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质子束辐照单层石墨烯的损伤效应

张宁 张鑫 杨爱香 把得东 冯展祖 陈益峰 邵剑雄 陈熙萌

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质子束辐照单层石墨烯的损伤效应

张宁, 张鑫, 杨爱香, 把得东, 冯展祖, 陈益峰, 邵剑雄, 陈熙萌

Damage effects of proton beam irradiation on single layer graphene

Zhang Ning, Zhang Xin, Yang Ai-Xiang, Ba De-Dong, Feng Zhan-Zu, Chen Yi-Feng, Shao Jian-Xiong, Chen Xi-Meng
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  • 基于石墨烯优异的电学性能,其已被广泛应用于许多工业领域.但由于其带隙为零,一定程度上限制了在电子器件方面更进一步的应用.为了通过离子辐照在石墨烯中引入缺陷并打开带隙,本工作研究了能量为750 keV,1 MeV的质子束对硅衬底单层石墨烯的辐照损伤效应.通过对比辐照前后的石墨烯样品的拉曼光谱发现:ID/IG随着入射质子能损的增大而增大,与SRIM程序模拟结果趋势一致;缺陷间平均距离LD随入射质子能量的增大而增大;缺陷密度nD随入射质子能量的增大而减小.这表明质子在石墨烯中的损伤效应与三维材料相似.
    Graphene was first discovered in 2004 (Novoselov K S, et al. 2004 Science 306 666), it is a single atomic layer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb-like lattice. According to its extraordinary electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties, one can expect it to have a variety of applications in nanoscale electronics, composite materials, energy storage, and biomedicine fields. Although many experimental and theoretical studies on graphene have been carried, there still exist many obstacles to its applications. A representative example is nanoscale electronics (e.g., field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices) that requires non-zero band-gap. Therefore, introducing defects into graphene and leading to band-gap opening are key steps for its technique applications.Recently, ion beam irradiation as a defects introducing technique was performed by Lee et al. (2015 Appl. Surf. Sci. 344 52) and Zeng et al. (2016 Carbon 100 16) through 5, 10, and 15 MeV protons and highly charged ions (HCIs) irradiating the graphene separately. Considering the advantages of simplity for preparing samples and feasibility in atmospheric condition of Raman spectroscopy compared with common characterization techniques (high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy) for nano-materials, in both studies, Raman spectroscopy is used to obtain the evolution of ID/IG (ID is the peak intensity excited by defects, IG is the peak intensity origining from lateral vibration of carbon atoms) with different energies and fluences, respectively. In this work, considered are the following points:1) the absence of quantitive characterization for defects in the above two studies; 2) the low displacement energy of 25 eV required for a carbon atom to be knocked out (Zhao S J, et al. 2012 Nanotechnology 23 285703); 3) the complex interaction between HCIs and material. The irradiation effects of single layer graphene on silicon substrate are investigated by 750 keV and 1 MeV proton bombarding. This introduces the defects into graphene and thus leads to band-gap opening. By comparing Raman spectra of the samples before and after irradiation, a quantitive characterization about defects in graphene is achieved. Detailed analysis shows that 1) the value of ID/IG increases with the energy loss of incident proton, which is consistent with the result of SRIM simulation; 2) the average distance of defects LD increases with the incident proton energy; 3) the defect density nD decreases with the incident proton energy. These indicate that the damage effect for MeV protons in single layer graphene with substrate is similar to those in three-dimensional materials. The method presented here may facilitate the understanding of the physical mechanism of MeV proton interaction with two-dimensional materials, and provide a potential way of controlling the electronic structure and band-gap.
      Corresponding author: Shao Jian-Xiong, shaojx@lzu.edu.cn;chenxm@lzu.edu.cn ; Chen Xi-Meng, shaojx@lzu.edu.cn;chenxm@lzu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174116).
    [1]

    Mermin N D 1968 Phys. Rev. 176 250

    [2]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [3]

    Zhang Q H, Han J H, Feng G Y, Xu Q X, Ding L Z, Lu X X 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 21 214209 (in Chinese)[张秋慧, 韩敬华, 冯国英, 徐其兴, 丁立中, 卢晓翔2012物理学报21 214209]

    [4]

