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基于二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体的中红外超快光纤激光器

张倩 金鑫鑫 张梦 郑铮

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基于二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体的中红外超快光纤激光器

张倩, 金鑫鑫, 张梦, 郑铮

Two-dimensional material as a saturable absorber for mid-infrared ultrafast fiber laser

Zhang Qian, Jin Xin-Xin, Zhang Meng, Zheng Zheng
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  • 以石墨烯为代表的二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体以其独特的非线性光学特性被广泛应用于超快光纤激光器. 本文总结了近年来二维纳米材料作为可饱和吸收体在中红外超快光纤激光器中的研究发展, 介绍了二维纳米材料原子结构、非线性光学特性、可饱和吸收体器件集成方式, 及其在中红外超快光纤激光器中的应用, 重点阐述了基于黑磷可饱和吸收体实现的2 μm飞秒光纤激光器, 并对二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体在中红外超快光纤激光器中的发展与挑战进行了展望.
    The two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial saturable absorber represented by graphene is widely used in ultrafast fiber lasers due to its unique nonlinear optical properties. In this paper, we summarize the research and development of 2D nanomaterials as saturable absorbers in mid-infrared ultrafast mode-locked fiber lasers in recent years, and introduce the atomic structure and nonlinear optical characteristics of 2D nanomaterials, and saturable absorber device integration methods. The laser performance parameters such as center wavelength, repetition frequency and average output power of the laser are discussed, and the femtosecond fiber laser based on black phosphorus saturable absorber in the middle infrared band is highlighted. Finally, the developments and challenges of 2D materials in mid-infrared pulsed fiber laser are also addressed.
      通信作者: 张梦, mengzhang10@buaa.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51778030, 51978024)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Meng, mengzhang10@buaa.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51778030, 51978024)
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  • 图 1  超快脉冲激光器中实体可饱和吸收体研究进展[16]

    Fig. 1.  Development of materials as real saturable absorber (SA) in lasers[16].

    图 2  二维纳米材料原子结构图 (a)石墨烯[19]; (b) TIs[23]; (c) TMDs[28,29]; (d) BP[36]; (e) MOFs[41]

    Fig. 2.  Atomic structures of two-dimensional (2D) materials: (a) Graphene[19]; (b) TIs[23]; (c) TMDs[28,29]; (d) BP[36]; (e) MOFs[41].

    图 3  二维纳米材料制备方法原理图: 自上而下、自下而上、拓扑转化法

    Fig. 3.  Schematic diagram fabrication methods of 2D materials: Top-down, bottom-up methods and Topological transformation.

    图 4  Ni-MOF结构特征图 (a) Ni-MOF SEM图; (b) Ni-MOF AFM图; (c) Ni-MOF拉曼谱[41]

    Fig. 4.  (a) SEM image of the Ni-MOF showing a 2D layer structure; (b) AFM image of the Ni-MOF dissolved in an IPA solution; (c) raman spectrum of the Ni-MOF[41].

    图 5  (a) 双探头平衡探测法装置; (b) 1934 nm激光照射下材料可饱和吸收体数据及其拟合曲线[41]

    Fig. 5.  (a) The setup of balanced twin-detector measurement; (b) the measured saturable absorption data and their corresponding fitting curve under 1934 nm laser irradiation[41].

    图 6  (a)开孔Z-扫描实验装置[64]; (b)基于Z-扫描可饱和吸收特性曲线图[55]

    Fig. 6.  (a) A typical data set from Z-scan experiment of the SA device[64]; (b) the typical shapes of Z-scan measurements[55].

    图 7  二维纳米材料光纤集成: 传输集成法((a)三明治结构材料转移至光纤端面[66]); 倏逝波集成法((b) D型光纤[65]、(c)锥形光纤[41])

    Fig. 7.  Fiber integration with two-dimensional materials: Transmission integration method ((a) sandwiching structure transferring SA on fiber end[66]); evanescent-wave integration method ((b) D-typed fiber[65], (c) tapered fiber[41]).

