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Surface morphology improvement of homoepitaxial GaN grown on free-standing GaN substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

Li Zhong-Hui Luo Wei-Ke Yang Qian-Kun Li Liang Zhou Jian-Jun Dong Xun Peng Da-Qing Zhang Dong-Guo Pan Lei Li Chuan-Hao

Surface morphology improvement of homoepitaxial GaN grown on free-standing GaN substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

Li Zhong-Hui, Luo Wei-Ke, Yang Qian-Kun, Li Liang, Zhou Jian-Jun, Dong Xun, Peng Da-Qing, Zhang Dong-Guo, Pan Lei, Li Chuan-Hao
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  • Free-standing GaN is generally regarded as an ideal substrate for GaN-based devices due to its advantage of low threading dislocation density (TDD) and good thermal conductivity. However, new surface features such as hillocks and ridges appear on the GaN homoepitaxy films. In this paper, the influences of the intermediate GaN (IM-GaN) layer on the surface defects and crystal quality of GaN homoepitaxy films grown on c-plane GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. It is found that hexagonal hillocks and ridges on the surface can be avoided by inserting an IM-GaN layer grown at an intermediate temperature (650850℃), prior to the growth of GaN at 1050℃. The results based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and differential interference contrast microscopy images demonstrate that the growth temperature of the IM-GaN layer has a significant influence on GaN homoepitaxy layer, which is one of the most critical parameters determining the surface morphology and crystal quality. As the IM-GaN growth temperature decreases from 1050℃ to 650℃, thed densities of hillocks and ridges on the surface reduce gradually. While, the XRD full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (002) and (102) peaks for the homoepitaxy films are increased rapidly, indicating the adding of the TDD in the films. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show that the quasi-step growth mode change into layer-layer growth mode with the growth temperature decreasing from 1050℃ to 650℃ during the IM-GaN layer growing. It is speculated that the growth mode is determined by the diffusion length of adatom on the growing surface, which is proportional to the growth temperature. In the case of IM-GaN grown at low temperature, the formation of hillocks can be suppressed by reducing the adatom diffusion length. Finally, High crystal quality GaN homoepitaxy films (2 m) without hillocks is achieved by optimizing the growth parameters of IM-GaN layer, which is about 150 nm in thickness and grown at 850℃. The crystal quality of GaN homoepitaxy film is assessed by XRD rocking curve measured with double-crystal optics. The FWHMs of the (002) and (102) peaks are 125arcsec and 85arcsec respectively, indicating that rather low TDD is formed in the film. And well defined steps are observed on the image of AFM test, the root-mean square roughness value of the which is only about 0.23 nm for 5 m5 m scan area.
      Corresponding author: Luo Wei-Ke, luowk688@163.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505181, 61474101, 61504125), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA016800, 2015AA033300) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0400902).
    [1]

    Palacios T, Chakraborty A, Rajan S, Rajan S, Poblenz C, Keller S, DenBaars S P, Speck J S, Mishra U K 2005 IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 26 781

    [2]

    Webb J B, Tang H, Rolfe S, Bardwell J A 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 953

    [3]

    Limb J B, Xing H, Moran B, McCarthy L, DenBaars S P, Mishra U K 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2457

    [4]

    Qin P, Song W D, Hu W X, Zhang Y W, Zhang C Z, Wang R P, Zhao L L, Xia C, Yuan S Y, Yin Y A, Li S T, Su S C 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 088505

    [5]

    LiuY L, Jin P, Liu G, Wang WY, Qi Z Q, Chen C Q, Wang Z G 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 087801

    [6]

    Kikkawa T 2005 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 4896

    [7]

    Zhang J Q, Wang L, Li L A, Wang Q P, Jiang Y, Zhu H C, Ao J P 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25

    [8]

    Duan X L, Zhang J C, Xiao M, Zhao Y, Ning J, Hao Y 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 087304

    [9]

    Killat N, Montes M, Paskova T, Evans K R, Leach J, Li X, Özgr , Morkoç H, Chabak K D, Crespo A, Gillespie J K, Fitch R, Kossler M, Walker D E, Trejo M, Via G D, Blevins J D, Kuball M 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 193507

    [10]