    Fischbein M D, Drndić M 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 113107

    [5]

    Chen J H, Cullen W G, Jang C, Fuhrer M S, Williams E D 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 236805

    [6]

    Xu Y J, Zhang K, Brsewitz C, Wu X M, Hofsäss H C 2013 AIP Adv. 3 072120

    [7]

    Lee S, Seo J, Hong J, Park S H, Lee J H, Min B W, Lee T 2015 Appl. Surf. Sci. 344 52

    [8]

    Mathew S, Chan T K, Zhan D, Gopinadhan K, Barman A R, Breese M B H, Dhar S, Shen Z X, Venkatesan T, Thong J T L 2011 Carbon 49 1720

    [9]

    Zeng J, Liu J, Yao H J, Zhai P F, Zhang S X, Guo H, Hu P P, Duan J L, Mo D, Hou M D, Sun Y M 2016 Carbon 100 16

    [10]

    Zhao S J, Xue J M, Wang Y G, Yan S 2012 Nanotechnology 23 285703

    [11]

    Cancado L G, Jorio A, Ferreira E H M, Stavale F, Achete C A, Capaz R B, Moutinho M V O, Lombardo A, Kulmala T S, Ferrari A C 2011 Nano Lett. 11 3190

    [12]

    Kim J H, Hwang J H, Suh J, Tongay S, Kwon S, Hwang C C, Wu J Q, Park J Y 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 171604

    [13]

    Ziegler J F, Ziegler M D, Biersack J P 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 1818

  • [1]

    Mermin N D 1968 Phys. Rev. 176 250

    [2]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [3]

    Zhang Q H, Han J H, Feng G Y, Xu Q X, Ding L Z, Lu X X 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 21 214209 (in Chinese)[张秋慧, 韩敬华, 冯国英, 徐其兴, 丁立中, 卢晓翔2012物理学报21 214209]

    [4]

    Fischbein M D, Drndić M 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 113107

    [5]

    Chen J H, Cullen W G, Jang C, Fuhrer M S, Williams E D 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 236805

    [6]

    Xu Y J, Zhang K, Brsewitz C, Wu X M, Hofsäss H C 2013 AIP Adv. 3 072120

    [7]

    Lee S, Seo J, Hong J, Park S H, Lee J H, Min B W, Lee T 2015 Appl. Surf. Sci. 344 52

    [8]

    Mathew S, Chan T K, Zhan D, Gopinadhan K, Barman A R, Breese M B H, Dhar S, Shen Z X, Venkatesan T, Thong J T L 2011 Carbon 49 1720

    [9]

    Zeng J, Liu J, Yao H J, Zhai P F, Zhang S X, Guo H, Hu P P, Duan J L, Mo D, Hou M D, Sun Y M 2016 Carbon 100 16

    [10]

    Zhao S J, Xue J M, Wang Y G, Yan S 2012 Nanotechnology 23 285703

    [11]

    Cancado L G, Jorio A, Ferreira E H M, Stavale F, Achete C A, Capaz R B, Moutinho M V O, Lombardo A, Kulmala T S, Ferrari A C 2011 Nano Lett. 11 3190

    [12]

    Kim J H, Hwang J H, Suh J, Tongay S, Kwon S, Hwang C C, Wu J Q, Park J Y 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 171604

    [13]

    Ziegler J F, Ziegler M D, Biersack J P 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 1818

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-01-01
  • 修回日期:  2017-01-02
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-20

质子束辐照单层石墨烯的损伤效应

    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11174116)资助的课题.

摘要: 基于石墨烯优异的电学性能,其已被广泛应用于许多工业领域.但由于其带隙为零,一定程度上限制了在电子器件方面更进一步的应用.为了通过离子辐照在石墨烯中引入缺陷并打开带隙,本工作研究了能量为750 keV,1 MeV的质子束对硅衬底单层石墨烯的辐照损伤效应.通过对比辐照前后的石墨烯样品的拉曼光谱发现:ID/IG随着入射质子能损的增大而增大,与SRIM程序模拟结果趋势一致;缺陷间平均距离LD随入射质子能量的增大而增大;缺陷密度nD随入射质子能量的增大而减小.这表明质子在石墨烯中的损伤效应与三维材料相似.

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