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Investigation of copper precipitation in denuded zone in Czochralski silicon

Zhang Guang-Chao Xu Jin

Investigation of copper precipitation in denuded zone in Czochralski silicon

Zhang Guang-Chao, Xu Jin
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  • The precipitation behavior of copper in denuded zone (DZ) of Czochralski silicon has been systematically investigated by means of etching and optical microscopy (OM). Firstly, the samples were treated in a conventional furnace by high-low-high annealing for the formation of denuded zone. Subsequently, copper contamination was introduced at different temperatures. Finally, samples were treated with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and conventional furnace annealing separately. It was found that, copper precipitates could be observed in DZ through OM only in the samples which experienced RTA followed by contamination in 900 ℃ and 1100 ℃. This indicates that the out-diffusion of vacancy which is produced in the process of RTA is the main cause for the copper precipitation in DZ.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50902116), the Opening Project of State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials (Grant No. SKL2012-17), and the Prgram for New Century Excellent Talents in Fujian Province University.
    [1]

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    [2]

    Liu B C, Huang T Y 2006 China Materials Engineering Dictionary (Vol. 11) (beijing: Chemical Industry Press) p116-119 (in Chinese) [柳百成, 黄天佑 2006 中国材料工程大典(11 卷) (北京: 化学工业出版社) 第116–119页]

    [3]

    Bergholz W, Gilles D 2000 Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 5 222

    [4]

    Shimura F, Willardson R K 1994 Academic Press 41

    [5]

    Isomae S, Aoki S, Watanabe K 1983 J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 817

    [6]

    Broniatowski A 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 3074

    [7]

    Davis J R, Rohatgi A 1980 J. Cryst. Growth. 75 67

    [8]

    Bains S K, Griffiths D P, Wilkes J G, Series R W, Barraclough K G 1990 J. Electrochem. Soc. 137 647

    [9]

    Hamet J F, Abdelaoui R, Nouet G 1990 J. Appl. Phys. 68 638

    [10]

    Xu J, Li F L, Yang D R 2007 Acta Phy. Sin. 4113 56 (in Chinese) [徐进, 李福龙, 杨德仁 2007 物理学报 56 4113]

    [11]

    Zhu X, Yang D R, Li M, Chen T, Wang L, Que D L 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 651

    [12]

    Seibt M, Griess M, Istraov A A, Hedemann H, Sattler A 1998 Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 166 171

    [13]

    Istratov A A, Weber E R 1998 Appl. Phys. A 66 123

    [14]

    Sachdeva R, Istratov A A, Weber E R 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 2937

    [15]

    Istratov A A, Weber E R 2002 J. Electrochem. Soc. 79 2397

    [16]

    Goetzberger A, Shockley W 1960 J. Appl. Phys. 31 1821

    [17]

    Miyazaki M, Sano M, Sumita S, Fujino N 1991 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 L295

    [18]

    Honda K, Ohsawa A, Toyokura N 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 270

    [19]

    Hiramoto K, Sano M, Sadamitsu S, Fujino N 1989 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28 L2109

    [20]

    Wendt H, Cerva H, Lehmann V, Pamler W 1989 J. Appl. Phys. 65 2402

    [21]

    Istratov A A, Flink C, Hieslmair H 2000 Mater. Sci. Eng. B 72 99

    [22]

    Andrei A, Istratov A A, Weber E R 2002 J. Electrochem. Soc. G21 149

    [23]

    Xi Z Q, Yang D R, Xu J 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 3048

    [24]

    Istratova A A, Weber E R 1998 Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Pro. A66 123

    [25]

    Tan T Y, Gardner E E, Tice W K 1977 Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 175

    [26]

    Nakamura K, Saishoji T, Kubota T, Iida T, Shimanuki Y, Kotooka T 1997 J. Cryst. Growth. 180 31

    [27]

    Frewen T A, Sinno T 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 191903

    [28]

    Strunk H, Gosele U, Kolbesen B O 1979 Appl. Phys. Lett. 34 530

    [29]

    Cristiano F, Grisolia J, Colombeau B 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 8420

    [30]

    Wang Y Z, Wang N T, Ji C, Zhang G C, Xu J 2012 Acta Phy. Sin. 61 016105 (in Chinese) [王永志, 王娜婷, 吉川, 张光超, 徐进 2012 物理学报 61 016105]

  • [1]

    ThomPson S, Parthasarathy S 2006 MaterialsThday 9 20

    [2]

    Liu B C, Huang T Y 2006 China Materials Engineering Dictionary (Vol. 11) (beijing: Chemical Industry Press) p116-119 (in Chinese) [柳百成, 黄天佑 2006 中国材料工程大典(11 卷) (北京: 化学工业出版社) 第116–119页]

    [3]

    Bergholz W, Gilles D 2000 Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 5 222

    [4]

    Shimura F, Willardson R K 1994 Academic Press 41

    [5]

    Isomae S, Aoki S, Watanabe K 1983 J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 55 817

    [6]

    Broniatowski A 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 3074

    [7]

    Davis J R, Rohatgi A 1980 J. Cryst. Growth. 75 67

    [8]

    Bains S K, Griffiths D P, Wilkes J G, Series R W, Barraclough K G 1990 J. Electrochem. Soc. 137 647

    [9]

    Hamet J F, Abdelaoui R, Nouet G 1990 J. Appl. Phys. 68 638

    [10]

    Xu J, Li F L, Yang D R 2007 Acta Phy. Sin. 4113 56 (in Chinese) [徐进, 李福龙, 杨德仁 2007 物理学报 56 4113]

    [11]

    Zhu X, Yang D R, Li M, Chen T, Wang L, Que D L 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 651

    [12]

    Seibt M, Griess M, Istraov A A, Hedemann H, Sattler A 1998 Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 166 171

