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基于Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪的纳米结构几何参数大面积测量

陈修国 袁奎 杜卫超 陈军 江浩 张传维 刘世元

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基于Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪的纳米结构几何参数大面积测量

陈修国, 袁奎, 杜卫超, 陈军, 江浩, 张传维, 刘世元

Large-scale nanostructure metrology using Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometry

Chen Xiu-Guo, Yuan Kui, Du Wei-Chao, Chen Jun, Jiang Hao, Zhang Chuan-Wei, Liu Shi-Yuan
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  • 为了实现有效的工艺监控, 在批量化纳米制造中对纳米结构的关键尺寸等几何参数进行快速、低成本、非破坏性的精确测量具有十分重要的意义. 光学散射仪目前已经发展成为批量化纳米制造中纳米结构几何参数在线测量的一种重要手段. 传统光学散射测量技术只能获得光斑照射区内待测参数的平均值, 而对小于光斑照射区内样品的微小变化难以准确分析. 此外, 由于其只能进行单点测试, 必须要移动样品台进行扫描才能获得大面积区域内待测参数的分布信息, 从而严重影响测试效率. 为此, 本文将传统光学散射测量技术与显微成像技术相结合, 提出利用Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪实现纳米结构几何参数的大面积快速准确测量. Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪具有传统Mueller矩阵椭偏仪测量信息全、光谱灵敏度高的优势, 同时又有显微成像技术高空间分辨率的优点, 有望为批量化纳米制造中纳米结构几何参数提供一种大面积、快速、低成本、非破坏性的精确测量新途径.
    In order to achieve effective process control, the fast, inexpensive, nondestructive and accurate nanoscale feature measurements are extremely useful in high-volume nanomanufacturing. The optical scatterometry has currently become one of the important approaches for in-line metrology of geometrical parameters of nanostructures in high-volume nanomanufacturing due to its high throughput, low cost, and minimal sample damage. Conventional scatterometry techniques can only obtain the mean geometrical parameter values located in the illumination spot, but cannot acquire the microscopic variation of geometrical parameters less than the illumination region. In addition, conventional scatterometry techniques can only perform monospot test. Therefore, the sample stage must be scanned spot by spot in order to obtain the distribution of geometrical parameters in a large area. Consequently, the final test efficiency will be greatly reduced. Accordingly, in this paper, we combine conventional scatterometry with imaging techniques and adopt the Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometry (MMIE) for fast, large-scale and accurate nanostructure metrology. A spectroscopic Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer is developed in our laboratory by substituting a complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera for the spectrometer in a previously developed dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer and by placing a telecentric lens as an imaging lens in the polarization state analyzer arm of the ellipsometer. The light wavelengths in the developed imaging ellipsometer are scanned in a range of 400-700 nm by using a monochromator. The spectroscopic Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer is then used for measuring a typical Si grating template used in nanoimprint lithography. The measurement results indicate that the developed instrument has a measurement accuracy of better than 0.05 for all the Mueller matrix elements in both the whole image and the whole spectral range. The three-dimensional microscopic maps of geometrical parameters of the Si grating template over a large area with pixel-sized lateral resolution are then reconstructed from the collected spectral imaging Mueller matrices by solving an inverse diffraction problem. The MMIE-measured results that are extracted from Mueller matrix spectra collected by a single pixel of the camera are in good agreement with those measured by a scanning electron microscope and the conventional Mueller matrix ellipsometer. The MMIE that combines the great power of conventional Mueller matrix ellipsometry with the high spatial resolution of optical microscopy is thus expected to be a powerful tool for large-scale nanostructure metrology in future high-volume nanomanufacturing.
      通信作者: 江浩, hjiang@hust.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51475191, 51405172)、国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项(批准号: 2011YQ160002)、中国博士后科学基金(批准号: 2014M560607, 2015T80791)、湖北省自然科学基金(批准号: 2015CFB278)和教育部长江学者与创新团队发展计划(批准号: IRT13017)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Jiang Hao, hjiang@hust.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475191, 51405172), the National Instrument Development Specific Project of China (Grant No. 2011YQ160002), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2014M560607, 2015T80791), the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Hubei, China (Grant No. 2015CFB278), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of China (Grant No. IRT13017).
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    Zhang T, Yin J, Ding L H, Zhang W F 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 117801

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    Novikova T, de Martino A, Ossikovski R, Drévillon B 2005 Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 31 63

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    Kim Y N, Paek J S, Rabello S, Lee S, Hu J, Liu Z, Hao Y, McGahan W 2009 Opt. Express 17 21336

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    Liu S Y, Du W C, Chen X G, Jiang H, Zhang C W 2015 Opt. Express 23 17316

    [27]

    Zhou Y, Valiokas R, Liedberg B 2004 Langmuir 20 6206

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    Yu Y, Jin G 2005 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 283 477

