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Growth of Ge quantum dot at the mix-crystal interface self-induced on the ion beam sputtering deposition

Xiong Fei Pan Hong-Xing Zhang Hui Yang Yu

Growth of Ge quantum dot at the mix-crystal interface self-induced on the ion beam sputtering deposition

Xiong Fei, Pan Hong-Xing, Zhang Hui, Yang Yu
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  • The dense domes of Ge quantum dots on Si (001) substrate with a monomodal morphology distribution are deposited at different temperatures by ion beam sputtering (IBS). The areal density of the Ge quantum dots is observed to increase with elevating temperature, but the dots size to decrease. As the deposition temperature increases to 750 ℃, the smaller Ge quantum dots each with a height of 14.5 nm and base width of 52.7 nm are obtained by sputtering 15 monolayer Ge coverage, and the dots areal density is up to 1.681010 cm-2 at the same time. Thus the evolution of Ge quantum dot prepared by IBS is very different from that by vapor deposition at thermal equilibrium condition. The stable shape and the size distribution are demonstrated to result from the kinetic behavior of the surface atoms which is restricted by the thermodynamic limitations. A mix-crystal interface including amorphous and crystal components is revealed by Raman spectrum, and this special interface is demonstrated to contribute to the high density of Ge quantum dots, since the boundaries between the two different components can provide more preferential centers for the nucleation. As the density increases at high deposition temperature, the elastic repulsion between islands is enhanced, resulting in the surface atoms growing along the orientation of high index during the IBS deposition, and inducing the increase in aspect ratio and the reduction in island size.
    • Funds:
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    Capellini G, De Seta M, Evangelisti F 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 291

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    Shchukin V A, Ledentsov N N, Kopev P S, Bimberg D 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 2968

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    Kamins T I, Medeiros-Ribeiro G, Ohlberg D A A, Williams R S 1999 J. Appl. Phys. 85 1159

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    Sasaki K, Nabetani Y, Miyashita H, Hata T 2000 Thin Solid Films 369 171

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    Vescan L, Stoica T, Chretien O, Goryll M, Mateeva E, Muck A 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 7275

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    Ross F M, Tersoff J, Tromp R M 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 984

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    Wagner R J, Gulari E 2005 Surf. Sci. 590 1

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    Shchukin V A, Ledentsov N N, Hoffmann A, Bimberg D, Soshnikov I P, Volovik B V, Ustnov V M, Litvinov D, Gerthsen D 2002 Phys. Stat. Sol. B 224 503

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    Barab A L 1999 Mater. Sci. Eng. B 67 23

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    Koduvely H M, Zangwill A 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 R2204

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    Zhang Y W, Brower A F 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 2706

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    Chung H C, Liu C P, Lai Y L 2008 Appl. Phys. A 91 267

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    Floro J A, Lucadamo G A, Chason E, Freund L B, Sinclair M, Twesten R D, Hwang R Q 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 4717

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    Rickman J M, Srolovitz D J 1993 Surf. Sci. 284 211

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    Gonzalez-Hernandez J, Azarbayejani G H, Tsu R, Pollak F H 1985 Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 1350

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    Liu J L, Jin G, Tang Y S, Luo Y H, Wang K L, Yu D P 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 586

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    Duan B X, Yang Y T 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 7114 (in Chinese) [段宝兴、杨印堂 2009物理学报 58 7114]

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    Cai Q J, Zhou H, Lu F 2007 Appl. Surf. Sci. 253 4792

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    Brya W J 1973 Solid State Commun. 12 253

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    Cerdeira F, Pinczuk A, Bean J C, Batlogg B, Wilson B A 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 1138

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  • [1]

    Eaglesham D J, Cerullo M 1990 Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 1943

    [2]

    Larsson M, Elfving A, Holtz P O, Hnsson G V, Ni W X 2003 Surf. Sci. 532535 832

    [3]
    [4]
    [5]

    Rokhinson L P, Tsui D C, Benton J L 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 2413

    [6]

    Tong S, Lee J Y, Kin H J, Liu F, Wang K L 2005 Opt. Mater. 27 1097

    [7]
    [8]

    Wang X, Jiang Z M, Zhu H J, Lu F, Huang D M, Kiu X H, Hu C W, Chen Y F, Zhu Z Q, Yao T 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 3543

    [9]
    [10]

    Kamins T I, Carr E C, Williams R S, Rosner S J 1997 J. Appl. Phys. 81 211

    [11]
    [12]
    [13]

    Ross F M, Tromp R M, Reuter M C 1999 Science 286 1931

    [14]

    Jin G, Liu J L, Wang K L 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 2847