    Oehlern F, Zhu T, Kappers M J, Kappers M J, Humphreys C J, Oliver R A 2013 J. Cryst. Growth 383 12

    [11]

    Zhou K, Liu J, Zhang S M, Li Z C, Feng M X, Li D Y, Zhang L Q, Wang F, Zhu J J, Yang H 2013 J. Cryst. Growth 371 7

    [12]

    Kizilyalli I C, Buiquang P, Disney D, Bhatia H, Aktas O 2015 Microelectron. Reliab. 55 1654

    [13]

    Kubo S, Nanba Y, Okazaki T, Manabe S, Kurai S, Taguchi T 2002 J. Cryst. Growth 236 66

    [14]

    Leszczynskia M, Beaumont B, Frayssinet E, Knap W, Prystawko P, Suski T, Grzegory T, Porowski S 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 1276

    [15]

    Okada S, Miyake H, Hiramatsu K, Miyagawa R, Eryu O, Hashizume T 2016 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55 01AC08

    [16]

    Cho Y, Ha J S, Jung M, Lee H J, Park S, Park J, Fujii K, Toba R, Yi S, Kil G S, Chang J, Yao T 2010 J. Cryst. Growth 312 1693

    [17]

    Tian W, Yan W Y, Dai J N, Li S L, Tian Y, Hui X, Zhang J B, Fang Y Y, Wu Z H, Chen C Q 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 065303

    [18]

    Heying B, Wu X H, Keller S, Li Y, Kapolnek D, Keller B P, DenBaars S P, Speck J S 1996 Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 643

    [19]

    Heinke H, Kirchner V, Einfeldt S, Hommel D 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 2145

    [20]

    Scheel H J 2001 J. Cryst. Growth 211 1

    [21]

    Tanabe S, Watanabe N, Uchida N, Matsuzaki H 2016 Phys. Status Solidi A 213 1236

    [22]

    Corrion A L, Wu F, Speck J S 2012 J. Appl. Phys. 112 054903

    [23]

    Perret E, Highland M J, Stephenson G B, Streiffer S K, Zapol P, Fuoss P H, Munkholm A, Thompson C 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 051602

  • [1]

    Palacios T, Chakraborty A, Rajan S, Rajan S, Poblenz C, Keller S, DenBaars S P, Speck J S, Mishra U K 2005 IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 26 781

    [2]

    Webb J B, Tang H, Rolfe S, Bardwell J A 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 953

    [3]

    Limb J B, Xing H, Moran B, McCarthy L, DenBaars S P, Mishra U K 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2457

    [4]

    Qin P, Song W D, Hu W X, Zhang Y W, Zhang C Z, Wang R P, Zhao L L, Xia C, Yuan S Y, Yin Y A, Li S T, Su S C 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 088505

    [5]

    LiuY L, Jin P, Liu G, Wang WY, Qi Z Q, Chen C Q, Wang Z G 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 087801

    [6]

    Kikkawa T 2005 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44 4896

    [7]

    Zhang J Q, Wang L, Li L A, Wang Q P, Jiang Y, Zhu H C, Ao J P 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25

    [8]

    Duan X L, Zhang J C, Xiao M, Zhao Y, Ning J, Hao Y 2016 Chin. Phys. B 25 087304

    [9]

    Killat N, Montes M, Paskova T, Evans K R, Leach J, Li X, Özgr , Morkoç H, Chabak K D, Crespo A, Gillespie J K, Fitch R, Kossler M, Walker D E, Trejo M, Via G D, Blevins J D, Kuball M 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 193507

    [10]

    Oehlern F, Zhu T, Kappers M J, Kappers M J, Humphreys C J, Oliver R A 2013 J. Cryst. Growth 383 12

    [11]

    Zhou K, Liu J, Zhang S M, Li Z C, Feng M X, Li D Y, Zhang L Q, Wang F, Zhu J J, Yang H 2013 J. Cryst. Growth 371 7

    [12]

    Kizilyalli I C, Buiquang P, Disney D, Bhatia H, Aktas O 2015 Microelectron. Reliab. 55 1654

    [13]

    Kubo S, Nanba Y, Okazaki T, Manabe S, Kurai S, Taguchi T 2002 J. Cryst. Growth 236 66

