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Study of downstream light intensity modulation induced by mitigated damage pits of fused silica using numerical simulation and experimental measurements

Bai Yang Zhang Li-Juan Liao Wei Zhou Hai Zhang Chuan-Chao Chen Jing Ye Ya-Yun Jiang Yi-Lan Wang Hai-Jun Luan Xiao-Yu Yuan Xiao-Dong Zheng Wan-Guo

Study of downstream light intensity modulation induced by mitigated damage pits of fused silica using numerical simulation and experimental measurements

Bai Yang, Zhang Li-Juan, Liao Wei, Zhou Hai, Zhang Chuan-Chao, Chen Jing, Ye Ya-Yun, Jiang Yi-Lan, Wang Hai-Jun, Luan Xiao-Yu, Yuan Xiao-Dong, Zheng Wan-Guo
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  • For high-power UV laser facilities, one of the key problems limiting the maximum light influence and safe routine operation is that the UV laser induces damage to fused silica optics. The most effective mitigation protocol of the damaged optics is the CO2 laser processing that leads to make locally melt or evaporate the damage. While the mitigated damage sites possess particular morphology, which may modulate the passing laser beam and induce the downstream intensification that will ruin the neighbor optics. In this work, the morphology features of the mitigated damage pits of fused silica optics are systematically investigated. According to the measured morphology features, a 3D grid model of mitigated pit is built, and the downstream light intensity distribution of the mitigated pit model under incident 351 nm laser is studied by scalar diffraction theory and fast fourier transform (FFT) methods. Results indicate that there are two kinds of downstream intensification: off-axis and on-axis intensifications. In the former intensification, the maximum intensity is located near the output surface of the optics and comes mainly from the depth of the mitigated pit; it increases with the depth. In the alter intensification, the maximum intensity is located far from the output surface of the optics and is mainly dependent on the height of the rim structure at the fringe of the mitigated damage pit; so it increase with increasing height. In addition, it is found that the location of the maximum off-axis or on-axis intensity can approach the output surface of the optics with increasing maximum intensity. For comparison, experimental measurements of downstream intensification induced by the mitigated pits are carried out, and the experimental results are almost consistent with the numerical simulation, implying the validity of the numerical simulation of the mitigated pit model. Results of this research indicate that the downstream intensification of mitigated pits can be suppressed by controlling the morphology features of mitigated pits. this is significant for the development and improvement of the mitigated techniques of damage optics.
      Corresponding author: Zhou Hai, a697097@163.com;zhchch@caep.cn ; Zhang Chuan-Chao, a697097@163.com;zhchch@caep.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11404301).
    [1]

    Miller G H, Moses E I, Wuest C R 2004 Opt. Eng. 43 2841

    [2]

    Andre M L 1997 Proc. SPIE 3047 38

    [3]

    Peng H S, Zhang X M, Wei X F, Zheng W G, Jing F, Sui Z, Fan D Y, Lin Z Q 1999 Proc. SPIE 3492 25

    [4]

    Bercegol H, Bouchut P, Lamaignere L, Le Garrec B, Raze G 2003 Proc. SPIE 5273 312

    [5]

    Bass I L, Draggoo V G, Guss G M, Hackel R P, Norton M A 2006 Proc. SPIE 6261 A2612

    [6]

    Campbell J H, Hawley-Fedder R A, Stolz C J, Menapace J A, Borden M R, Whitman P K, Yu J, Runkel M, Riley M O, Feit M D, Hackel R P 2004 Proc. SPIE 5341 84

    [7]

    Hrubesh L W, Norton M A, Molander W A, Donohue E E, Maricle S M, Penetrante B M, Brusasco R M, Grundler W, Butler J A, Carr J W, Hill R M, Summers L J, Feit M D, Rubenchik A, Key M H, Wegner P J, Burnham A K, Hackel L A, Kozlowski M R 2002 Proc. SPIE 4679 23

