[1] Kaufmann M, Neu R 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 521
[2] Paméla J, Matthews G F, Philipps V, Kamendje R 2007 J. Nucl. Mater. 363–365 1
[3] Doerner R P 2007 J. Nucl. Mater. 363–365 32
[4] Shu W M, Luo G N, Yamanishi T 2007 J. Nucl. Mater. 367–370 1463
[5] Shu W M, Wakai E, Yamanishi T 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 201
[6] Ruan W, Xie A D, Yu X G, Wu D L 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 043104
[7] Henriksson K O E, Nordlund K, Keinonen J, Vörtler K, Dreissigacker S 2006 Surface Sci. 600 3167
[8] Ge C C, Zhou Z J, Song S X, Du J, Zhong Z H 2007 J. Nucl. Mater. 363 1211
[9] Heinola K, Ahlgren T 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 107 11
[10] Liu Y L, Lu W, Gao A Y, Gui L J, Zhang Y 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 126103
[11] Liu Y L, Zhou H B, Zhang Y 2011 J. Alloys Compd. 509 8277
[12] Stangeby P C 2000 The Plasma Boundary of Magnetic Fusion Devices (London: Nicki Dennis) p111
[13] Yang Z S, Xu Q, Hong R J, Li Q, Luo G N 2010 Fusion Eng. Des. 85 1517
[14] Li X C, Gao F, Lu G H 2009 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 267 3197
[15] Li S Y, Sun J Z, Zhang Z H, Liu S G, Wang D Z 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 057901 (in Chinese) [李守阳, 孙继忠, 张治海, 刘升光, 王德真 2011 物理学报 60 057901]
[16] Zhang Z H, Sun J Z, Liu S G, Wang D Z 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 047901 (in Chinese) [张治海, 孙继忠, 刘升光, 王德真 2012 物理学报 61 047901]
[17] Sun J Z, Zhang Z H, Liu S G, Wang D Z 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 055201 (in Chinese) [孙继忠, 张治海, 刘升光, 王德真 2012 物理学报 61 055201]
[18] Juslin N, Erhart P, Traskelin P, Nord J, Henriksson K O E, Nordlund K, Salonen E, Albe K 2005 J. Appl. Phys. 98 123520
[19] Sang C F, Sun J Z, Wang D Z 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 415 204
[20] Brenner D W 1990 Phys. Rev. B 42 9458
[21] Zhou H B, Liu Y L, Jin S, Zhang Y, Luo G N, Lu G H 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 025016
[22] Adelman S A, Doll J D 1976 J. Chem. Phys. 64 2375
[23] Heinola K, Ahlgren T 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 107 113531
[24] Frauenfelder R 1969 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6 388