    图 8  (a)石墨烯脉冲激光器装置图[56]; (b)脉冲自相关图; (c)光谱图; (d) BP脉冲激光器装置图[40]; (e) 脉冲自相关图; (f)光谱图

    Fig. 8.  (a) Setup of graphene based mode-locked fiber laser[56]; (b) autocorrection trace; (c) optical spectrum; (d) setup of the BP mode-locked fiber laser[40]; (e) autocorrelation trace; (f) optical spectrum.

    图 9  基于BP可饱和吸收体色散管理掺铥锁模光纤激光器最短脉冲 (a)激光器实验装置图; (b)锁模脉冲自相关图[83]

    Fig. 9.  The shortest-pulse Tm-doped fiber laser based on BP at 2 μm spectral region: (a) Setup of Tm:fiber mode-locked laser; (b) autocorrelation trace[83].

    表 1  二维纳米材料带隙与载流子弛豫时间总结

    Table 1.  Bandgaps and carrier lifetime of 2D materials.

    2D materialGrapheneTIsTMDsBPMOFs
    Bandgap/eV00.2—0.31—2.00.3—20.85
    Carrier
    lifetime
    Fast: < 200 fs
    Slow: ~1 ps
    Fast: 0.3—2 ps
    Slow: 3—23 ps
    Fast: ~1—3 ps
    Slow: 70—400 ps
    Fast: 360 fs
    Slow: 1.3 ps
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  中红外波段各种二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体锁模光纤激光器性能总结

    Table 2.  Summary of mid-infrared mode-locked fiber lasers using 2D material based SAs.

    2D materialFabrication methodLaser typeλ/nmPulse width/psRepetition rate/MHzPower/mWRef.
    GrapheneLPETDF19403.66.462[56]
    GrapheneCVDTDF18841.220.51.35[22]
    GrapheneNPETDF19500.25523.51210[67]
    GrapheneCVDTDF19450.258.8713[68]
    GrapheneCVDEr:ZBLAN28004225.418[69]
    BPMETDF19100.73936.81.5[40]
    BPMEEr:ZBLAN28004224613[72]
    BPSonicationEr:ZBLAN3.53460028.9140[73]
    TMDs-WTe2MSDTDF19151.2518.7239.9[74]
    TIs-Bi2Te3METm/Ho19350.79527.920[27]
    MOFsSolvothermalTDF18821.313.92.87[41]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  基于二维纳米材料可饱和吸收体掺铥/钬超快锁模光纤激光器性能对比

    Table 3.  Output Performance Comparison of reported thulium-doped and holmium-doped fiber lasers mode-locked with nanomaterial SAs

    2D materialFabrication methodLaser typeλ/nmPulse width/fsRepetition rate/MHzSpectral width /nmRef.
    GrapheneCVDTm19402606.469.4[78]
    GrapheneCVDTm1876603416.6[79]
    GrapheneCVDTm194520558.8727.5[68]
    GrapheneHo206019020.9853.6[80]
    TIs-Bi2Te3OpticallyTm/Ho1909126021.53.6[81]
    TIs-Bi2Te3METm/Ho193579527.95.6[27]
    TMDs-WSe2CVDTm1864116011.363.19[61]
    TMDs-MoTe2CVDTm193095214.354.45[60]
    TMDs-MoSe2LPETm/Ho191292018.214.62[82]
    BPMETm191073936.85.8[40]
    BPLPETm188613920.9555.6[83]
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Hu J J, Meyer J, Richardson K, Shah L 2013 Opt. Mater. Express 3 1571Google Scholar

    [2]

    Gaimard Q, Triki M, Nguyen-Ba T, Cerutti L, Boissier G, Teissier R, Baranov A, Rouillard Y, Vicet A 2015 Opt. Express 23 19118Google Scholar

    [3]

    Geiser P 2015 Sensors 15 22724Google Scholar

    [4]

    Schwaighofer A, Alcaraz M R, Araman C, Goicoechea H, Lendl B 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 33556Google Scholar

    [5]