    [8]

    Liu C M, Yang L, Yan Z H, Jiang Y, Wang H J, Liao W, Xiang X, He S B, L H B, Yuan X D, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 094701 (in Chinese) [刘春明, 杨亮, 晏中华, 蒋勇, 王海军, 廖威, 向霞, 贺少勃, 吕海兵, 袁晓东, 郑万国, 祖小涛 2013 物理学报 62 094701]

    [9]

    Adams J J, Bolourchi M, Bude J D, Guss G M, Matthews M J, Nostrand M C 2010 Proc. SPIE 7842 784223

    [10]

    Brusasco R M, Penetrante B M, Butler J A, Hrubesh L W 2002 Proc. SPIE 4679 40

    [11]

    Guss G, Bassa I, Draggoo V, Hackel R, Payne S, Lancaster M, Mark P 2007 Proc. SPIE 6403 M4030

    [12]

    Runkel M, Hawley-Fedder R, Widmayer C, Williams W, Weinzapfel C, Roberts D 2005 Proc. SPIE 5991 H9912

    [13]

    Bass I L, Guss G M, Nostrand M J, Wegner P J 2010 Proc. SPIE 7842 784220

    [14]

    Feit M D, Rubenchik A M 1997 Proc. SPIE 3047 971

    [15]

    Anthony T R, Cline H E 1977 J. Appl. Phys. 48 3888

    [16]

    Matthews M J, Bass I L, Guss G M, Widmayer C C, Ravizza F L 2007 Proc. SPIE 6720 A7200

    [17]

    Jiang Y 2012 Ph. D. Dissertation (Chengdu: University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (in Chinese) [蒋勇 2012 博士学位论文 (成都: 电子科技大学)]

    [18]

    Cormont P, Gallais L, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L, Combis P, Hebert D 2010 Opt. Express 18 2526068

    [19]

    Bourgeade A, Donval T, Gallais L, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Optical Physics 32 655

    [20]

    Jiang Y, Liu C M, Luo C S, Yuan X D, Xiang X, Wang H J, He S B, L H B, Ren W, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 054216

    [21]

    Jiang Y, Xiang X, Liu C M, Luo C S, Wang H J, Yuan X D, He S B, Ren W, L H B, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 064219

    [22]

    Zhang C L, Liu C M, Xiang X, Dai W, Wang Z G, Li L, Yuan X D, He S B, Zu X T 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 164207 (in Chinese) [章春来, 刘春明, 向霞, 戴威, 王治国, 李莉, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 祖小涛 2012 物理学报 61 164207]

    [23]

    Zhang C L, Wang Z G, Xiang X, Liu C M, Li L, Yuan X D, He S B, Zu X T 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 114210 (in Chinese) [章春来, 王治国, 向霞, 刘春明, 李莉, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 祖小涛 2012 物理学报 61 114210]

    [24]

    Li L, Xiang X, Zu X T, Yuan X D, He S B, Jiang X D, Zheng W G 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 044212

    [25]

    Zhang Y L, Xiao J, Yuan X D, He S B, Jiang Y, Liu C M 2012 High Power Laser and Particle Beams 8 1806 (in Chinese) [张彦磊, 肖峻, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 蒋勇, 刘春明 2012 强激光与粒子束 8 1806]

    [26]

    Dai W, Xiang X, Jiang Y, Wang H J, Li X B, Yuan X D, Zheng W G, Lv H B, Zu X T 2011 Opt. Lasers Eng. 49 273

    [27]

    Palmier S, Gallais L, Commandre M, Cormont P, Courchinoux R, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L, Legros P 2009 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 5532

    [28]

    L N G 2006 Fourier Optics 2 (Beijing: China Machine Press) pp87-93 (in Chinese) [吕乃光 2006 傅里叶光学 2 (北京: 机械工业出版社) 第87-93页]

    [29]

