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Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines Progress of negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

Fu Xiao-Qian Chang Ben-Kang Li Biao Wang Xiao-Hui Qiao Jian-Liang

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines Progress of negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

Fu Xiao-Qian, Chang Ben-Kang, Li Biao, Wang Xiao-Hui, Qiao Jian-Liang
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  • GaN is becoming a promising material in ultraviolet detection and vacuum electronic source field for its good performance. High quantum efficiencies of greater than 70% and 30% have been achieved for the opaque mode and transparent mode GaN photocathode, respectively. This paper reviews the progress of GaN photocahtode in three important fields,including structure design, surface cleaning and Cs/O activation, analyzes the key factors influencing the quantum efficiency, and evaluates the prospect for its development.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Uchiiyama S, Takagi Y, Niigaki M, Kan H 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 103511

    [2]

    Siegmund O,Vallerga J, McPhate J,Malloy J,Tremsin A, Martin A,Ulmer M, Wessels B 2006 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 567 89

    [3]

    Leopold D J, Buckley J H,Rebillot P 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 043525

    [4]

    Siegmund O, Tremsin A ,Vallerga J, McPhatea J, Hull J, Malloy J, Dabiran A 2008 Proc. SPIE 7021 70211B-1

    [5]

    Siegmund O H W, Tremsin A S, Martin A, Malloy J, Ulmer M, Wessels B 2003 Proc. SPIE 5164 134

    [6]

    Ulmer M P, Wessels B W, Han B, Gregie J, Tremsin A,Siegmund O H W 2003 Proc. SPIE 5164 144

    [7]

    Stock J, Hilton G, Norton T, Woodgate B, Aslam S, Ulmer M 2005 Proc. SPIE 5898 58980F-1

    [8]

    Mizuno I, Nihashi T, Nagai T, Niigaki M, Shimizu Y, Shimano K, Katoh K, Ihara T, Okano K, Matsumoto M, Tachino M 2008 Proc. SPIE 6945 69451N

    [9]

    Fuke S, Sumiy M, Nihashi T, Hagino M, Matsumoto M, Kamo Y, Sato M, Ohtsuka K 2008 Proc. SPIE 6894 68941F-1

    [10]

    Liliental-Weber Z, Jasinski J, Zakharov D N 2004 Opto- Electron. Rev. 12 339

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    Liang C G, Zhang J 1999 Chin. J.Semi. 20 89 (in Chinese) [梁春广、张 冀 1999 半导体学报 20 89]

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    Feng Q, Hao Y, Zhang X J, Liu Y L 2004 Acta Phys.Sin. 53 626 (in Chinese) [冯 倩、郝 跃、张晓菊、刘玉龙 2004 物理学报 53 626]

    [13]

    Hu Y F, Beling C D 2005 Chin.Phys. 14 2293

    [14]

    Peng D S, Feng Y C, Wang W X, Liu X F, Shi W, Niu H B 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 3606 (in Chinese) [彭冬生、冯玉春、王文欣、刘晓峰、施 炜、牛憨笨 2006 物理学报 55 3606]

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    Dikme Y, Gemmern P van,Chai B, Hill D, Szymakowski A, Kalisch H,Heuken M, Jansen R H 2005 Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 2 2161

    [16]

    Duan S K, Teng X G, Han P D, Lu D C 1998 J. Cryst. Growth 195 304

    [17]

    Doolittle William A, Kang Sangbeom, Brown April 2000 Solid-State Electron. 44 229

    [18]

    Nakamura S 1991 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 1705

    [19]

    Zou Ju, Liu C X, Zhou S M,Wang J, Zhou J H, Huang T H,Han P, Xie Z L, Zhang R 2006 Chin. Phys. 15 2706

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    Vispute R D, Talyansky V, Trajanovic Z, Choopun S, Downes M, Sharma R P,Venkatesan T,Woods M C, Lareau R T, Jones K A, Iliadis A A 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 2735

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    Horie M, Ishihara Y, Uamamoto J, Kurimoto M,Takano Tand, Kawanishi H 2002 Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 192 151

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    Wu Y X,Zhu J J, Chen G F, Zhang S M, Jiang D S, Liu Z S,Zhao D G, Wang H, Wang Y T, Yang H 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 036801

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    Liu Z, Wang X L, Wang J X, Hu G X, Guo L C, Li J M 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 1467