    Nishii J, Morimoto S, Inagawa I, Iizuka R, Yamashita T, Yamagishi T 1992 J Non. Cryst. Solids. 140 199Google Scholar

    [6]

    Spiers G D, Menzies R T, Jacob J, Christensen L E, Phillips M W, Choi Y, Browell E V 2011 Appl. Opt. 50 2098Google Scholar

    [7]

    Fuller T A 1986 Laser. Surg. Med. 6 399Google Scholar

    [8]

    Petersen C R, Moller U, Kubat I, Zhou B B, Dupont S, Ramsay J, Benson T, Sujecki S, Abdel-Moneim N, Tang Z Q, Furniss D, Seddon A, Bang O 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 830Google Scholar

    [9]

    Ouyang D, Zhao J, Zheng Z, Liu M, Li C, Ruan S, Yan P, Pei J 2016 IEEE Photon. J. 8 1600910Google Scholar

    [10]

    Zhang M, Kelleher E J R, Popov S V, Taylor J R 2014 Opt. Fiber Technol. 20 666Google Scholar

    [11]

    Wei C, Shi H X, Luo H Y, Zhang H, Lyu Y J, Liu Y 2017 Opt. Express 25 19170Google Scholar

    [12]

    Tang P H, Qin Z P, Liu J, Zhao C J, Xie G Q, Wen S C, Qian L J 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 4855Google Scholar

    [13]

    Li P, Ruehl A, Grosse-Wortmann U, Hartl I 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 6859Google Scholar

    [14]

    Li L, Huang H T, Su L, Shen D Y, Tang D Y, Klimczak M, Zhao L M 2019 Appl. Opt. 58 2745Google Scholar

    [15]

    Bao Q L, Zhang H, Wang Y, Ni Z H, Yan Y L, Shen Z X, Loh K P, Tang D Y 2009 Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 3077Google Scholar

    [16]

    Woodward R I, Kelleher E J R 2015 Appl. Sci-Basel 5 1440Google Scholar

    [17]

    Du J, Zhang M, Guo Z, Chen J, Zhu X, Hu G, Peng P, Zheng Z, Zhang H 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 42357Google Scholar

    [18]

    Song Y F, Chen S, Zhang Q, Li L, Zhao L M, Zhang H, Tang D Y 2016 Opt. Express 24 25933Google Scholar

    [19]

    Howe R C T, Hu G, Yang Z, Hasan T 2015 Proc. SPIE 9553 95530RGoogle Scholar

    [20]

    Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T, Ferrari A C 2010 Nat. Photonics 4 611Google Scholar

    [21]

    Cusati T, Fiori G, Gahoi A, Passi V, Lemme M C, Fortunelli A, Iannaccone G 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 5109Google Scholar

    [22]

    Sobon G, Sotor J, Pasternak I, Krajewska A, Strupinski W, Abramski K M 2013 Opt. Express 21 12797Google Scholar

    [23]

    Koski K J, Wessells C D, Reed B W, Cha J J, Kong D S, Cui Y 2012 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 13773Google Scholar

    [24]

    Boguslawski J, Sobon G, Zybala R, Sotor J 2015 Opt. Lett. 40 2786Google Scholar

    [25]

    Dou Z Y, Song Y R, Tian J R, Liu J H, Yu Z H, Fang X H 2014 Opt. Express 22 24055Google Scholar

    [26]

    Chi C, Lee J, Koo J, Lee J H 2014 Laser Phys 24 105106Google Scholar

    [27]

    Jung M, Lee J, Koo J, Park J, Song Y W, Lee K, Lee S, Lee J H 2014 Opt. Express 22 7865Google Scholar

    [28]

    Wang Q H, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kis A, Coleman J N, Strano M S 2012 Nat. Nanotechnol. 7 699Google Scholar

    [29]

    Xu M S, Liang T, Shi M M, Chen H Z 2013 Chem. Rev. 113 3766Google Scholar

    [30]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-03-31
  • 修回日期:  2020-06-12
  • 上网日期:  2020-09-17
  • 刊出日期:  2020-09-20

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