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衍射极限尺度下的亚波长电磁学

蒲明博 王长涛 王彦钦 罗先刚

衍射极限尺度下的亚波长电磁学

蒲明博, 王长涛, 王彦钦, 罗先刚
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  • 作为波的本性之一,衍射是现代物理学的重要研究内容.衍射导致自由空间中波的能量不能被无限小地聚集,从而为成像、光刻、光存储、光波导等技术设定了一个原理性的障碍衍射极限.对于电磁波和光波而言,尽管通过提高介质的折射率可以压缩衍射效应,但由于自然界中材料的折射率有限,该方法存在很大限制.近年来,随着表面等离子体光学的兴起,表面等离子体在超越传统衍射极限方面的能力和应用前景受到了学术界的关注.本文从亚波长电磁学的角度出发,介绍衍射极限研究的历史,综述了突破衍射极限的理论方法.首先,利用金属介质表面等离子体激元的短波长特性,可将等效波长压缩一个数量级以上,在纳米尺度实现光波的聚焦或定向传输;更进一步,通过人为设计超构材料和超构表面,利用结构化金属和介质中的局域谐振、耦合等特殊电磁响应,可实现亚波长局域相位调制、超宽带色散调控、近完美吸收、光子自旋轨道耦合等,从而突破传统理论的诸多局限,为下一代电磁学和光学功能器件奠定重要基础.
      通信作者: 罗先刚, lxg@ioe.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2013CBA01700)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:61622508,61575201)资助的课题.
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    [7]

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    [12]

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  • 收稿日期:  2017-04-21
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衍射极限尺度下的亚波长电磁学

  • 1. 中国科学院光电技术研究所, 微细加工光学技术国家重点实验室, 成都 610209
  • 通信作者: 罗先刚, lxg@ioe.ac.cn
    基金项目: 

    国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2013CBA01700)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:61622508,61575201)资助的课题.

摘要: 作为波的本性之一,衍射是现代物理学的重要研究内容.衍射导致自由空间中波的能量不能被无限小地聚集,从而为成像、光刻、光存储、光波导等技术设定了一个原理性的障碍衍射极限.对于电磁波和光波而言,尽管通过提高介质的折射率可以压缩衍射效应,但由于自然界中材料的折射率有限,该方法存在很大限制.近年来,随着表面等离子体光学的兴起,表面等离子体在超越传统衍射极限方面的能力和应用前景受到了学术界的关注.本文从亚波长电磁学的角度出发,介绍衍射极限研究的历史,综述了突破衍射极限的理论方法.首先,利用金属介质表面等离子体激元的短波长特性,可将等效波长压缩一个数量级以上,在纳米尺度实现光波的聚焦或定向传输;更进一步,通过人为设计超构材料和超构表面,利用结构化金属和介质中的局域谐振、耦合等特殊电磁响应,可实现亚波长局域相位调制、超宽带色散调控、近完美吸收、光子自旋轨道耦合等,从而突破传统理论的诸多局限,为下一代电磁学和光学功能器件奠定重要基础.

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