    [13]

    Istratov A A, Weber E R 1998 Appl. Phys. A 66 123

    [14]

    Sachdeva R, Istratov A A, Weber E R 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 2937

    [15]

    Istratov A A, Weber E R 2002 J. Electrochem. Soc. 79 2397

    [16]

    Goetzberger A, Shockley W 1960 J. Appl. Phys. 31 1821

    [17]

    Miyazaki M, Sano M, Sumita S, Fujino N 1991 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 L295

    [18]

    Honda K, Ohsawa A, Toyokura N 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 270

    [19]

    Hiramoto K, Sano M, Sadamitsu S, Fujino N 1989 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28 L2109

    [20]

    Wendt H, Cerva H, Lehmann V, Pamler W 1989 J. Appl. Phys. 65 2402

    [21]

    Istratov A A, Flink C, Hieslmair H 2000 Mater. Sci. Eng. B 72 99

    [22]

    Andrei A, Istratov A A, Weber E R 2002 J. Electrochem. Soc. G21 149

    [23]

    Xi Z Q, Yang D R, Xu J 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 3048

    [24]

    Istratova A A, Weber E R 1998 Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Pro. A66 123

    [25]

    Tan T Y, Gardner E E, Tice W K 1977 Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 175

    [26]

    Nakamura K, Saishoji T, Kubota T, Iida T, Shimanuki Y, Kotooka T 1997 J. Cryst. Growth. 180 31

    [27]

    Frewen T A, Sinno T 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 191903

    [28]

    Strunk H, Gosele U, Kolbesen B O 1979 Appl. Phys. Lett. 34 530

    [29]

    Cristiano F, Grisolia J, Colombeau B 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 8420

    [30]

    Wang Y Z, Wang N T, Ji C, Zhang G C, Xu J 2012 Acta Phy. Sin. 61 016105 (in Chinese) [王永志, 王娜婷, 吉川, 张光超, 徐进 2012 物理学报 61 016105]

  • [1] Wang Yong-Zhi, Xu Jin, Wang Na-Ting, Ji Chuan, Zhang Guang-Chao. Effect of copper precipitation on the formation of denuded zone in Czchralski silicon. Acta Physica Sinica, 2012, 61(1): 016105. doi: 10.7498/aps.61.016105
    [2] Ji Chuan, Xu Jin. Effect of point defects on copper precipitation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon p/p+ epitaxial wafer. Acta Physica Sinica, 2012, 61(23): 236102. doi: 10.7498/aps.61.236102
    [3] BA TU, HE YI-ZHEN. MORPHOLOGY OF THE COPPER PRECIPITATES IN SILICON SINGLE CRYSTALS. Acta Physica Sinica, 1980, 178(7): 860-866. doi: 10.7498/aps.29.860
    [4] Wu Tai-Quan. Ge-vacancy complexes in Ge-doped czochralski silicon crystal. Acta Physica Sinica, 2012, 61(6): 063101. doi: 10.7498/aps.61.063101
    [5] Xu Jin, Li Fu-Long, Yang De-Ren. Grown-in oxygen precipitates in czochralski silicon investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Acta Physica Sinica, 2007, 56(7): 4113-4116. doi: 10.7498/aps.56.4113
    [6] Ma Xiang-Yang, Yang De-Ren, Cui Can. Effect of ramping from low temperatures on oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon. Acta Physica Sinica, 2008, 57(2): 1037-1042. doi: 10.7498/aps.57.1037
    [7] Jiang Le, Yang De-Ren, Yu Xue-Gong, Ma Xiang-Yang, Xu Jin, Que Duan-Lin. Effect of nitrogen on oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon during high-te mperature annealing. Acta Physica Sinica, 2003, 52(8): 2000-2004. doi: 10.7498/aps.52.2000
    [8] GAO YU-ZUN. TEM INVESTIGATION OF OXYGEN PRECIPITATES AND INDUCED DEFECTS IN ANNEALED CZ-Si SINGLE CRYSTAL. Acta Physica Sinica, 1984, 33(6): 840-844. doi: 10.7498/aps.33.840
    [9] CHEN MIN-RUI, SHEN YI-HUI, LIU SHI-YI. A STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF Au-DOPED SILICON. Acta Physica Sinica, 1992, 41(3): 491-499. doi: 10.7498/aps.41.491
    [10] GE CHUAN-ZHEN, XU XIU-YING, FENG DUAN. THE NEEDLE-LIKE STRESS ZONES AND DISLOCATIONS DUE TO CONSTITUTIONAL SUPERCOOLING IN CZOCHRALSKI METHOD-GROWN YAG SINGLE CRYSTALS. Acta Physica Sinica, 1981, 30(2): 218-223. doi: 10.7498/aps.30.218
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  • Received Date:  17 August 2012
  • Accepted Date:  26 November 2012
  • Published Online:  05 April 2013

Investigation of copper precipitation in denuded zone in Czochralski silicon

  • 1. College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China;
  • 2. State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50902116), the Opening Project of State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials (Grant No. SKL2012-17), and the Prgram for New Century Excellent Talents in Fujian Province University.

Abstract: The precipitation behavior of copper in denuded zone (DZ) of Czochralski silicon has been systematically investigated by means of etching and optical microscopy (OM). Firstly, the samples were treated in a conventional furnace by high-low-high annealing for the formation of denuded zone. Subsequently, copper contamination was introduced at different temperatures. Finally, samples were treated with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and conventional furnace annealing separately. It was found that, copper precipitates could be observed in DZ through OM only in the samples which experienced RTA followed by contamination in 900 ℃ and 1100 ℃. This indicates that the out-diffusion of vacancy which is produced in the process of RTA is the main cause for the copper precipitation in DZ.

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