    Zhang C C, Zhang L J, Liao W, Yan Z H, Chen J, Jiang Y L, Wang H J, Luan X Y, Ye Y Y, Zheng W G, Yuan X D 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 024220

  • [1]

    Miller G H, Moses E I, Wuest C R 2004 Opt. Eng. 43 2841

    [2]

    Andre M L 1997 Proc. SPIE 3047 38

    [3]

    Peng H S, Zhang X M, Wei X F, Zheng W G, Jing F, Sui Z, Fan D Y, Lin Z Q 1999 Proc. SPIE 3492 25

    [4]

    Bercegol H, Bouchut P, Lamaignere L, Le Garrec B, Raze G 2003 Proc. SPIE 5273 312

    [5]

    Bass I L, Draggoo V G, Guss G M, Hackel R P, Norton M A 2006 Proc. SPIE 6261 A2612

    [6]

    Campbell J H, Hawley-Fedder R A, Stolz C J, Menapace J A, Borden M R, Whitman P K, Yu J, Runkel M, Riley M O, Feit M D, Hackel R P 2004 Proc. SPIE 5341 84

    [7]

    Hrubesh L W, Norton M A, Molander W A, Donohue E E, Maricle S M, Penetrante B M, Brusasco R M, Grundler W, Butler J A, Carr J W, Hill R M, Summers L J, Feit M D, Rubenchik A, Key M H, Wegner P J, Burnham A K, Hackel L A, Kozlowski M R 2002 Proc. SPIE 4679 23

    [8]

    Liu C M, Yang L, Yan Z H, Jiang Y, Wang H J, Liao W, Xiang X, He S B, L H B, Yuan X D, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 094701 (in Chinese) [刘春明, 杨亮, 晏中华, 蒋勇, 王海军, 廖威, 向霞, 贺少勃, 吕海兵, 袁晓东, 郑万国, 祖小涛 2013 物理学报 62 094701]

    [9]

    Adams J J, Bolourchi M, Bude J D, Guss G M, Matthews M J, Nostrand M C 2010 Proc. SPIE 7842 784223

    [10]

    Brusasco R M, Penetrante B M, Butler J A, Hrubesh L W 2002 Proc. SPIE 4679 40

    [11]

    Guss G, Bassa I, Draggoo V, Hackel R, Payne S, Lancaster M, Mark P 2007 Proc. SPIE 6403 M4030

    [12]

    Runkel M, Hawley-Fedder R, Widmayer C, Williams W, Weinzapfel C, Roberts D 2005 Proc. SPIE 5991 H9912

    [13]

    Bass I L, Guss G M, Nostrand M J, Wegner P J 2010 Proc. SPIE 7842 784220

    [14]

    Feit M D, Rubenchik A M 1997 Proc. SPIE 3047 971

    [15]

    Anthony T R, Cline H E 1977 J. Appl. Phys. 48 3888

    [16]

    Matthews M J, Bass I L, Guss G M, Widmayer C C, Ravizza F L 2007 Proc. SPIE 6720 A7200

    [17]

    Jiang Y 2012 Ph. D. Dissertation (Chengdu: University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (in Chinese) [蒋勇 2012 博士学位论文 (成都: 电子科技大学)]

    [18]

    Cormont P, Gallais L, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L, Combis P, Hebert D 2010 Opt. Express 18 2526068

    [19]

    Bourgeade A, Donval T, Gallais L, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Optical Physics 32 655

    [20]

    Jiang Y, Liu C M, Luo C S, Yuan X D, Xiang X, Wang H J, He S B, L H B, Ren W, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 054216

    [21]

    Jiang Y, Xiang X, Liu C M, Luo C S, Wang H J, Yuan X D, He S B, Ren W, L H B, Zheng W G, Zu X T 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 064219

    [22]

