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核磁共振中的量子控制

李俊 崔江煜 杨晓东 罗智煌 潘健 余琦 李兆凯 彭新华 杜江峰

核磁共振中的量子控制

李俊, 崔江煜, 杨晓东, 罗智煌, 潘健, 余琦, 李兆凯, 彭新华, 杜江峰
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  • 近年来, 随着量子信息科学的发展, 对由量子力学原理描述的微观世界的主动调控已成为重要的前沿研究领域. 为构造实际的量子信息处理器, 一个关键的挑战是: 如何对处于噪声环境下的量子体系实现一系列高精度的任意操作, 以完成目标量子信息处理任务. 为此, 人们将经典系统控制论的思想方法延伸到量子体系的领域, 提出了大量的量子控制方法以及相关的数值技术(如量子优化控制、量子反馈控制等), 并取得了丰富的研究成果. 核磁共振自旋体系具备成熟的系统理论和操控技术, 为量子控制方法的实用性研究提供了优秀的实验测试平台. 因此, 基于核磁共振的量子控制成为量子控制领域的重要方向. 本文简要介绍了量子控制的基本概念和方法; 从系统控制论的角度对核磁共振自旋体系的基本原理和重要控制任务做了阐述; 介绍了近些年来在该领域发展的相关控制方法及其应用; 对基于核磁共振体系的量子控制的进一步的研究做了几点展望.
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展规划(批准号: 2013CB921800, 2014CB848700)、国家杰出青年科学基金(批准号: 11425523)、国家自然科学基金 (批准号: 11375167, 11227901, 91021005)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B)(批准号: XDB01030400)和高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金 (批准号: 20113402110044)资助的课题.
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  • [1]

    Wiseman H M, Milburn G J 2010 Quantum Measurement and Control (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [2]

    Dong D, Petersen I R 2010 IET Control Theory Appl. 4 2651

    [3]

    Alessandro D D 2007 Introduction to Quantum Control and Dynamics (London: Chapman & Hall)

    [4]

    Brif C, Chakrabarti R, Rabitz H 2010 New J. Phys. 12 075008

    [5]

    Feynman R P 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467

    [6]

    Nielsen M A, Chuang I L 2010 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [7]

    Vandersypen L M K 2001 Ph. D. Dissertation (Stanford: Stanford University)

    [8]

    Vandersypen L M K, Chuang I L

    [9]

    Ryan C A, Negrevergne C, Laforest M, Knill E, Laflamme R 2008 Phys. Rev. A 78 012328

    [10]

    Chuang I, Vandersypen L, Zhou X, Leung D, Lloyd S 1998 Nature 393 143

    [11]

    Wu Z, Li J, Zheng W Q, Luo J, Feng M, Peng X H 2011 Phys. Rev. A 84 042312

    [12]

    Jones J, Mosca M, Hansen R 1998 Nature 393 344

    [13]

    Vandersypen L M K, Steffen M, Breyta G, Yannoni C S, Sherwood M H, Chuang I L 2001 Nature 414 883

    [14]

    Lu D W, Zhu J, Zou P, Peng X H, Yu Y H, Zhang S M, Chen Q, Du J F 2010 Phys. Rev. A 81 022308

    [15]

    Du J F, Xu N Y, Peng X H, Wang P F, Wu S F, Lu D W 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 030502

    [16]

    Peng X H, Wu S F, Li J, Suter D, Du J F 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 240405

    [17]

    Feng G R, Long G L, Laflamme R 2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 022305

    [18]

    Laflamme R, Knill E, Zurek W, Catasti P, Mariappan S 1998 Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 356 1941

    [19]

    Cory D G, Price M D, Maas W, Knill E, Laflamme R, Zurek W H, Havel T F, Somaroo S S 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2152

    [20]

    Negrevergne C, Mahesh T S, Ryan C A, Ditty M, Cyr-Racine F, Power W, Boulant N, Havel T, Cory D G, Laflamme R 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 170501

    [21]

    Jones J A 2011 Prog. Nucl. Mag. Res. Sp. 59 91

    [22]

    Lu D W, Li H, Trottier D A, Li J, Brodutch A, Krismanich A P, Ghavami A, Dmitrienko G I, Long G L, Baugh J, Laflamme R 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 140505

    [23]

    Dirac P A M 1958 The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

    [24]

    Rivas Á, Huelga S F 2012 Open Quantum Systems: An Introduction (New York: Springer-Verlag)

    [25]

    Heinosaari T, Ziman M 2012 The Mathematical Language of Quantum Theory: From Uncertainty to Entanglement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [26]

    Hayashi M 2006 Quantum Information: An Introduction (New York: Springer-Verlag)

    [27]

    Barenco A, Bennett C H, Cleve R, DiVincenzo D P, Margolus N, Shor P, Sleator T, Smolin J A, Weinfurter H 1995 Phy. Rev. A 52 3457

    [28]

    Breuer H P, Petruccione F 2002 The Theory of Open Quantum Systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

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    [30]

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    [33]

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    [34]

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    [35]

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    [36]

