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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on GaN crystal irradiated by slow highly charged ions

Zhang Chong-Hong Zhang Li-Qing Song Yin Sun You-Mei Han Lu-Hui Yang Yi-Tao

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on GaN crystal irradiated by slow highly charged ions

Zhang Chong-Hong, Zhang Li-Qing, Song Yin, Sun You-Mei, Han Lu-Hui, Yang Yi-Tao
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  • We utilize slow highly charged ions of Xeq+ and Pbq+ to irradiate GaN crystal films grown on sapphire substrate, and use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze its surface chemical composition and chemical state of the elements. The results show that highly charged ions can etch the sample surface obviously, and the GaN sample irradiated by highly charged ions has N depletion or is Ga rich on its surface. Besides,the relative content of Ga—Ga bond increases as the dose and charge state of the incident ions increase. In addition, the binding energy of Ga 3d5/2 electrons corresponding to Ga—Ga bond of the irradiated GaN sample is smaller compared with that of the Ga bulk material. This can be attributed to the lattice damage, which shifts the binding energy of inner orbital electrons to the lower end.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Zhou Y, Ahyi C, Isaacs-Smith T, Bozack M, Tin C C, Williams J, Park M, Cheng A, Park J H, Kim D J, Wang D, Preble E A, Hanser A, Evans K 2008 Sol. St. Elec. 52 756

    [2]

    Kong M Y, Zhang J P, Wang X L, Sun D Z 2001 J.Cryst.Growth 227—228 371

    [3]

    Yang Y T, Zhang C H, Sun Y M, Yao C F, Zhao Z M 2007 Nucl.Technol. 30 318 (in Chinese) [杨义涛、张崇宏、孙友梅、姚存峰、赵志明 2007 核技术 30 318]

    [4]

    Pearton S J, Abernathy C R, Wilson R G, Zavada J M, Song C Y, Weinstein M G, Stavola M, Han J, Shul R J 1999 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 147 171

    [5]

    Kucheyev S O, Williams J S, Jagadish C, Zou J, Li G 2000 Phys. Rev.B 62 7510

    [6]

    Meng K, Jiang S L, Hou L N, Li C, Wang K, Ding Z B, Yao S D 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 2476 (in Chinese) [蒙 康、姜森林、侯利娜、李 婵、王 坤、丁志博、姚淑德 2006 物理学报 55 2476]

    [7]

    Arnau A, Aumayr F, Echenique P M, Grether M, Heiland W, Limburg J, Morgenstern R, Roncin P, Schippers S, Schuch R, Stolterfoht N, Varga P, Zouros T J M, Winter H P 1997 Surf. Sci. Rep. 27 113

    [8]

    Aumayr F, El-Said A S, Meissl W 2008 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 266 2729

    [9]

    Burgdrfer J, Lerner P, Meyer F W 1991 Phys. Rev. A 44 5674

    [10]

    Parks D C, Stckli M P, Bell E W, Ratliff L P, Schmieder R W, Serpa F G, Gillaspy J D 1998 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 134 46

    [11]

    Schenkel T, Barnes A V, Hamza A V, Schneider D H, Banks J C, Doyle B L 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 4325

    [12]

    Wang Y Y, Zhao Y T, Xiao G Q,Fang Y, Zhang X A, Wang T S, Wang S W, Peng H B 2006 Acta Phys.Sin. 55 673 (in Chinese) [王瑜玉、赵永涛、肖国青、房 燕、张小安、王铁山、王释伟、彭海波 2006物理学报 55 673]

    [13]

    Zhang X A, Xiao G Q,Wang W S, Mao R S 2002 Nucl.Phys.Rev. 19 342 (in Chinese) [张小安、肖国青、王武生、毛瑞士 2002 原子核物理评论 19 342]

    [14]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Li B S, Jin Y F, Sun Y M, Song S J 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 2670

    [15]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Sun Y M, Li B S, Zhao Z M, Song S J 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 5578 (in Chinese) [张丽卿、张崇宏、杨义涛、姚存峰、孙友梅、李炳生、赵志明、宋书健 2009物理学报 58 5578 ]

    [16]

    Ould-Metidji Y, Bideux L, Baca D, Gruzza B, Matolin V 2003 Appl. Surf. Sci. 212 614

    [17]

    Sidorenko A, Peisert H, Neumann H, Chassé T 2007 Surf. Sci. 601 4521

    [18]

