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哈勃常数危机

蔡荣根 李理 王少江

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哈勃常数危机

蔡荣根, 李理, 王少江

Hubble-constant crisis

Cai Rong-Gen, Li Li, Wang Shao-Jiang
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  • 哈勃常数定量刻画了当前宇宙的膨胀速率, 精确测定哈勃常数是现代宇宙学的一个重要科学问题. 近年来, 哈勃常数的局域直接测量值与全局模型拟合值之间出现了越来越严重的偏差, 其中局域直接测量值来自于晚期宇宙的局域距离阶梯测量结果, 而全局模型拟合值来自于早期宇宙的微波背景辐射对宇宙学标准模型的观测限制. 如果该偏差不是由其中任何一种观测手段的观测误差和系统误差所致, 那么很有可能意味着存在超出宇宙学标准模型的新物理. 本文从观测和模型两方面简述该哈勃常数危机问题, 并结合作者近年来对此问题的研究从观测和模型两方面进行展望.
    The Hubble constant quantitatively characterizes the expansion rate of the current Universe, and its precise measurement has become a crucial scientific problem. In recent years, there has been an increasingly serious discrepancy between the local direct measurements of the Hubble constant and the global fitting results, where the local direct measurements come from the local distance ladder measurements of the late universe, and the global fitting results come from fitting the standard model of cosmology to the microwave background radiation from the early universe. If this discrepancy is not caused by the observation error and systematic error of any of the observation methods, it probably means that there is a new physics beyond the existing standard model of cosmology. This article briefly reviews the Hubble constant problem from two aspects with observational and theoretical points of view, and finally provide a perspective view from both observational and theoretical aspects by combining the author’s research on this problem in recent years. The observational review includes cosmological observations from both early Universe (either depending or independent of the CMB measurements) and late Universe (either depending or independent of the distant-ladder measurements), and the theoretical review includes model buildings from modifying both early Universe (either recombination history or expansion history) and late Universe (either homogeneous modifications or inhomogeneous modifications). The final observational perspective includes both local and non-local cosmic variances with their Hubble residual correlated to the matter density contrasts of observer and sample, respectively, and the final theoretical perspective concludes the interacting dark energy model as the most promising candidate for both Hubble tension and S8 tension, which can be specifically realized in a chameleon dark energy model, pointing to a scale-dependent effective cosmological constant.
      通信作者: 王少江, schwang@itp.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2021YFA0718304, 2021YFC2203004, 2020YFC2201502)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 12105344, 12235019, 11821505, 11991052, 11947302, 12122513) 资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Wang Shao-Jiang, schwang@itp.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2021YFA0718304, 2021YFC2203004, 2020YFC2201502) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 12105344, 12235019, 11821505, 11991052, 11947302, 12122513).
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  • 图 1  哈勃常数危机: 来自 CMB-Planck+$ \Lambda{\mathrm{CDM}} $的$ H_0 $限制(蓝色)与来自 SH0ES 合作组距离阶梯 SNe+Cepheid 的$ H_0 $测量(绿色)之间高达将近$ 5\sigma $的偏离. 图片来自文献[2]

    Fig. 1.  The Hubble-constant tension: The nearly$ 5\sigma $discrepancy between the$ H_0 $constraint (blue) from CMB-Planck+$ \Lambda{\mathrm{CDM}}$ and the$ H_0 $measurement (green) from SH0ES group using the distance ladder SNe+Cepheid. The figure comes from Ref. [2].

    图 2  哈勃常数危机: 来自早期宇宙的间接拟合和晚期宇宙的直接测量. 图片来自文献[8]

    Fig. 2.  The Hubble-constant tension: The indirect constraints from fitting the early Universe and direct measurements from the late Universe. The figure comes from Ref. [8].

    图 3  把BBN与星系BAO(蓝色)和Lyman-$ \alpha $BAO(绿色)结合后给出的限制(红色)与Planck 2018 限制结果(紫色)和SH0ES组测量结果(橙色)的对比. 图片来自文献[18]

    Fig. 3.  The comparison to the Planck 2018 constraint (purple) and the SH0ES measurement (orange) with respect to the joint constraint (red) from combing BBN with galaxy BAO (blue) and Lyman-$ \alpha $BAO (green). The figure comes from Ref. [18].

    图 4  SH0ES 合作组采用的三级距离阶梯. 图片来自文献[2]

    Fig. 4.  The three-rung distance ladder adopted by the SH0ES group. The figure comes from Ref. [2].

    图 5  来自与距离阶梯无关的强引力透镜时间延迟对哈勃常数测量, 图片来自文献[18]

    Fig. 5.  The Hubble-constant measurements from strong lensing time delay independent of distance ladders. The figure comes from Ref. [18].

    图 6  来自 LISA 和太极空间引力波探测器联网的对哈勃常数的暗汽笛限制. 图片来自文献[40]

    Fig. 6.  The dark siren constraints on the Hubble constant from the LISA-Taiji network. The figure comes from Ref. [40]

    图 7  星系弱引力透镜观测(左上)、SH0ES组对$ H_0 $的测量(左中)以及重子声学振荡观测(左下)对早期宇宙模型(右)的限制. 图片来自文献[12]

    Fig. 7.  The constraints (left) on the early-Universe models (right) from the galactic weak lensing observation (left top), the SH0ES measurement on$ H_0 $(left medium), and the BAO observation (left bottom). The figure comes from Ref. [12].