    Zhang C L, Liu C M, Xiang X, Dai W, Wang Z G, Li L, Yuan X D, He S B, Zu X T 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 164207 (in Chinese) [章春来, 刘春明, 向霞, 戴威, 王治国, 李莉, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 祖小涛 2012 物理学报 61 164207]

    [23]

    Zhang C L, Wang Z G, Xiang X, Liu C M, Li L, Yuan X D, He S B, Zu X T 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 114210 (in Chinese) [章春来, 王治国, 向霞, 刘春明, 李莉, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 祖小涛 2012 物理学报 61 114210]

    [24]

    Li L, Xiang X, Zu X T, Yuan X D, He S B, Jiang X D, Zheng W G 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 044212

    [25]

    Zhang Y L, Xiao J, Yuan X D, He S B, Jiang Y, Liu C M 2012 High Power Laser and Particle Beams 8 1806 (in Chinese) [张彦磊, 肖峻, 袁晓东, 贺少勃, 蒋勇, 刘春明 2012 强激光与粒子束 8 1806]

    [26]

    Dai W, Xiang X, Jiang Y, Wang H J, Li X B, Yuan X D, Zheng W G, Lv H B, Zu X T 2011 Opt. Lasers Eng. 49 273

    [27]

    Palmier S, Gallais L, Commandre M, Cormont P, Courchinoux R, Lamaignere L, Rullier J L, Legros P 2009 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 5532

    [28]

    L N G 2006 Fourier Optics 2 (Beijing: China Machine Press) pp87-93 (in Chinese) [吕乃光 2006 傅里叶光学 2 (北京: 机械工业出版社) 第87-93页]

    [29]

    Zhang C C, Zhang L J, Liao W, Yan Z H, Chen J, Jiang Y L, Wang H J, Luan X Y, Ye Y Y, Zheng W G, Yuan X D 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 024220

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  • Received Date:  24 August 2015
  • Accepted Date:  16 September 2015
  • Published Online:  20 January 2016

Study of downstream light intensity modulation induced by mitigated damage pits of fused silica using numerical simulation and experimental measurements

    Corresponding author: Zhou Hai, a697097@163.com;zhchch@caep.cn
    Corresponding author: Zhang Chuan-Chao, a697097@163.com;zhchch@caep.cn
  • 1. Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China;
  • 2. Graduate School of China Academy of Engneering Physics, Beijing 100088, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11404301).

Abstract: For high-power UV laser facilities, one of the key problems limiting the maximum light influence and safe routine operation is that the UV laser induces damage to fused silica optics. The most effective mitigation protocol of the damaged optics is the CO2 laser processing that leads to make locally melt or evaporate the damage. While the mitigated damage sites possess particular morphology, which may modulate the passing laser beam and induce the downstream intensification that will ruin the neighbor optics. In this work, the morphology features of the mitigated damage pits of fused silica optics are systematically investigated. According to the measured morphology features, a 3D grid model of mitigated pit is built, and the downstream light intensity distribution of the mitigated pit model under incident 351 nm laser is studied by scalar diffraction theory and fast fourier transform (FFT) methods. Results indicate that there are two kinds of downstream intensification: off-axis and on-axis intensifications. In the former intensification, the maximum intensity is located near the output surface of the optics and comes mainly from the depth of the mitigated pit; it increases with the depth. In the alter intensification, the maximum intensity is located far from the output surface of the optics and is mainly dependent on the height of the rim structure at the fringe of the mitigated damage pit; so it increase with increasing height. In addition, it is found that the location of the maximum off-axis or on-axis intensity can approach the output surface of the optics with increasing maximum intensity. For comparison, experimental measurements of downstream intensification induced by the mitigated pits are carried out, and the experimental results are almost consistent with the numerical simulation, implying the validity of the numerical simulation of the mitigated pit model. Results of this research indicate that the downstream intensification of mitigated pits can be suppressed by controlling the morphology features of mitigated pits. this is significant for the development and improvement of the mitigated techniques of damage optics.

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