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## 留言板

Effect of annealing treatment on characteristics of surface plasmon resonance for indium tin oxide

## Effect of annealing treatment on characteristics of surface plasmon resonance for indium tin oxide

Jiang Hang, Zhou Yu-Rong, Liu Feng-Zhen, Zhou Yu-Qin
• #### Abstract

With the development of modern micro-processing technology, the basic theory and relevant applications for surface plasmon have formed a new research direction which is known as surface plasmon photonics. The traditional plasmonic materials are noble metals, such as gold and silver, but they have some limitations that may hinder their application in plasmonic devices, such as lack of the chemical stability in air, difficulty in modulating by external field, large optical losses in the infrared wavelength range, etc. It has been demonstrated that transparent conducting oxides are a good candidate of plasmonic materials working in the infrared frequency range because of their low optical loss and tenability. Here in this work, the quasi-three dimensional silica nano-sphere array is prepared by nano-imprint lithography. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is deposited on the array. The transmission properties are measured and the excitation modes of surface plasmons are analyzed for the samples obtained. Then, we focus on the effect of annealing treatment on characteristics of surface plasmon resonance for ITO thin films. The carrier concentration and carrier mobility of the ITO thin films annealed under different conditions are changed, and the corresponding surface plasmon resonance characteristics are investigated. The main results obtained in this work are as follows. 1) Mono-disperse SiO2 spheres, quasi-ordered monolayer SiO2 mask and ITO films with high transmittance ( 85%) and high electrical conductivity are obtained. Experimental results show that a surface plasma resonance at a wavelength of 1780 nm is excited for the glass/sphere/ITO system. 2) The grain size of ITO thin film after being annealed turns large, resulting in the increased optical transmittance of samples. 3) The carrier concentration of ITO film annealed in the air decreases, leading the resonance peak of surface plasmon to be red-shifted. 4) The carrier concentration of ITO thin film annealed in vacuum increases and the resonance peak is blue-shifted. These results obtained in this work contribute to the application of surface plasmon devices fabricated by ITO materials.

#### Authors and contacts

###### Corresponding author: Zhou Yu-Qin, yqzhou@ucas.ac.cn
• Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61604153, 61674150).

#### References

 [1] Bobb D A, Zhu G, Mayy M, Gavrilenko A V, Mead P, Gavrilenko V I, Noginov M A 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 151102 [2] Naik G V, Kim J, Boltasseva A 2011 Opt. Mater. Express 1 1090 [3] Noginov M A,Gu L, Livenere J, Zhu G, Pradhan A K, Mundle R, Bahoura M, Barnakov Y A, Podolskiy V A 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 021101 [4] Rhodes C, Franzen S, Maria J P, Losego M 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 100 054905 [5] Rhodes C, Cerruti M, Efremenko A, Losego M, Aspnes D E, Maria J P, Franzen S 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 093108 [6] Franzen S, Rhodes C, Cerruti M, Gerber R W, Losego M, Maria J, Aspnes D E 2009 Opt. Lett. 34 2867 [7] Losego M D, Efremenko A Y, Rhodes C L, Cerruti M G, Franzen S, Maria J 2009 J. Appl. Phys. 106 024903 [8] Kanehara M, Koike H, Yoshinaga T, Teranishi T 2009 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 17736 [9] Garcia G, Buonsanti R, Runnerstrom E L, Mendelsberg R J, Llordes A, Anders A, Richardson T J, Milliron D J 2011 Nano Lett. 11 4415 [10] Lounis S D, Runnerstrom E L, Bergerud A, Nordlund D, Milliron D J 2014 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 7110 [11] Matsui H, Furuta S, Tabata H 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 211903 [12] Li S Q, Guo P, Zhang L, Zhou W, Odom T W, Seideman T, Ketterson J B, Chang R P H 2011 ACS Nano 5 9161 [13] Zhan P, Wang Z L, Dong H, Sun J, Wu J, Wang H, Zhu S, Ming N, Zi J 2006 Adv. Mater. 18 1612 [14] Jiang H, Zhou Y, Zhou Y 2016 Opt. Lett. 41 1857 [15] Degiron A, Ebbesen T W 2005 J. Opt. A:Pure and Appl. Opt. 7 S90 [16] Matsui T, Agrawal A, Nahata A, Vardeny Z V 2007 Nature 446 517 [17] Bao Y J, Peng R W, Shu D J, Wang M, Lu X, Shao J, Lu W, Ming N B 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 087401 [18] Landstrm L, Brodoceanu D, Piglmayer K, Langer G, Buerle D 2005 Appl. Phys. A 81 15 [19] Liu X, Park J, Kang J H, Yuan H, Cui Y, Hwang H Y, Brongersma M L 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 202 181117 [20] Song S, Yang T, Liu J, Xin Y, Li Y, Han S 2011 Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 7061 [21] Han H, Adams D, Mayer J W, Alford T L 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 083705 [22] Guilln C, Herrero J S 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 101 073514