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    Ding Z B, Yao S D, Wang K, Cheng K 2006 Acta Phys.Sin. 55 2977( in Chinese) [丁志博、姚淑德、王 坤、 程 凯 2006 物理学报 55 2977]

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    Huang S R, Chen Z 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 4596 (in Chinese) [黄生荣、陈 朝 2007 物理学报 56 4596]

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    Yang Z, Chang B K, Zou J J, Qiao J L, Gao P, Zeng Y P, Li H 2007 Appl. Opt. 46 7035

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    Du X Q, Chang B K, Zou J J, Li M 2005 Acta Opt. Sin. 25 1411 (in Chinese) [杜晓晴、常本康、邹继军、李 敏 2005 光学学报 25 1411]

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    Zhang Y J, Chang B K, Yang Z, Niu J, Xiong Y J, Shi F, Guo H, Zeng Y P 2009 Appl. Opt. 48 1715

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    Niu J, Yang Z, Chang B K 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 104202

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    Niu J, Zhang Y J, Chang B K, Yang Z, XiongY J 2009 Appl. Opt. 48 5445

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    Zhang Y J, Chang BK, Yang Z,Niu J, Zou J J 2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 4541

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    Korotkov R Y, Gregie J M, Wessels B W 2002 Opto-Electron. Rev. 10 243

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    Kipshidze G, Kuryatkov V, Borisov B, Kudryavtsev Yu, Asomoza R, Nikishin S, Temkin H 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 2910

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    Pankove J. I, Torvik J. T, Qiu C. H, Grzegory I,Porowski S,Quigley P,Martin B 1999 Appl Phys. Lett. 74 416

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    Korotkov R Y, Gregie J M, Wessels B W 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 222

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    Ploog K ,Brandt O 1998 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16 1609

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    Wang H B, Liu J P, Niu N H, Shen G D, Zhang S M 2007 J. Cryst. Growth 304 7

    [39]

    Xing Y H, Han J, Liu J P, Niu N H, Deng J, Li T, Shen G D 2008 Vacuum 82 1

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    Wegscheider M, Simbrunner C, Li T, Jakie R, Navarro-Quezada A, Quast M, Sitter H, Bonanni A 2008 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 731

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    Li T, Wang H B,Liu J P, Niu N H, Zhang N G, Xing Y H, Han J, Liu Y, Gao G,Shen G D 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 1036 (in Chinese) [李 彤、王怀兵、刘建平、牛南辉、张念国、邢艳辉、韩 军、刘 莹、高 国、沈光地 2007 物理学报 56 1036]

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    Zhang J C, Hao Y, Li P X, Fan L, Feng Q 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 1243 (in Chinese) [张进城、郝 跃、李培咸、范 隆、冯 倩 2004 物理学报 53 1243]

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    Du X Q 2010 Optics and Optoelectronic Technology 8 76 ( in Chinese) [杜晓晴 2010 光学与光电技术 8 76]

    [44]

    Bandic Z Z, Bridger P M, Piquette E C, McGill T C 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 3276

    [45]

    Kumakura K, Makimoto T, Kobayashi N, Hashizume T, Fukui T, Hasegawa H 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 052105

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    Machuca F, Sun Y, Liu Z, Ioakeimidi K, Pianetta P, Pease R F W 2000 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 3042

    [47]

    Zhou M, Zhao D G 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4570 (in Chinese) [周 梅、赵德刚 2008 物理学报 57 4570]

    [48]

    Zhou M, Zhao D G 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 7255 (in Chinese) [周 梅、赵德刚 2009 物理学报 58 7255]

    [49]

    Machuca F, Liu Z, Sun Y, Pianetta P, Spicer W E, Pease R F W 2002 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20 1784

    [50]

    Smith L L, King S W, Nemanich R J, Davis R. F 1996 J. Electron. Mater. 25 805

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    Tracy K M, Mecouch W J, Davis R F 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 94 3163

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    Hunt R W,Vanzettia L, Castroa T, Chen K M, Sorb L, Cohen P I,Gladfelter W, Van Hove J M, Kuznia J N, Asif Khan M, Franciosi A 1993 Physica B 185 415

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    Lai Y H, Yeh C T, Hwang J M, Hwang H L, Chen C T,Hung W H 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 10029

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    Fisher D G 1974 IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21 541