    [15]
    [16]
    [17]

    Medeiros-Ribeiro G, Bratkovski A M, Kamins T I, Ohlberg D A A, Williams R S 1998 Science 279 353

    [18]
    [19]

    Capellini G, De Seta M, Evangelisti F 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 291

    [20]

    Shchukin V A, Ledentsov N N, Kopev P S, Bimberg D 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 2968

    [21]
    [22]

    Kamins T I, Medeiros-Ribeiro G, Ohlberg D A A, Williams R S 1999 J. Appl. Phys. 85 1159

    [23]
    [24]

    Sasaki K, Nabetani Y, Miyashita H, Hata T 2000 Thin Solid Films 369 171

    [25]
    [26]
    [27]

    Sasaki K, Takahashi Y, Ikeda T, Hata T 2002 Vacuum 66 457

    [28]

    Sasaki K, Nakata K, Hata T 1997 Appl. Surf. Sci. 113/114 43

    [29]
    [30]

    Sasaki K, Nagai H, Hata T 2000 Vacuum 59 397

    [31]
    [32]

    Vescan L, Stoica T, Chretien O, Goryll M, Mateeva E, Muck A 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 7275

    [33]
    [34]
    [35]

    Ross F M, Tersoff J, Tromp R M 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 984

    [36]
    [37]

    Wagner R J, Gulari E 2005 Surf. Sci. 590 1

    [38]
    [39]

    Shchukin V A, Ledentsov N N, Hoffmann A, Bimberg D, Soshnikov I P, Volovik B V, Ustnov V M, Litvinov D, Gerthsen D 2002 Phys. Stat. Sol. B 224 503

    [40]
    [41]

    Barab A L 1999 Mater. Sci. Eng. B 67 23

    [42]
    [43]

    Koduvely H M, Zangwill A 1999 Phys. Rev. B 60 R2204

    [44]
    [45]

    Zhang Y W, Brower A F 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 2706

    [46]
    [47]

    Chung H C, Liu C P, Lai Y L 2008 Appl. Phys. A 91 267

    [48]

    Floro J A, Lucadamo G A, Chason E, Freund L B, Sinclair M, Twesten R D, Hwang R Q 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 4717

    [49]
    [50]

    Rickman J M, Srolovitz D J 1993 Surf. Sci. 284 211

    [51]
    [52]

    Gonzalez-Hernandez J, Azarbayejani G H, Tsu R, Pollak F H 1985 Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 1350

    [53]
    [54]
    [55]

    Liu J L, Jin G, Tang Y S, Luo Y H, Wang K L, Yu D P 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 586

    [56]

    Duan B X, Yang Y T 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 7114 (in Chinese) [段宝兴、杨印堂 2009物理学报 58 7114]

    [57]
    [58]
    [59]

    Cai Q J, Zhou H, Lu F 2007 Appl. Surf. Sci. 253 4792

    [60]

    Brya W J 1973 Solid State Commun. 12 253

    [61]
    [62]

    Cerdeira F, Pinczuk A, Bean J C, Batlogg B, Wilson B A 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 1138

    [63]
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  • Received Date:  02 October 2010
  • Accepted Date:  07 January 2011
  • Published Online:  15 August 2011

Growth of Ge quantum dot at the mix-crystal interface self-induced on the ion beam sputtering deposition

  • 1. Research Institute of Engineering and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;
  • 2. Institute of Advanced Materials for Photo-electronics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China

Abstract: The dense domes of Ge quantum dots on Si (001) substrate with a monomodal morphology distribution are deposited at different temperatures by ion beam sputtering (IBS). The areal density of the Ge quantum dots is observed to increase with elevating temperature, but the dots size to decrease. As the deposition temperature increases to 750 ℃, the smaller Ge quantum dots each with a height of 14.5 nm and base width of 52.7 nm are obtained by sputtering 15 monolayer Ge coverage, and the dots areal density is up to 1.681010 cm-2 at the same time. Thus the evolution of Ge quantum dot prepared by IBS is very different from that by vapor deposition at thermal equilibrium condition. The stable shape and the size distribution are demonstrated to result from the kinetic behavior of the surface atoms which is restricted by the thermodynamic limitations. A mix-crystal interface including amorphous and crystal components is revealed by Raman spectrum, and this special interface is demonstrated to contribute to the high density of Ge quantum dots, since the boundaries between the two different components can provide more preferential centers for the nucleation. As the density increases at high deposition temperature, the elastic repulsion between islands is enhanced, resulting in the surface atoms growing along the orientation of high index during the IBS deposition, and inducing the increase in aspect ratio and the reduction in island size.

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