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硅异质结太阳电池的物理机制和优化设计

肖友鹏 王涛 魏秀琴 周浪

硅异质结太阳电池的物理机制和优化设计

肖友鹏, 王涛, 魏秀琴, 周浪
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  • 硅异质结太阳电池是一种由非晶硅薄膜层沉积于晶硅吸收层构成的高效低成本的光伏器件,是一种具有大面积规模化生产潜力的光伏产品.异质结界面钝化品质、发射极的掺杂浓度和厚度以及透明导电层的功函数是影响硅异质结太阳电池性能的主要因素.针对这些影响因素已经有大量的研究工作在全世界范围内展开,并且有诸多研究小组提出了器件效率限制因素背后的物理机制.洞悉物理机制可为今后优化设计高性能的器件提供准则.因此及时总结硅异质结太阳电池的物理机制和优化设计非常必要.本文主要讨论了晶硅表面钝化、发射极掺杂层和透明导电层之间的功函数失配以及由此形成的肖特基势垒;讨论了屏蔽由功函数失配引起的能带弯曲所需的特征长度,即屏蔽长度;介绍了硅异质结太阳电池优化设计的数值模拟和实践;总结了硅异质结太阳电池的研究现状和发展前景.
      通信作者: 周浪, lzhou@ncu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:51361022,61574072)和江西省博士后研究人员科研项目(批准号:2015KY12)资助的课题.
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  • [1]

    Taguchi M, Yano A, Tohoda S, Matsuyama K, Nakamura Y, Nishiwaki T, Fujita K, Maruyama E 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 96

    [2]

    Seif J P, Menda D, Descoeudres A, Barraud L, Özdemir O, Ballif C, de Wolf S 2016 J. Appl. Phys. 120 1433

    [3]

    Zhu F, Wang D, Bian J, Liu J, Liu Z 2016 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157 74

    [4]

    Geissbhler J, de Wolf S, Faes A, Badel N, Jeangros Q, Tomasi A, Barraud L, Descoeudres A, Despeisse M, Ballif C 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 1055

    [5]

    Tous L, Granata S N, Choulat P, Bearda T, Michel A, Uruena A, Cornagliotti E, Aleman M, Gehlhaar R, Russell R, Duerinckx F, Szlufcik J 2015 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 142 66

    [6]

    Heng J B, Fu J, Kong B, Chae Y, Wang W, Xie Z, Reddy A, Lam K, Beitel C, Liao C, Erben C, Huang Z, Xu Z 2015 IEEE J. Photovolt. 5 82

    [7]

    Dabirian A, Lachowicz A, Schttauf J W, Paviet-Salomon B, Morales-Masis M, Hessler-Wyser A, Despersse M, Ballif C 2017 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 159 243

    [8]

    Madani Ghahfarokhi O, Chakanga K, Geissendoerfer S, Sergeev O, von Maydell K, Agert C 2015 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 23 1340

    [9]

    Sinton R A, Cuevas A 1996 Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 2510

    [10]

    Bivour M, Reusch M, Schröer S, Feldmann F, Temmler J, Steinkemper H, Hermle M 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 566

    [11]

    Schuttauf J W A, van der Werf K H M, Kielen I M, Kielen I M, van Sark W G J H M, Rath J K, Schropp R E I 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 153514

    [12]

    Chen J H, Yang J, Shen Y J, Li F, Chen J W, Liu H X, Xu Y, Mai Y H 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 198801 (in Chinese) [陈剑辉, 杨静, 沈艳娇, 李锋, 陈静伟, 刘海旭, 许颖, 麦耀华 2015 物理学报 64 198801]

    [13]

    Pysch D, Meinhard C, Harder N P, Hermle M, Glunz S W 2011 J. Appl. Phys. 110 094516

    [14]

    Tasaki H, Kim W Y, Hallerdt M, Konagai M, Takahashi K 1988 J. Appl. Phys. 63 550

    [15]

    Leendertz C, Mingirulli N, Schulze T F, Kleider J P 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 202108