    Wolter S D, DeLucca J M, Mohney S E, Kern R S, Kuo C P 2000 Thin Solid Films 371 153

    [19]

    Anantathanasarn S, Ootomo S, Hashizume T, Hasegawa H 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci.159 456

    [20]

    Sidorenko A, Peisert H, Neumann H, Chassé T 2006 Surf. Sci. 252 7671

    [21]

    Liu K T, Su Y K, Chuang R W, Chang S J, Horikoshi Y 2006 Microelectr. J. 37 417

    [22]

    Bermudez V M, Koleske D D, Wickenden A E 1998 Appl. Surf. Sci. 126 69

    [23]

    Ding W Y, Xu J, Lu W Q, Deng X L, Dong C 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 4109 (in Chinese) [丁万昱、徐 军、陆文琪、邓新绿、董 闯 2009物理学报 58 4109 ]

    [24]

    Ma G L, Zhang Y M, Zhang Y M, Ma Z F 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4119 (in Chinese) [马格林、张玉明、张义门、马仲发 2008物理学报 57 4119 ]

    [25]

    Matolín V, Fabík S, Glosík J, Bideux L, Ould-Metidji Y, Gruzza B 2004 Vacuum 76 471

    [26]

    Zhang C H, Song Y, Sun Y M, Chen H, Yang Y T, Zhou L H, Jin Y F 2007 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 256 199

    [27]

    Neugebauer J, Zywietz T, Scheffler M, Northrup J 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 159—160 355

    [28]

    Wang C, Hao Y, Feng Q, Guo L L 2006 Semiconductor Technology 31 409 (in Chinese) [王 冲、郝 跃、冯 倩、郭亮良 2006 半导体技术 31 409]

    [29]

    Lee J M, Chang K M, Kim S W, Huh C, Lee I H, Park S J 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 7667

    [30]

    Feenstra R M, Chen H J, Ramachandran V, Smith A R, Greve D W 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 166 165

    [31]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Li B S, Sun Y M, Song S J 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 036101

    [32]

    Oya Y, Miyauchi H, Suda T, Nishikawa Y, Yoshikawa A, Tanaka S, Okuno K 2007 Fusion Eng.Des. 82 2582

  • [1]

    Zhou Y, Ahyi C, Isaacs-Smith T, Bozack M, Tin C C, Williams J, Park M, Cheng A, Park J H, Kim D J, Wang D, Preble E A, Hanser A, Evans K 2008 Sol. St. Elec. 52 756

    [2]

    Kong M Y, Zhang J P, Wang X L, Sun D Z 2001 J.Cryst.Growth 227—228 371

    [3]

    Yang Y T, Zhang C H, Sun Y M, Yao C F, Zhao Z M 2007 Nucl.Technol. 30 318 (in Chinese) [杨义涛、张崇宏、孙友梅、姚存峰、赵志明 2007 核技术 30 318]

    [4]

    Pearton S J, Abernathy C R, Wilson R G, Zavada J M, Song C Y, Weinstein M G, Stavola M, Han J, Shul R J 1999 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 147 171

    [5]

    Kucheyev S O, Williams J S, Jagadish C, Zou J, Li G 2000 Phys. Rev.B 62 7510

    [6]

    Meng K, Jiang S L, Hou L N, Li C, Wang K, Ding Z B, Yao S D 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 2476 (in Chinese) [蒙 康、姜森林、侯利娜、李 婵、王 坤、丁志博、姚淑德 2006 物理学报 55 2476]

    [7]

    Arnau A, Aumayr F, Echenique P M, Grether M, Heiland W, Limburg J, Morgenstern R, Roncin P, Schippers S, Schuch R, Stolterfoht N, Varga P, Zouros T J M, Winter H P 1997 Surf. Sci. Rep. 27 113

    [8]

    Aumayr F, El-Said A S, Meissl W 2008 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 266 2729

    [9]

    Burgdrfer J, Lerner P, Meyer F W 1991 Phys. Rev. A 44 5674

    [10]

    Parks D C, Stckli M P, Bell E W, Ratliff L P, Schmieder R W, Serpa F G, Gillaspy J D 1998 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 134 46

    [11]

    Schenkel T, Barnes A V, Hamza A V, Schneider D H, Banks J C, Doyle B L 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 4325

    [12]