    [14]

    Leszczynskia M, Beaumont B, Frayssinet E, Knap W, Prystawko P, Suski T, Grzegory T, Porowski S 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 1276

    [15]

    Okada S, Miyake H, Hiramatsu K, Miyagawa R, Eryu O, Hashizume T 2016 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55 01AC08

    [16]

    Cho Y, Ha J S, Jung M, Lee H J, Park S, Park J, Fujii K, Toba R, Yi S, Kil G S, Chang J, Yao T 2010 J. Cryst. Growth 312 1693

    [17]

    Tian W, Yan W Y, Dai J N, Li S L, Tian Y, Hui X, Zhang J B, Fang Y Y, Wu Z H, Chen C Q 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 065303

    [18]

    Heying B, Wu X H, Keller S, Li Y, Kapolnek D, Keller B P, DenBaars S P, Speck J S 1996 Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 643

    [19]

    Heinke H, Kirchner V, Einfeldt S, Hommel D 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 2145

    [20]

    Scheel H J 2001 J. Cryst. Growth 211 1

    [21]

    Tanabe S, Watanabe N, Uchida N, Matsuzaki H 2016 Phys. Status Solidi A 213 1236

    [22]

    Corrion A L, Wu F, Speck J S 2012 J. Appl. Phys. 112 054903

    [23]

    Perret E, Highland M J, Stephenson G B, Streiffer S K, Zapol P, Fuoss P H, Munkholm A, Thompson C 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 051602

  • [1] Hu Xiaoliang, Liang Hong, Wang Huili. Lattice Boltzmann method simulations of the immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability with high Reynolds numbers. Acta Physica Sinica, 2020, 69(4): 1-10. doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191504
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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  10 December 2016
  • Accepted Date:  09 March 2017
  • Published Online:  20 May 2017

Surface morphology improvement of homoepitaxial GaN grown on free-standing GaN substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Corresponding author: Luo Wei-Ke, luowk688@163.com
  • 1. Science and Technology on Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Modules Laboratory, Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505181, 61474101, 61504125), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA016800, 2015AA033300) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0400902).

Abstract: Free-standing GaN is generally regarded as an ideal substrate for GaN-based devices due to its advantage of low threading dislocation density (TDD) and good thermal conductivity. However, new surface features such as hillocks and ridges appear on the GaN homoepitaxy films. In this paper, the influences of the intermediate GaN (IM-GaN) layer on the surface defects and crystal quality of GaN homoepitaxy films grown on c-plane GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. It is found that hexagonal hillocks and ridges on the surface can be avoided by inserting an IM-GaN layer grown at an intermediate temperature (650850℃), prior to the growth of GaN at 1050℃. The results based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and differential interference contrast microscopy images demonstrate that the growth temperature of the IM-GaN layer has a significant influence on GaN homoepitaxy layer, which is one of the most critical parameters determining the surface morphology and crystal quality. As the IM-GaN growth temperature decreases from 1050℃ to 650℃, thed densities of hillocks and ridges on the surface reduce gradually. While, the XRD full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of (002) and (102) peaks for the homoepitaxy films are increased rapidly, indicating the adding of the TDD in the films. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show that the quasi-step growth mode change into layer-layer growth mode with the growth temperature decreasing from 1050℃ to 650℃ during the IM-GaN layer growing. It is speculated that the growth mode is determined by the diffusion length of adatom on the growing surface, which is proportional to the growth temperature. In the case of IM-GaN grown at low temperature, the formation of hillocks can be suppressed by reducing the adatom diffusion length. Finally, High crystal quality GaN homoepitaxy films (2 m) without hillocks is achieved by optimizing the growth parameters of IM-GaN layer, which is about 150 nm in thickness and grown at 850℃. The crystal quality of GaN homoepitaxy film is assessed by XRD rocking curve measured with double-crystal optics. The FWHMs of the (002) and (102) peaks are 125arcsec and 85arcsec respectively, indicating that rather low TDD is formed in the film. And well defined steps are observed on the image of AFM test, the root-mean square roughness value of the which is only about 0.23 nm for 5 m5 m scan area.

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