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    Stocker B J 1975 Surf. Sci. 47 501

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    Du X Q 2010 Acta Opt. Sin. 37 385 ( in Chinese) [杜晓晴 2010 光学学报 37 385]

    [57]

    Mulhollan G A, Bierman J C U. S. Patent 2009/0322222A1

    [58]

    Zou J J, Chang B K, Du X Q, Chen H L, Wang H, Gao P 2006 Acta Photon. Sin. 35 1493( in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杜晓晴、陈怀林、王 惠、高 频 2006 光子学报 35 1493]

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    Yang Z, Niu J, Qian Y S, Chang B K, Shi F, Zhang Y J, Qiao J L, Xiong Y J, Gao P 2009 Chin. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 29 669 (in Chinese) [杨 智、牛 军、钱芸生、常本康、石 峰、张益军、乔建良、熊雅娟、高 频 2009 真空科学与技术学报 29 669]

    [60]

    Machuca F 2003 Ph. D. Dissertation ( Stanford:Stanford University) p83

    [61]

    Wu C I ,Kahn A 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 162 250

    [62]

    Qiao J L, Chang B K, Du X Q, Niu J, Zou J J 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 855 (in Chinese) [乔建良、常本康、杜晓晴、牛 军、 邹继军 2010 物理学报 59 855] [63] Madelung O 1991 Data in Science and Technology: Semiconductors-Group Ⅳ Elements and Ⅲ-Ⅴ Compounds (Berlin:Springer)p5—150

    [63]

    Wang R Z, Wang B, Wang H, Zhou H, Huang A P,Zhu M K,Yan H, Yan X H 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 2782

    [64]

    LiuY Z, Wang Z C, Dong Y Q 1995 Electronic emission and photocathode ( Beijing: Beijing Institue of Technology Press) p310 ( in Chinese) [刘元震、王仲春、董亚强 1995 电子发射与光电阴极 (北京: 北京理工大学出版社) 第310页]

  • [1]

    Uchiiyama S, Takagi Y, Niigaki M, Kan H 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 103511

    [2]

    Siegmund O,Vallerga J, McPhate J,Malloy J,Tremsin A, Martin A,Ulmer M, Wessels B 2006 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 567 89

    [3]

    Leopold D J, Buckley J H,Rebillot P 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 043525

    [4]

    Siegmund O, Tremsin A ,Vallerga J, McPhatea J, Hull J, Malloy J, Dabiran A 2008 Proc. SPIE 7021 70211B-1

    [5]

    Siegmund O H W, Tremsin A S, Martin A, Malloy J, Ulmer M, Wessels B 2003 Proc. SPIE 5164 134

    [6]

    Ulmer M P, Wessels B W, Han B, Gregie J, Tremsin A,Siegmund O H W 2003 Proc. SPIE 5164 144

    [7]

    Stock J, Hilton G, Norton T, Woodgate B, Aslam S, Ulmer M 2005 Proc. SPIE 5898 58980F-1

    [8]

    Mizuno I, Nihashi T, Nagai T, Niigaki M, Shimizu Y, Shimano K, Katoh K, Ihara T, Okano K, Matsumoto M, Tachino M 2008 Proc. SPIE 6945 69451N

    [9]

    Fuke S, Sumiy M, Nihashi T, Hagino M, Matsumoto M, Kamo Y, Sato M, Ohtsuka K 2008 Proc. SPIE 6894 68941F-1

    [10]

    Liliental-Weber Z, Jasinski J, Zakharov D N 2004 Opto- Electron. Rev. 12 339

    [11]

    Liang C G, Zhang J 1999 Chin. J.Semi. 20 89 (in Chinese) [梁春广、张 冀 1999 半导体学报 20 89]

    [12]

    Feng Q, Hao Y, Zhang X J, Liu Y L 2004 Acta Phys.Sin. 53 626 (in Chinese) [冯 倩、郝 跃、张晓菊、刘玉龙 2004 物理学报 53 626]

    [13]

    Hu Y F, Beling C D 2005 Chin.Phys. 14 2293

    [14]

    Peng D S, Feng Y C, Wang W X, Liu X F, Shi W, Niu H B 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 3606 (in Chinese) [彭冬生、冯玉春、王文欣、刘晓峰、施 炜、牛憨笨 2006 物理学报 55 3606]