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    Wurstbauer U, Röling C, Wurstbauer U, Wegscheider W, Vaupel M, Thiesen P H, Weiss D 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 231901

    [30]

    Shan A, Fried M, Juhász G, Major C, Polgár O, Németh á, Petrik P, Dahal L R, Chen J, Huang Z, Podraza N J, Collins R W 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 355

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    Bae Y M, Park K W, Oh B K, Lee W H, Choi J W 2005 Colloids Surf. A 257-258 19

    [32]

    Twietmeyer K M, Chipman R A, Elsner A E, Zhao Y, van Nasdale D 2008 Opt. Express 16 21339

    [33]

    Novikova T, Pierangelo A, Manhas S, Benali A, Validire P, Gayet B, de Martino A 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 241103

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    [35]

    Fujiwara H 2007 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (New York: Wiley) p121

    [36]

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    [38]

    Liu S Y, Ma Y, Chen X G, Zhang C W 2012 Opt. Eng. 51 081504

    [39]

    Chen X G 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology) (in Chinese) [陈修国 2013 博士学位论文 (武汉: 华中科技大学)]

    [40]

    Zhang C W, Liu S Y, Shi T L, Tang Z R 2009 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26 2327

    [41]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Zhang C W, Zhu J L 2013 Measurement 46 2638

    [42]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Zhang C W, Jiang H 2013 Appl. Opt. 52 6727

    [43]

    Herzinger C M, Johs B, McGahan W A, Woollam J A, Paulson W 1998 J. Appl. Phys. 83 3323

    [44]

    Letnes P A, Maradudin A A, Nordam T, Simonsen I 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 031803

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    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Gu H G, Zhang C W 2014 Thin Solid Films 571 653

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    Gil J J, Bernabeu E 1986 Opt. Acta 33 185

  • [1]

    Weidner P, Kasic A, Hingst T, Ehlers C, Philipp S, Marschner T, Moert M 2008 Proc. SPIE 7155 71550Y

    [2]

    Rau H, Wu C H 2005 Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 25 940

    [3]

    Azzam R M A, Bashara N M 1977 Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp148-152

    [4]

    Zhang Q X, Wei W S, Ruan F P 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 047802

    [5]

    Zhang J T, Wu X J, Li Y 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 010701

    [6]

    Zhang T, Yin J, Ding L H, Zhang W F 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 117801

    [7]

    Li J, Tang J Y, Pei W, Wei X H, Huang F 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 110702 (in Chinese) [李江, 唐敬友, 裴旺, 魏贤华, 黄峰 2015 物理学报 64 110702]

    [8]

    Huang H T, Kong W, Terry Jr F L 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 3983

    [9]

    Niu X, Jakatdar N, Bao J W, Spanos C J 2001 IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14 97

    [10]

    Gustin C, Leunissen L H A, Mercha A, Decoutere S, Lorusso G 2008 Thin Solid Films 516 3690

    [11]

    Leung G, Chui C O 2011 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 32 1489

    [12]

    Silver R, Germer T, Attota R, Barnes B M, Bundary B, Allgair J, Marx E, Jun J 2007 Proc. SPIE 6518 65180U

    [13]

    Novikova T, de Martino A, Ossikovski R, Drévillon B 2005 Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 31 63

    [14]

    Novikova T, de Martino A, Hatit S B, Drévillon B 2006 Appl. Opt. 45 3688

    [15]

    Novikova T, de Martino A, Bulkin P, Nguyen Q, Drévillon B 2007 Opt. Express 15 2033

    [16]

    Kim Y N, Paek J S, Rabello S, Lee S, Hu J, Liu Z, Hao Y, McGahan W 2009 Opt. Express 17 21336

    [17]

    Li J, Hwu J J, Liu Y, Rabello S, Liu Z, Hu J 2010 J. Micro Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 9 041305

    [18]

    Liu S Y, Chen X G, Zhang C W 2015 Thin Solid Films 584 176

    [19]

    Chen X G, Zhang C W, Liu S Y 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 151605

    [20]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Zhang C W, Wu Y P, Ma Z C, Sun T Y, Xu Z M 2014 Acta Phys. Sin. 63 180701 (in Chinese) [陈修国, 刘世元, 张传维, 吴懿平, 马智超, 孙堂友, 徐智谋 2014 物理学报 63 180701]

    [21]

    Ma Z C, Xu Z M, Peng J, Sun T Y, Chen X G, Zhao W N, Liu S S, Wu X H, Zou C, Liu S Y 2014 Acta Phys. Sin. 63 039101 (in Chinese) [马智超, 徐智谋, 彭静, 孙堂友, 陈修国, 赵文宁, 刘思思, 武兴会, 邹超, 刘世元 2014 物理学报 63 039101]

    [22]