    [16]

    de Wolf S, Kondo M 2009 J. Appl. Phys. 105 103707

    [17]

    Holman Z C, Descoeudres A, Barraud L, Fernandez F Z 2012 IEEE J. Photovolt. 2 7

    [18]

    Schulze T F, Leendertz C, Mingirulli N, Korte L, Rech B 2011 Energy Procedia 8 282

    [19]

    Janotta A, Janssen R, Schmidt M, Graf T, Stutzmann M, Görgens L, Bergmaier A, Dollinger G, Hammerl C, Schreiber S, Stritzker B 2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 115206

    [20]

    Kane D E, Swanson R M 1985 Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference New York, USA, 1985 p578

    [21]

    Cleef M W M V, Schropp R E I, Rubinelli F A 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 2609

    [22]

    Varache R, Kleider J P, Gueunier-Farret M E, Korte L 2013 Mater. Sci. Eng: B 178 593

    [23]

    Kirner S, Hartig M, Mazzarella L, Korte L, Frijnts T, Scherg-Kurmes H, Ring S, Stannowski B, Rech B, Schlatmann R 2015 Energy Procedia 77 725

    [24]

    Klein A, Körber C, Wachau A, Säuberlich F, Gassenbauer Y, Harvey S P, Proffit D E, Mason T O 2010 Materials 3 4892

    [25]

    Zhao L, Zhou C L, Li H L, Diao H W, Wang W J 2008 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92 673

    [26]

    Ritzau K U, Bivour M, Schröer S, Steinkemper H, Reinecke P, Wagner F, Hermle M 2014 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 131 9

    [27]

    Ghannam M, Abdulraheem Y, Shehada G 2016 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 145 423

    [28]

    Zhong C L, Geng K W, Yao R H 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 6538 (in Chinese) [钟春良, 耿魁伟, 姚若河 2010 物理学报 59 6538]

    [29]

    Wen X, Zeng X, Liao W, Lei Q, Yin S 2013 Solar Energy 96 168

    [30]

    Favre W, Coignus J, Nguyen N, Lachaume R, Cabal R, Muñoz D 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 181118

    [31]

    Reusch M, Bivour M, Hermle M, Glunz S W 2013 Energy Procedia 38 297

    [32]

    Kim J, Abou-Kandil A, Fogel K, Hovel H, Sadana D K 2010 ACS Nano 4 7331

    [33]

    Bivour M, Schröer S, Hermle M 2013 Energy Procedia 38 658

    [34]

    Lachaume R, Favre W, Scheiblin P, Garros X, Nguyen N, Coignus J, Munoz D, Reimbold G 2013 Energy Procedia 38 770

    [35]

    Korte L, Conrad E, Angermann H, Stangl R, Schmidt M 2009 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 905

    [36]

    Nicolás S M D, Muñoz D, Ozanne A S, Nguyen N, Ribeyron P J 2011 Energy Procedia 8 226

    [37]

    de Wolf S, Kondo M 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 112109

    [38]

    Schulze T F, Beushausen H N, Leendertz C, Dobrich A, Rech B, Korte L 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 515

    [39]

    Powell M J, Deane S C 1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 10815

    [40]

    Powell M J, Deane S C 1996 Phys. Rev. B 53 10121

    [41]

    Holman Z C, Filipic M, Descoeudres A, de Wolf S, Smole F, Topic M, Ballif C 2013 J. Appl. Phys. 113 013107

    [42]

    Demaurex B, de Wolf S, Descoeudres A, Holman Z C, Ballif C 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 171604

    [43]

    Rößler R, Leendertz C, Korte L, Mingirulli N, Rech B 2013 J. Appl. Phys. 113 144513

    [44]

    Centurioni E, Iencinella D 2003 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 70 177

    [45]

    Ji K S, Choi J, Choi W S, Lee H M, Kim D H 2010 Proceeding of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Honolulu, Hawaii, June 20-25, 2010 p003190

    [46]