    Wang Y Y, Zhao Y T, Xiao G Q,Fang Y, Zhang X A, Wang T S, Wang S W, Peng H B 2006 Acta Phys.Sin. 55 673 (in Chinese) [王瑜玉、赵永涛、肖国青、房 燕、张小安、王铁山、王释伟、彭海波 2006物理学报 55 673]

    [13]

    Zhang X A, Xiao G Q,Wang W S, Mao R S 2002 Nucl.Phys.Rev. 19 342 (in Chinese) [张小安、肖国青、王武生、毛瑞士 2002 原子核物理评论 19 342]

    [14]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Li B S, Jin Y F, Sun Y M, Song S J 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 2670

    [15]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Sun Y M, Li B S, Zhao Z M, Song S J 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 5578 (in Chinese) [张丽卿、张崇宏、杨义涛、姚存峰、孙友梅、李炳生、赵志明、宋书健 2009物理学报 58 5578 ]

    [16]

    Ould-Metidji Y, Bideux L, Baca D, Gruzza B, Matolin V 2003 Appl. Surf. Sci. 212 614

    [17]

    Sidorenko A, Peisert H, Neumann H, Chassé T 2007 Surf. Sci. 601 4521

    [18]

    Wolter S D, DeLucca J M, Mohney S E, Kern R S, Kuo C P 2000 Thin Solid Films 371 153

    [19]

    Anantathanasarn S, Ootomo S, Hashizume T, Hasegawa H 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci.159 456

    [20]

    Sidorenko A, Peisert H, Neumann H, Chassé T 2006 Surf. Sci. 252 7671

    [21]

    Liu K T, Su Y K, Chuang R W, Chang S J, Horikoshi Y 2006 Microelectr. J. 37 417

    [22]

    Bermudez V M, Koleske D D, Wickenden A E 1998 Appl. Surf. Sci. 126 69

    [23]

    Ding W Y, Xu J, Lu W Q, Deng X L, Dong C 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 4109 (in Chinese) [丁万昱、徐 军、陆文琪、邓新绿、董 闯 2009物理学报 58 4109 ]

    [24]

    Ma G L, Zhang Y M, Zhang Y M, Ma Z F 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4119 (in Chinese) [马格林、张玉明、张义门、马仲发 2008物理学报 57 4119 ]

    [25]

    Matolín V, Fabík S, Glosík J, Bideux L, Ould-Metidji Y, Gruzza B 2004 Vacuum 76 471

    [26]

    Zhang C H, Song Y, Sun Y M, Chen H, Yang Y T, Zhou L H, Jin Y F 2007 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 256 199

    [27]

    Neugebauer J, Zywietz T, Scheffler M, Northrup J 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 159—160 355

    [28]

    Wang C, Hao Y, Feng Q, Guo L L 2006 Semiconductor Technology 31 409 (in Chinese) [王 冲、郝 跃、冯 倩、郭亮良 2006 半导体技术 31 409]

    [29]

    Lee J M, Chang K M, Kim S W, Huh C, Lee I H, Park S J 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 7667

    [30]

    Feenstra R M, Chen H J, Ramachandran V, Smith A R, Greve D W 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 166 165

    [31]

    Zhang L Q, Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Yao C F, Li B S, Sun Y M, Song S J 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 036101

    [32]

    Oya Y, Miyauchi H, Suda T, Nishikawa Y, Yoshikawa A, Tanaka S, Okuno K 2007 Fusion Eng.Des. 82 2582

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  • Received Date:  22 August 2009
  • Accepted Date:  30 October 2009
  • Published Online:  15 July 2010

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on GaN crystal irradiated by slow highly charged ions

  • 1. (1)Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; (2)Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Abstract: We utilize slow highly charged ions of Xeq+ and Pbq+ to irradiate GaN crystal films grown on sapphire substrate, and use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze its surface chemical composition and chemical state of the elements. The results show that highly charged ions can etch the sample surface obviously, and the GaN sample irradiated by highly charged ions has N depletion or is Ga rich on its surface. Besides,the relative content of Ga—Ga bond increases as the dose and charge state of the incident ions increase. In addition, the binding energy of Ga 3d5/2 electrons corresponding to Ga—Ga bond of the irradiated GaN sample is smaller compared with that of the Ga bulk material. This can be attributed to the lattice damage, which shifts the binding energy of inner orbital electrons to the lower end.

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