#### Cited By

•  [1] Bobb D A, Zhu G, Mayy M, Gavrilenko A V, Mead P, Gavrilenko V I, Noginov M A 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 151102 [2] Naik G V, Kim J, Boltasseva A 2011 Opt. Mater. Express 1 1090 [3] Noginov M A,Gu L, Livenere J, Zhu G, Pradhan A K, Mundle R, Bahoura M, Barnakov Y A, Podolskiy V A 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 021101 [4] Rhodes C, Franzen S, Maria J P, Losego M 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 100 054905 [5] Rhodes C, Cerruti M, Efremenko A, Losego M, Aspnes D E, Maria J P, Franzen S 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 093108 [6] Franzen S, Rhodes C, Cerruti M, Gerber R W, Losego M, Maria J, Aspnes D E 2009 Opt. Lett. 34 2867 [7] Losego M D, Efremenko A Y, Rhodes C L, Cerruti M G, Franzen S, Maria J 2009 J. Appl. Phys. 106 024903 [8] Kanehara M, Koike H, Yoshinaga T, Teranishi T 2009 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 17736 [9] Garcia G, Buonsanti R, Runnerstrom E L, Mendelsberg R J, Llordes A, Anders A, Richardson T J, Milliron D J 2011 Nano Lett. 11 4415 [10] Lounis S D, Runnerstrom E L, Bergerud A, Nordlund D, Milliron D J 2014 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 7110 [11] Matsui H, Furuta S, Tabata H 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 211903 [12] Li S Q, Guo P, Zhang L, Zhou W, Odom T W, Seideman T, Ketterson J B, Chang R P H 2011 ACS Nano 5 9161 [13] Zhan P, Wang Z L, Dong H, Sun J, Wu J, Wang H, Zhu S, Ming N, Zi J 2006 Adv. Mater. 18 1612 [14] Jiang H, Zhou Y, Zhou Y 2016 Opt. Lett. 41 1857 [15] Degiron A, Ebbesen T W 2005 J. Opt. A:Pure and Appl. Opt. 7 S90 [16] Matsui T, Agrawal A, Nahata A, Vardeny Z V 2007 Nature 446 517 [17] Bao Y J, Peng R W, Shu D J, Wang M, Lu X, Shao J, Lu W, Ming N B 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 087401 [18] Landstrm L, Brodoceanu D, Piglmayer K, Langer G, Buerle D 2005 Appl. Phys. A 81 15 [19] Liu X, Park J, Kang J H, Yuan H, Cui Y, Hwang H Y, Brongersma M L 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 202 181117 [20] Song S, Yang T, Liu J, Xin Y, Li Y, Han S 2011 Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 7061 [21] Han H, Adams D, Mayer J W, Alford T L 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 083705 [22] Guilln C, Herrero J S 2007 J. Appl. Phys. 101 073514
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•  Citation:
##### Metrics
• Abstract views:  121
• Cited By: 0
##### Publishing process
• Received Date:  13 March 2018
• Accepted Date:  02 June 2018
• Published Online:  05 September 2018

## Effect of annealing treatment on characteristics of surface plasmon resonance for indium tin oxide

###### Corresponding author: Zhou Yu-Qin, yqzhou@ucas.ac.cn
• 1. College of Materials Science and Opto-Electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61604153, 61674150).

Abstract: With the development of modern micro-processing technology, the basic theory and relevant applications for surface plasmon have formed a new research direction which is known as surface plasmon photonics. The traditional plasmonic materials are noble metals, such as gold and silver, but they have some limitations that may hinder their application in plasmonic devices, such as lack of the chemical stability in air, difficulty in modulating by external field, large optical losses in the infrared wavelength range, etc. It has been demonstrated that transparent conducting oxides are a good candidate of plasmonic materials working in the infrared frequency range because of their low optical loss and tenability. Here in this work, the quasi-three dimensional silica nano-sphere array is prepared by nano-imprint lithography. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is deposited on the array. The transmission properties are measured and the excitation modes of surface plasmons are analyzed for the samples obtained. Then, we focus on the effect of annealing treatment on characteristics of surface plasmon resonance for ITO thin films. The carrier concentration and carrier mobility of the ITO thin films annealed under different conditions are changed, and the corresponding surface plasmon resonance characteristics are investigated. The main results obtained in this work are as follows. 1) Mono-disperse SiO2 spheres, quasi-ordered monolayer SiO2 mask and ITO films with high transmittance ( 85%) and high electrical conductivity are obtained. Experimental results show that a surface plasma resonance at a wavelength of 1780 nm is excited for the glass/sphere/ITO system. 2) The grain size of ITO thin film after being annealed turns large, resulting in the increased optical transmittance of samples. 3) The carrier concentration of ITO film annealed in the air decreases, leading the resonance peak of surface plasmon to be red-shifted. 4) The carrier concentration of ITO thin film annealed in vacuum increases and the resonance peak is blue-shifted. These results obtained in this work contribute to the application of surface plasmon devices fabricated by ITO materials.

Reference (22)

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