    [15]

    Dikme Y, Gemmern P van,Chai B, Hill D, Szymakowski A, Kalisch H,Heuken M, Jansen R H 2005 Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 2 2161

    [16]

    Duan S K, Teng X G, Han P D, Lu D C 1998 J. Cryst. Growth 195 304

    [17]

    Doolittle William A, Kang Sangbeom, Brown April 2000 Solid-State Electron. 44 229

    [18]

    Nakamura S 1991 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 1705

    [19]

    Zou Ju, Liu C X, Zhou S M,Wang J, Zhou J H, Huang T H,Han P, Xie Z L, Zhang R 2006 Chin. Phys. 15 2706

    [20]

    Vispute R D, Talyansky V, Trajanovic Z, Choopun S, Downes M, Sharma R P,Venkatesan T,Woods M C, Lareau R T, Jones K A, Iliadis A A 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 2735

    [21]

    Sun X W, Xiao R F, Kwok H. S 1998 J. Appl. Phys. 84 5776

    [22]

    Horie M, Ishihara Y, Uamamoto J, Kurimoto M,Takano Tand, Kawanishi H 2002 Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 192 151

    [23]

    Wu Y X,Zhu J J, Chen G F, Zhang S M, Jiang D S, Liu Z S,Zhao D G, Wang H, Wang Y T, Yang H 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 036801

    [24]

    Liu Z, Wang X L, Wang J X, Hu G X, Guo L C, Li J M 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 1467

    [25]

    Ding Z B, Yao S D, Wang K, Cheng K 2006 Acta Phys.Sin. 55 2977( in Chinese) [丁志博、姚淑德、王 坤、 程 凯 2006 物理学报 55 2977]

    [26]

    Huang S R, Chen Z 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 4596 (in Chinese) [黄生荣、陈 朝 2007 物理学报 56 4596]

    [27]

    Yang Z, Chang B K, Zou J J, Qiao J L, Gao P, Zeng Y P, Li H 2007 Appl. Opt. 46 7035

    [28]

    Du X Q, Chang B K, Zou J J, Li M 2005 Acta Opt. Sin. 25 1411 (in Chinese) [杜晓晴、常本康、邹继军、李 敏 2005 光学学报 25 1411]

    [29]

    Zhang Y J, Chang B K, Yang Z, Niu J, Xiong Y J, Shi F, Guo H, Zeng Y P 2009 Appl. Opt. 48 1715

    [30]

    Niu J, Yang Z, Chang B K 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 104202

    [31]

    Niu J, Zhang Y J, Chang B K, Yang Z, XiongY J 2009 Appl. Opt. 48 5445

    [32]

    Zhang Y J, Chang BK, Yang Z,Niu J, Zou J J 2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 4541

    [33]

    Korotkov R Y, Gregie J M, Wessels B W 2002 Opto-Electron. Rev. 10 243

    [34]

    Kipshidze G, Kuryatkov V, Borisov B, Kudryavtsev Yu, Asomoza R, Nikishin S, Temkin H 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 2910

    [35]

    Pankove J. I, Torvik J. T, Qiu C. H, Grzegory I,Porowski S,Quigley P,Martin B 1999 Appl Phys. Lett. 74 416

    [36]

    Korotkov R Y, Gregie J M, Wessels B W 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 222

    [37]

    Ploog K ,Brandt O 1998 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16 1609

    [38]

    Wang H B, Liu J P, Niu N H, Shen G D, Zhang S M 2007 J. Cryst. Growth 304 7

    [39]

    Xing Y H, Han J, Liu J P, Niu N H, Deng J, Li T, Shen G D 2008 Vacuum 82 1

    [40]

    Wegscheider M, Simbrunner C, Li T, Jakie R, Navarro-Quezada A, Quast M, Sitter H, Bonanni A 2008 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 731

    [41]

    Li T, Wang H B,Liu J P, Niu N H, Zhang N G, Xing Y H, Han J, Liu Y, Gao G,Shen G D 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 1036 (in Chinese) [李 彤、王怀兵、刘建平、牛南辉、张念国、邢艳辉、韩 军、刘 莹、高 国、沈光地 2007 物理学报 56 1036]

    [42]

    Zhang J C, Hao Y, Li P X, Fan L, Feng Q 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 1243 (in Chinese) [张进城、郝 跃、李培咸、范 隆、冯 倩 2004 物理学报 53 1243]