    图 8  在$ \Lambda{\mathrm{CDM}} $ 模型及其PAge/MAPAge参数化模型以及按红移$ z $和$ y = 1 - a $的泰勒展开近似下的BAO特征尺度(红、蓝、绿)与BAO观测数据的对比. 图片来自文献[14]

    Fig. 8.  The comparison of characteristic BAO length scales to the BAO data from the$ \Lambda {\mathrm{CDM}}$ model and its PAge/MAPAge parameterization models as well as its Taylor expansion models in redshift$ z $and$ y=1-a $. The figure comes from Ref. [14].

    图 9  变色龙暗能量机制示意图 (a) 变色龙暗能量有效势$ V_{\rm{eff}}(\varphi) = V(\varphi) + U(\varphi) $, 其中变色龙场势函数取 Peebles-Ratra 势函数$ V(\varphi) = \alpha\varLambda^4(\varLambda/\varphi)^n $, 变色龙耦合项取伸缩子耦合$ U(\varphi) = \exp(\varphi/\varLambda)\hat{\rho}_{\rm{m}} $. 易见当实线对应的物质密度$ \hat{\rho}_{\rm{m}} $大于虚线对应的物质密度时, 相应地实线在有效势的真空期望值处对应的势函数值(真空能)也大于虚线的情况. (b) 选取 Planck 2018 测量结果(红色)为背景宇宙学, 那么局域物质密度超出(纵轴)对应的局域哈勃常数(横轴)可以拟合 SH0ES 测量结果(蓝色). 图片来自文献[88]

    Fig. 9.  The illustrative demonstration of the chameleon dark energy model. (a) The effective potential of chameleon dark energy is$ V_{\rm{eff}}(\varphi) = V(\varphi) + U(\varphi) $, where the chameleon potential is of Peebles-Ratra form$ V(\varphi) = \alpha\varLambda^4(\varLambda/\varphi)^n $, and the chameleon coupling is of dilaton form$ U(\varphi) = \exp(\varphi/\varLambda)\hat{\rho}_{\rm{m}} $. It is easy to see that when the solid curve corresponds to higher matter density$ \hat{\rho}_{\rm{m}} $than the dashed curve with lower one, then the potential energy (vacuum energy) at the vacuum expectation value of the effective potential is also higher than the dashed case. (b) Choosing the Planck 2018 result (red) as the background cosmology, then the corresponding local Hubble constant (horizontal axis) from given local matter density contrast (vertical axis) could fit the SH0ES result (blue). The figure comes from Ref. [88].

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    Alam S, et al. 2021 Phys. Rev. D 103 083533Google Scholar

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    Ivanov M M, Simonović M, Zaldarriaga M 2020 JCAP 05 042Google Scholar

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    Philcox O H E, Ivanov M M, Simonović M, Zaldarriaga M 2020 JCAP 2005 032Google Scholar

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    Zhang P, D’Amico G, Senatore L, Zhao C, Cai Y 2022 JCAP 02 036Google Scholar

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    Pitrou C, Coc A, Uzan J P, Vangioni E 2018 Phys. Rep. 754 1Google Scholar

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    Dhawan S, Brout D, Scolnic D, Goobar A, Riess A G, Miranda V 2020 Astrophys. J. 894 54Google Scholar

    [28]

    Freedman W L 2021 Astrophys. J. 919 16Google Scholar

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    Khetan N, et al. 2021 Astron. Astrophys. 647 A72Google Scholar

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    Huang C D, Riess A G, Yuan W, Macri L M, Zakamska N L, Casertano S, Whitelock P A, Hoffmann S L, Filippenko A V, Scolnic D 2020 Astrophys. J. 889 5Google Scholar

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    Shajib A J, et al. 2020 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 494 6072Google Scholar

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    Krolak A, Schutz B F 1987 Gen. Rel. Grav. 19 1163Google Scholar

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    Sathyaprakash B S, Schutz B F 2009 Living Rev. Rel. 12 2Google Scholar

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    Abbott B, et al. 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 161101Google Scholar

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    Abbott B, et al. 2017 Nature 551 85Google Scholar

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    Hotokezaka K, Nakar E, Gottlieb O, Nissanke S, Masuda K, Hallinan G, Mooley K P, Deller A T 2019 Nat. Astron. 3 940Google Scholar

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    Mukherjee S, Lavaux G, Bouchet F R, Jasche J, Wandelt B D, Nissanke S M, Leclercq F, Hotokezaka K 2021 Astron. Astrophys. 646 A65Google Scholar

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    Vachaspati T 2021 Rept. Prog. Phys. 84 074901Google Scholar

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    Thiele L, Guan Y, Hill J C, Kosowsky A, Spergel D N 2021 Phys. Rev. D 104 063535Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-04
  • 修回日期:  2023-08-21
  • 上网日期:  2023-09-12
  • 刊出日期:  2023-12-05

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