Gracheva M E, Gurvich A S 1965 Soviet Radiophys. 8 717

    [22]

    Cheng M J, Zhang Y X, Gao J, Wang F, Zhao F 2014 Appl. Opt. 53 4011

    [23]

    Tse D, Viswanath P 2005 Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p62

    [24]

    Li F 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Hefei: University of Science and Technology of China) (in Chinese)[李菲 2013 博士学位论文(合肥: 中国科学技术大学)]

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  07 June 2018
  • Accepted Date:  04 August 2018
  • Published Online:  05 November 2018

Atmospheric channel model of maritime visible light communication based on repeated coding

    Corresponding author: Guo Li-Xin, lxguo@xidian.edu.cn
  • 1. School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China;
  • 2. State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Hefei 230037, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Key Industrial Innovation Chain Project in Industrial Domain of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2017ZDCXL-GY-06-02), the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, China (Grant No. SKL2016KF05), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. CJT150502), the Innovation Fund of Xidian University, China (Grant No. 20108183448), and the Huawei Innovation Research Program, China (Grant No. HO2017050001AG).

Abstract: Visible light communication (VLC) is a new type of wireless communication technology, and its applications in offshore ships and ship-shore lamp signal systems are drawing increasing attention as a supplement of communication net. In maritime environment, VLC system is affected by many factors, of which the wave fluctuation and atmospheric turbulence are the most noticeable. The turbulence will make signal intensity fluctuate randomly, and thus reducing the performance of VLC system operating in the atmosphere. To establish an effective VLC network in the actual marine environment, an effective channel transmission model needs to be established and used to study the performance of the maritime VLC link. Considering large aperture diameter receiver with the aperture averaging effect, log-normal distribution model is employed to deduce the mathematical expression of average bit error rate of maritime VLC system in atmospheric turbulence. By using time-diversity to transmit interleaved symbols with repeated coding in a maritime VLC system, it is possible to ensure that the code-word passes through multiple channels to resist the deep fade performance, and to reduce the bit error rate due to the occurrence of deep fading in a single channel. In the actual application process, in order to improve the system performance, the average signal-to-noise ratio usually increases with the transmission power increasing, but for a VLC system, there are some difficulties in making the high-power high-rate visible light transmitters. And the power will produce light pollution and even damage the naked eye. The implementation of the repetitive coding principle is simple, and in some special cases it is even better than the complex orthogonal space-time coding and other schemes, so studying the system performance of the repetitive coding scheme is of considerable value for practical application. Based on the modified Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, the effect of wave height, transmission distance, atmospheric turbulence intensity, receiver aperture size and visibility on the average bit error rate of VLC system are analyzed. The performance of the VLC system between lighthouse and ship is affected by the fluctuations of the sea waves, and the average bit error rate changes with randomness and complexity like the sea waves in a short distance. As the wind speed increases, the marine environment becomes worse and the average bit error rate is undulate. The average bit error rate of maritime VLC increases with the increasing of transmission distance and atmospheric turbulence intensity, and with the decreasing of receiver aperture size, wavelength and average signal-to-noise ratio. Atmospheric turbulence intensity and visibility have a significant effect on the system performance, and it should be emphatically considered to take measures to reduce the influence. Increasing receiver aperture and repetitive coding are effective to a certain extent. In the present work a new model is proposed for evaluating the performance of a maritime VLC system and providing reference for practical application.

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