    Maslova O A, Alvarez J, Gushina E V, Favre W, Gueunier-Farret M E, Gudovskikh A S, Ankudinov A V, Terukov E I, Kleider J P 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 252110

    [47]

    Demaurex B, Seif J P, Smit S, Macco B, Kessels W M M, Geissbhler J, de Wolf S, Ballif C 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 1387

    [48]

    Bivour M, Reichel C, Hermle M, Glunz S W 2012 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 106 11

    [49]

    Bivour M, Steinkemper H, Jeurink J, Schröer S, Hermle M 2014 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 122 120

    [50]

    Qiu Z X, Ke C M, Aberle A G, Stangl R 2015 IEEE J. Photovolt. 5 1053

    [51]

    Battaglia C, Nicolas S M D, de Wolf S, Yin X, Zheng M, Ballif C, Javey A 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 113902

    [52]

    Geissbhler J, Werner J, Nicolas S M D, Barraud L, Hessler-Wyser A, Despeisse M, Nicolay S, Tomasi A, Niesen B, de Wolf S, Ballif C 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 081601

    [53]

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    [54]

    Gerling L G, Mahato S, Morales-Vilches A, Masmitja G, Ortega P, Voz C, Alcubilla R, Puigdollers J 2016 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 145 109

    [55]

    Mews M, Korte L, Rech B 2016 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 158 77

    [56]

    Qiao Z, Xie X J, Xue J M, Liu H, Liang L M, Hao Q Y, Liu C C 2015 Acta Phys. -Chim. Sin. 31 1207 (in Chinese) [乔治, 解新建, 薛俊明, 刘辉, 梁李敏, 赫秋艳, 刘彩池 2015 物理化学学报 31 1207]

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    Ghahfarokhi O M, Maydell K V, Agert C 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 113901

    [58]

    Seif J P, Descoeudres A, Nogay G, Hänni S, Nicolas S M D, Holm N, Geissb hler J, Hessler-Wyser A, Duchamp M, Dunin-Borkowski R E, Ledinsky M, de Wolf S, Ballif C 2016 IEEE J. Photovolt. 6 1

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    Nogay G, Seif J P, Riesen Y, Tomasi A, Jeangros Q, Wyrsch N, Haug F J, de Wolf S, Ballif C 2016 IEEE J. Photovolt. 6 1654

    [60]

    Mazzarella L, Kirner S, Stannowski B, Korte L, Rech B, Schlatmann R 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 023902

    [61]

    Nogay G, Stuckelberger J, Wyss P, Jeangros Q, Alleb C, Niquille X, Debrot F, Despeisse M, Haug F J, Löper P, Ballif C 2016 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8 35660

    [62]

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-12-30
  • 修回日期:  2017-02-19
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-05

硅异质结太阳电池的物理机制和优化设计

  • 1. 南昌大学光伏研究院/材料科学与工程学院, 南昌 330031
  • 通信作者: 周浪, lzhou@ncu.edu.cn
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金(批准号:51361022,61574072)和江西省博士后研究人员科研项目(批准号:2015KY12)资助的课题.

摘要: 硅异质结太阳电池是一种由非晶硅薄膜层沉积于晶硅吸收层构成的高效低成本的光伏器件,是一种具有大面积规模化生产潜力的光伏产品.异质结界面钝化品质、发射极的掺杂浓度和厚度以及透明导电层的功函数是影响硅异质结太阳电池性能的主要因素.针对这些影响因素已经有大量的研究工作在全世界范围内展开,并且有诸多研究小组提出了器件效率限制因素背后的物理机制.洞悉物理机制可为今后优化设计高性能的器件提供准则.因此及时总结硅异质结太阳电池的物理机制和优化设计非常必要.本文主要讨论了晶硅表面钝化、发射极掺杂层和透明导电层之间的功函数失配以及由此形成的肖特基势垒;讨论了屏蔽由功函数失配引起的能带弯曲所需的特征长度,即屏蔽长度;介绍了硅异质结太阳电池优化设计的数值模拟和实践;总结了硅异质结太阳电池的研究现状和发展前景.

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