[1] Buscema M, Groenendijk D J, Blanter S I, Steele G A, Van Der Zant H S, Castellanos-Gomez A 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3347
[2] Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 183
[3] Mak K F, Shan J 2016 Nat. Photonics 10 216
[4] Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666
[5] Wang H, Yu L, Lee Y H, Shi Y, Hsu A, Chin M L, Li L J, Dubey M, Kong J, Palacios T 2012 Nano Lett. 12 4674
[6] Wang Q H, Kalantar Zadeh K, Kis A, Coleman J N, Strano M S 2012 Nat. Nanotechnol. 7 699
[7] Novoselov K S, Fal V, Colombo L, Gellert P, Schwab M, Kim K 2012 Nature 490 192
[8] Desai S B, Madhvapathy S R, Sachid A B, Linas J P, Wang Q, Ahn G H, Pitner G, Kim M J, Bokor J, Hu C 2016 Science 354 99
[9] Li M Y, Su S K, Wong H S P, Li L J 2019 Nature 567 169
[10] Wang F, Zhang Y, Tian C, Girit C, Zettl A, Crommie M, Shen Y R 2008 Science 320 206
[11] Carvalho A, Wang M, Zhu X, Rodin A S, Su H, Neto A H C 2016 Nat. Rev. Mater. 1 1
[12] Manzeli S, Ovchinnikov D, Pasquier D, Yazyev O V, Kis A 2017 Nat. Rev. Mater. 2 17033
[13] Chen X, Qiu Y, Liu G, Zheng W, Feng W, Gao F, Cao W, Fu Y, Hu W, Hu P 2017 J. Mater. Chem. A 5 11357
[14] Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kanda H 2004 Nat. Mater. 3 404
[15] Xu M, Liang T, Shi M, Chen H 2013 Chem. Rev. 113 3766
[16] Yang H, Heo J, Park S, Song H J, Seo D H, Byun K E, Kim P, Yoo I, Chung H J, Kim K 2012 Science 336 1140
[17] Goossens S, Navickaite G, Monasterio C, Gupta S, Piqueras J, Pérez R, Burwell G, Nikitskiy I, Lasanta T, Galán T 2017 Nat. Photonics 11 366
[18] Sun L, Zhang Y, Han G, Hwang G, Jiang J, Joo B, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kim Y M, Yu W J 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 1
[19] Zhang Y, Yao Y, Sendeku M G, Yin L, Zhan X, Wang F, Wang Z, He J 2019 Adv. Mater. 31 1901694
[20] Huo C, Yan Z, Song X, Zeng H 2015 Sci. Bull. 60 1994
[21] Cai Z, Liu B, Zou X, Cheng H M 2018 Chem. Rev. 118 6091
[22] Kang K, Xie S, Huang L, Han Y, Huang P Y, Mak K F, Kim C J, Muller D, Park J 2015 Nature 520 656
[23] Kalanyan B, Kimes W A, Beams R, Stranick S J, Garratt E, Kalish I, Davydov A V, Kanjolia R K, Maslar J E 2017 Chem. Mater. 29 6279
[24] Choi S H, Stephen B, Park J H, Lee J S, Kim S M, Yang W, Kim K K 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 1
[25] Cwik S, Mitoraj D, Mendoza Reyes O, Rogalla D, Peeters D, Kim J, Schütz H M, Bock C, Beranek R, Devi A 2018 Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5 1800140
[26] Ma L, Nath D N, Lee E W, Lee C H, Yu M, Arehart A, Rajan S, Wu Y 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 072105
[27] Tao L, Chen K, Chen Z, Chen W, Gui X, Chen H, Li X, Xu J B 2017 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9 12073
[28] Qian S, Yang R, Lan F, Xu Y, Sun K, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Dong Z 2019 Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process 93 317
[29] Gong Y, Ye G, Lei S, Shi G, He Y, Lin J, Zhang X, Vajtai R, Pantelides S T, Zhou W 2016 Adv. Funct. Mater. 26 2009
[30] 李娜, 张儒静, 甄真, 许振华, 何利民 2020 材料工程 48 36Li N, Zhang R J, Zhen Z, Xu Z H, He L M 2020 J. Mater. Eng. 48 36
[31] Zhang L, Shi Z, Wang Y, Yang R, Shi D, Zhang G 2011 Nano Res. 4 315
[32] Wei D, Lu Y, Han C, Niu T, Chen W, Wee A T S 2013 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 125 14371
[33] Kim H, Ahn C, Arabale G, Lee C, Kim T 2013 ECS Trans. 58 47
[34] Lu A Y, Zhu H, Xiao J, Chuu C P, Han Y, Chiu M H, Cheng C C, Yang C W, Wei K H, Yang Y 2017 Nat. Nanotechnol. 12 744