    [43]

    Du X Q 2010 Optics and Optoelectronic Technology 8 76 ( in Chinese) [杜晓晴 2010 光学与光电技术 8 76]

    [44]

    Bandic Z Z, Bridger P M, Piquette E C, McGill T C 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 3276

    [45]

    Kumakura K, Makimoto T, Kobayashi N, Hashizume T, Fukui T, Hasegawa H 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 052105

    [46]

    Machuca F, Sun Y, Liu Z, Ioakeimidi K, Pianetta P, Pease R F W 2000 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 3042

    [47]

    Zhou M, Zhao D G 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4570 (in Chinese) [周 梅、赵德刚 2008 物理学报 57 4570]

    [48]

    Zhou M, Zhao D G 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 7255 (in Chinese) [周 梅、赵德刚 2009 物理学报 58 7255]

    [49]

    Machuca F, Liu Z, Sun Y, Pianetta P, Spicer W E, Pease R F W 2002 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20 1784

    [50]

    Smith L L, King S W, Nemanich R J, Davis R. F 1996 J. Electron. Mater. 25 805

    [51]

    Tracy K M, Mecouch W J, Davis R F 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 94 3163

    [52]

    Hunt R W,Vanzettia L, Castroa T, Chen K M, Sorb L, Cohen P I,Gladfelter W, Van Hove J M, Kuznia J N, Asif Khan M, Franciosi A 1993 Physica B 185 415

    [53]

    Lai Y H, Yeh C T, Hwang J M, Hwang H L, Chen C T,Hung W H 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 10029

    [54]

    Fisher D G 1974 IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 21 541

    [55]

    Stocker B J 1975 Surf. Sci. 47 501

    [56]

    Du X Q 2010 Acta Opt. Sin. 37 385 ( in Chinese) [杜晓晴 2010 光学学报 37 385]

    [57]

    Mulhollan G A, Bierman J C U. S. Patent 2009/0322222A1

    [58]

    Zou J J, Chang B K, Du X Q, Chen H L, Wang H, Gao P 2006 Acta Photon. Sin. 35 1493( in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杜晓晴、陈怀林、王 惠、高 频 2006 光子学报 35 1493]

    [59]

    Yang Z, Niu J, Qian Y S, Chang B K, Shi F, Zhang Y J, Qiao J L, Xiong Y J, Gao P 2009 Chin. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 29 669 (in Chinese) [杨 智、牛 军、钱芸生、常本康、石 峰、张益军、乔建良、熊雅娟、高 频 2009 真空科学与技术学报 29 669]

    [60]

    Machuca F 2003 Ph. D. Dissertation ( Stanford:Stanford University) p83

    [61]

    Wu C I ,Kahn A 2000 Appl. Surf. Sci. 162 250

    [62]

    Qiao J L, Chang B K, Du X Q, Niu J, Zou J J 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 855 (in Chinese) [乔建良、常本康、杜晓晴、牛 军、 邹继军 2010 物理学报 59 855] [63] Madelung O 1991 Data in Science and Technology: Semiconductors-Group Ⅳ Elements and Ⅲ-Ⅴ Compounds (Berlin:Springer)p5—150

    [63]

    Wang R Z, Wang B, Wang H, Zhou H, Huang A P,Zhu M K,Yan H, Yan X H 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 2782

    [64]

    LiuY Z, Wang Z C, Dong Y Q 1995 Electronic emission and photocathode ( Beijing: Beijing Institue of Technology Press) p310 ( in Chinese) [刘元震、王仲春、董亚强 1995 电子发射与光电阴极 (北京: 北京理工大学出版社) 第310页]

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  • Received Date:  22 May 2010
  • Accepted Date:  09 July 2010
  • Published Online:  15 March 2011

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines Progress of negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

  • 1. Institute of Electronic Engineering and Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China

Abstract: GaN is becoming a promising material in ultraviolet detection and vacuum electronic source field for its good performance. High quantum efficiencies of greater than 70% and 30% have been achieved for the opaque mode and transparent mode GaN photocathode, respectively. This paper reviews the progress of GaN photocahtode in three important fields,including structure design, surface cleaning and Cs/O activation, analyzes the key factors influencing the quantum efficiency, and evaluates the prospect for its development.

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