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    [37]

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    [39]

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    [40]

    Albertini F, D'Alessandro D 2003 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 48 1399

    [41]

    Ibort A, Pérez-Pardo J M 2009 Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 205301

    [42]

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    [43]

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    [47]

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    [61]

    Born M, Fock V A

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    Mizel A, Lidar D A, Mitchell M 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 070502

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    Amin M H S 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 130503

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    Roland J, Cerf N J 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 042308

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    Peng X H, Liao Z Y, Xu N Y, Qin G, Zhou X Y, Suter D, Du J F 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 220405

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    Peng X H, Zhang J F, Du J F, Suter D 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 140501

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    [69]

    Mitra A, Mitra A, Ghosh A, Das R, Patel A, Kumar A 2005 J. Magn. Res. 177 285

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    Xu N Y, Zhu J, Lu D W, Zhou X Y, Peng X H, Du J F 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 130501

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    Garey M R, Johnson D S 1979 Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness (San Francisco: Freeman)

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    Žnidarič M, Horvat M 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 022329

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    Hogg T 2003 Phys. Rev. A 67 022314

    [74]

    Žnidarič M 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 062305

    [75]

    Peng X H, Du J F, Dieter S 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 012307

    [76]

    Li Z K, Zhou H, Ju C Y, Chen H W, Zheng W Q, Lu D W, Rong X, Duan C K, Peng X H, Du J F 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 220501

    [77]

    Peng X H, Luo Z H, Zheng W Q, Kou S P, Suter D, Du J F 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 080404

    [78]

    Gershenfeld N, Chuang I L 1997 Science 275 350

    [79]

    Knill E, Chuang I, Laflamme R 1998 Phys. Rev. A 57 3348

    [80]

    Cory D G, Price M D, Havel T F 1998 Physica D 120 82

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    Schulman L J, Mor T, Weinstein Y 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 120501

    [82]

    Ryan C A, Moussa O, Baugh J, Laflamme R 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 140501

    [83]

    Fortunato E M, Pravia M A, Boulant N, Teklemariam G, Havel T F, Cory D G 2002 J. Chem. Phys. 116 7599

    [84]

    Jeffries C D 1963 Dynamic Nuclear Orientation (New York: Wiley)

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    Muus L T, Atkins P W, McLauchlan K A, Pedersen J B 1977 Chemically Induced Magnetic Polarization (Dordrecht: D. Reidel)

    [86]

    Li J, Lu D W, Luo Z H, Laflamme R, Peng X H, Du J F 2014 arXiv:1412.4146v1

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    Ernst R R, Bodenhausen G, Wokaun A 1987 Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

    [88]

    Sorensen O W 1989 Progress in NMR Spectroscopy 21 503

    [89]

    Sorensen O W

    [90]

    Stoustrup J, Schedletzky O, Glaser S J, Griesinger C, Nielsen N C, Sorensen O W 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 2921

    [91]

    Horn R A, Johnson C R 2013 Matrix Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [92]

    Waugh J S, Huber L M, Haeberlen U 1968 Phys. Rev. Lett. 20 180

    [93]

    Mansfield P 1971 J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 4 1444

    [94]

    Burum D P, Linder M, Ernst R R

    [95]

    Uhrig G S 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 100504

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    Maudsley A A

    [97]

    Khodjasteh K, Lidar D A 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 062310

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    Khaneja N, Brockett R, Glaser S J 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 032308

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-04-29
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核磁共振中的量子控制

  • 1. 中国科学技术大学近代物理系, 合肥微尺度物质科学国家实验室, 合肥 230026;
  • 2. 中国科学技术大学, 量子信息与量子科技前沿协同创新中心, 合肥 230026
    基金项目: 

    国家重点基础研究发展规划(批准号: 2013CB921800, 2014CB848700)、国家杰出青年科学基金(批准号: 11425523)、国家自然科学基金 (批准号: 11375167, 11227901, 91021005)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B)(批准号: XDB01030400)和高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金 (批准号: 20113402110044)资助的课题.

摘要: 近年来, 随着量子信息科学的发展, 对由量子力学原理描述的微观世界的主动调控已成为重要的前沿研究领域. 为构造实际的量子信息处理器, 一个关键的挑战是: 如何对处于噪声环境下的量子体系实现一系列高精度的任意操作, 以完成目标量子信息处理任务. 为此, 人们将经典系统控制论的思想方法延伸到量子体系的领域, 提出了大量的量子控制方法以及相关的数值技术(如量子优化控制、量子反馈控制等), 并取得了丰富的研究成果. 核磁共振自旋体系具备成熟的系统理论和操控技术, 为量子控制方法的实用性研究提供了优秀的实验测试平台. 因此, 基于核磁共振的量子控制成为量子控制领域的重要方向. 本文简要介绍了量子控制的基本概念和方法; 从系统控制论的角度对核磁共振自旋体系的基本原理和重要控制任务做了阐述; 介绍了近些年来在该领域发展的相关控制方法及其应用; 对基于核磁共振体系的量子控制的进一步的研究做了几点展望.

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