    Losurdo M, Bergmair M, Bruno G, Cattelan D, Cobet C, de Martino A, Fleischer K, Dohcevic-Mitrovic Z, Esser N, Galliet M, Gajic R, Hemzal D, Hingerl K, Humlicek J, Ossikovski R, Popovic Z V, Saxl O 2009 J. Nanopart. Res. 11 1521

    [23]

    Mishima T, Kao K C 1982 Opt. Eng. 21 1074

    [24]

    Jin G, Jansson R, Arwin H 1996 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 2930

    [25]

    Arteaga O, Baldrís M, Antó J, Canillas A, Pascual E, Bertran E 2014 Appl. Opt. 53 2236

    [26]

    Liu S Y, Du W C, Chen X G, Jiang H, Zhang C W 2015 Opt. Express 23 17316

    [27]

    Zhou Y, Valiokas R, Liedberg B 2004 Langmuir 20 6206

    [28]

    Yu Y, Jin G 2005 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 283 477

    [29]

    Wurstbauer U, Röling C, Wurstbauer U, Wegscheider W, Vaupel M, Thiesen P H, Weiss D 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 231901

    [30]

    Shan A, Fried M, Juhász G, Major C, Polgár O, Németh á, Petrik P, Dahal L R, Chen J, Huang Z, Podraza N J, Collins R W 2014 IEEE J. Photovolt. 4 355

    [31]

    Bae Y M, Park K W, Oh B K, Lee W H, Choi J W 2005 Colloids Surf. A 257-258 19

    [32]

    Twietmeyer K M, Chipman R A, Elsner A E, Zhao Y, van Nasdale D 2008 Opt. Express 16 21339

    [33]

    Novikova T, Pierangelo A, Manhas S, Benali A, Validire P, Gayet B, de Martino A 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 241103

    [34]

    Collins R W, Koh J 1999 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16 1997

    [35]

    Fujiwara H 2007 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (New York: Wiley) p121

    [36]

    Moharam M G, Grann E B, Pommet D A, Gaylord T K 1995 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12 1068

    [37]

    Li L F 1997 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14 2758

    [38]

    Liu S Y, Ma Y, Chen X G, Zhang C W 2012 Opt. Eng. 51 081504

    [39]

    Chen X G 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology) (in Chinese) [陈修国 2013 博士学位论文 (武汉: 华中科技大学)]

    [40]

    Zhang C W, Liu S Y, Shi T L, Tang Z R 2009 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26 2327

    [41]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Zhang C W, Zhu J L 2013 Measurement 46 2638

    [42]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Zhang C W, Jiang H 2013 Appl. Opt. 52 6727

    [43]

    Herzinger C M, Johs B, McGahan W A, Woollam J A, Paulson W 1998 J. Appl. Phys. 83 3323

    [44]

    Letnes P A, Maradudin A A, Nordam T, Simonsen I 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 031803

    [45]

    Chen X G, Liu S Y, Gu H G, Zhang C W 2014 Thin Solid Films 571 653

    [46]

    Gil J J, Bernabeu E 1986 Opt. Acta 33 185

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2015-10-14
  • 修回日期:  2016-01-05
  • 刊出日期:  2016-04-05

基于Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪的纳米结构几何参数大面积测量

  • 1. 华中科技大学, 数字制造装备与技术国家重大实验室, 武汉 430074;
  • 2. 武汉颐光科技有限公司, 武汉 430075
  • 通信作者: 江浩, hjiang@hust.edu.cn
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51475191, 51405172)、国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项(批准号: 2011YQ160002)、中国博士后科学基金(批准号: 2014M560607, 2015T80791)、湖北省自然科学基金(批准号: 2015CFB278)和教育部长江学者与创新团队发展计划(批准号: IRT13017)资助的课题.

摘要: 为了实现有效的工艺监控, 在批量化纳米制造中对纳米结构的关键尺寸等几何参数进行快速、低成本、非破坏性的精确测量具有十分重要的意义. 光学散射仪目前已经发展成为批量化纳米制造中纳米结构几何参数在线测量的一种重要手段. 传统光学散射测量技术只能获得光斑照射区内待测参数的平均值, 而对小于光斑照射区内样品的微小变化难以准确分析. 此外, 由于其只能进行单点测试, 必须要移动样品台进行扫描才能获得大面积区域内待测参数的分布信息, 从而严重影响测试效率. 为此, 本文将传统光学散射测量技术与显微成像技术相结合, 提出利用Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪实现纳米结构几何参数的大面积快速准确测量. Mueller矩阵成像椭偏仪具有传统Mueller矩阵椭偏仪测量信息全、光谱灵敏度高的优势, 同时又有显微成像技术高空间分辨率的优点, 有望为批量化纳米制造中纳米结构几何参数提供一种大面积、快速、低成本、非破坏性的精确测量新途径.

English Abstract

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