[35] Lin L, Deng B, Sun J, Peng H, Liu Z 2018 Chem. Rev. 118 9281
[36] 尤佳毅, 沈鸿烈, 吴天如, 谢晓明 2015 真空科学与技术学报 35 109You J Y, Sheng H L, Wu T R, Xie X M 2015 Chin. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35 109
[37] Rao R, Weaver K, Maruyama B 2015 Mater. Express 5 541
[38] 任文杰, 朱永, 龚天诚, 王宁, 张洁 2015 功能材料 46 16115Ren W J, Zhu Y, Gong T C, Wang N, Zhang J 2015 J. Funct. Mater. 46 16115
[39] Shi R, He P, Cai X, Zhang Z, Wang W, Wang J, Feng X, Wu Z, Amini A, Wang N 2020 ACS Nano 14 7593
[40] Yu H, Liao M, Zhao W, Liu G, Zhou X, Wei Z, Xu X, Liu K, Hu Z, Deng K 2017 ACS Nano 11 12001
[41] Regmi M, Chisholm M F, Eres G 2012 Carbon 50 134
[42] Li J, Cheng S, Liu Z, Zhang W, Chang H 2018 J. Phys. Chem. C 122 7005
[43] Yu Y, Li C, Liu Y, Su L, Zhang Y, Cao L 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 1866
[44] Elías A L, Perea-López N, Castro-Beltrán A, Berkdemir A, Lü R, Feng S, Long A D, Hayashi T, Kim Y A, Endo M 2013 ACS Nano 7 5235
[45] 葛雯, 吕斌 2013 材料科学与工程学报 31 489Ge Wd, Lv B 2013 Mater. Sci. Eng. 31 489
[46] Hammer B, Norskov J K 1995 Nature 376 238
[47] Chen H, Zhu W, Zhang Z 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 186101
[48] Gao J, Yip J, Zhao J, Yakobson B I, Ding F 2011 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 5009
[49] Abraham F F 1974 Homogeneous Nucleation Theory (Vol. 263) (New York: Academic Press) pp1−8
[50] Schmelzer J, Röpke G, Priezzhev V B 2005 Nucleation Theory and Applications (Vol. 76) (Hoboken: Wiley-VCH Weinheim) pp39−54
[51] Pruppacher H R, Klett J D 1980 Nature 284 88
[52] Vehkamäki H 2006 Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems (Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media) pp119−133
[53] 杨雅萍 2016 硕士学位论文 (长沙: 国防科学技术大学)Yang Y P 2016 M. S. Thesis (Changsha: National University of Defense Technology) (in Chinese)
[54] Geng D, Wu B, Guo Y, Huang L, Xue Y, Chen J, Yu G, Jiang L, Hu W, Liu Y 2012 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 7992
[55] Chen J Y, Zhao X X, Tan S J R, Xu H, Wu B, Liu B, Fu D Y, Fu W, Geng D C, Liu Y P, Liu W, Tang W, Li L J, Zhou W, Sum T C, Loh K P 2017 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 1073
[56] Markov I V 2003 Crystal Growth for Beginners: Fundamentals of Nucleation, Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (Singapore: World Scientific) pp105−036
[57] 王璐, 高峻峰, 丁峰 2014 化学学报 72 345Wang L, Gao J F, Ding F 2014 Acta Chim. Sin. 72 345
[58] Jia C, Jiang J, Gan L, Guo X 2012 Sci. Rep. 2 707
[59] 程想 2016 硕士学位论文 (武汉: 华中科技大学)Cheng X 2016 M. S. Thesis (WuHan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology) (in Chinese)
[60] Zafar A, Zafar Z, Zhao W, Jiang J, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Lu J, Ni Z 2019 Adv. Funct. Mater. 29 1809261
[61] Patera L L, Bianchini F, Africh C, Dri C, Soldano G, Mariscal M M, Peressi M, Comelli G 2018 Science 359 1243
[62] Hao Y, Bharathi M, Wang L, Liu Y, Chen H, Nie S, Wang X, Chou H, Tan C, Fallahazad B 2013 Science 342 720
[63] Xu X, Zhang Z, Qiu L, Zhuang J, Zhang L, Wang H, Liao C, Song H, Qiao R, Gao P 2016 Nat. Nanotechnol. 11 930
[64] Yang P, Zou X, Zhang Z, Hong M, Shi J, Chen S, Shu J, Zhao L, Jiang S, Zhou X 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 979
[65] Zhou J, Lin J, Huang X, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Xia J, Wang H, Xie Y, Yu H, Lei J 2018 Nature 556 355
[66] Tan C, Tang M, Wu J, Liu Y, Li T, Liang Y, Deng B, Tan Z, Tu T, Zhang Y 2019 Nano Lett. 19 2148