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新型长周期光纤光栅的设计与研制进展

张伟刚 张严昕 耿鹏程 王标 李晓兰 王松 严铁毅

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Citation:

新型长周期光纤光栅的设计与研制进展

张伟刚, 张严昕, 耿鹏程, 王标, 李晓兰, 王松, 严铁毅

Recent progress in design and fabrication of novel long-period fiber grating

Zhang Wei-Gang, Zhang Yan-Xin, Geng Peng-Cheng, Wang Biao, Li Xiao-Lan, Wang Song, Yan Tie-Yi
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  • 长周期光纤光栅(long-period fiber grating,LPFG)是一种宽带的透射型无源光子器件,在光纤通信和光纤传感领域应用广泛.本文从折射率空间调制的角度,根据栅格周期长短、折射率调制深度和栅面法线取向三个特征参数,对LPFG进行了分类并分析了其不足,定义了新型长周期光纤光栅(novel long-period fiber grating,NLPFG)概念并指出了其研究意义;阐述了典型的LPFG写制新技术,建立了NLPFG模型和设计理论;提出了NLPFG正、反向设计流程,阐述了NLPFG典型设计方法;综述了近年来NLPFG的研制及典型应用,展望了NLPFG研究的发展趋势.
    Long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is a kind of wide-range transmission passive photonic device with extensive applications in the field of fiber communication and fiber sensing. In this review, from the angle of refractive index spatial modulation, we extract three characteristic parameters of LPFG:grating period length, index modulated depth and normal orientation of grating plane, and classify LPFG as two types:uniform LPFG (none of these three parameters changes) and nonuniform LPFG (at least one of them changes), and analyze the deficiency of LPFG, including larger size than fiber Bragg grating, no reflection peak, too large bandwidth, polarization loss from single-side exposure, etc. We define the concept of novel LPFG (NLPFG) as the LPFGs based on general LPFG but having new structures and new characters by importing new factors from different aspects, like grating formed mechanism, grating structure, making material, processing technique, application performance, etc. Then we point out that the research significance of NLPFG lies in improving and exploring its real usable property, and making it practical by overcoming the defects of general LPFG in structure, property and application. We expound new techniques of LPFG fabrication, such as multi-exposure, apodized exposure, outfield action, coating and filling, fiber incised and welded, multi-dimensional modulation, and show some NLPFG examples written with these techniques. We build the spatial model of NLPFG to expand the refraction index modulation region from only fiber core to both core and cladding, and to correctly mark the direction of grating plane with tilted angle and azimuth angle. On this basis, we propose the design theory of NLPFG by adding those two angles into the coupling mode coefficient and solving the coupling mode equation. We also expound three different NLPFG design processes, as the direct design to start from given factors of grating, the reserve design to calculate the factors back from expected function or spectrum, and the direct-reserve design combined by them. Meanwhile, we introduce some typical design methods of NLPFG, like geometrical structure changed method, materials changed method, medium coated and embedded method, etc. In addition, we review the recent fabrication and typical application of NLPFG, then introduce different LPFG devices based on excentric core LPFG, multi-core LPFG, few-mode LPFG, stagger LPFG, mismatched LPFG, over-melted LPFG, phase-shift LPFG, tuning LPFG, coupled LPFG and cascaded LPFG, and show their sensing applications in strain, twisting, bending, temperature, displacement, gas concentration and biology. Finally, we provide a developing prospect of the research on NLPFG and give three possible means to improve the research, as innovating new gating structures, exploring new design methods and developing new fabrication techniques.
      通信作者: 张伟刚, zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11274181,10974100,61405179)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(批准号:20120031110033)、天津市自然科学重点基金(批准号:15JCZDJC39800)和校企产学研横向项目(批准号:C201605013)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Wei-Gang, zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274181, 10974100, 61405179), the Doctoral Scientific Fund Project of the Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. 20120031110033), the Key Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 15JCZDJC39800), and the Development Project Cooperated Between University and Enterprise, China (Grant No. C201605013).
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  • [1]

    Zhang W G 2012 Principle and Applications of Fiber Optics (Beijing:Tsinghua University Press) p164(in Chinese)[张伟刚2012光纤光学原理及应用(北京:清华大学出版社)第164页]

    [2]

    Vengsarkar A M, Pedrazzani J R, Judkins J B, et al. 1996 Opt. Lett. 21 336

    [3]

    Bai Z Y, Zhang W G, Gao S C, Zhang H, Wang L, Liu Y J, Yan T Y 2014 J. Opt. 16 045401

    [4]

    Zhang W G 2012 Principle and Applications of Fiber Optics (Beijing:Tsinghua University Press) pp165-166(in Chinese)[张伟刚2012光纤光学原理及应用(北京:清华大学出版社)第165166页]

    [5]

    Wei S L, Zhang W G, Fan H J, Geng P C, Shang J B, Yin L M, Xue X L 2011 Acta Opt. Sin. 31 0806006 (in Chinese)[魏石磊, 张伟刚, 范弘建, 耿鹏程, 尚佳彬, 殷丽梅, 薛晓琳2011光学学报31 0806006]

    [6]

    Zhu T, Rao Y J, Mo Q J 2005 Acta Photon. Sin. 34 1697 (in Chinese)[朱涛, 饶云江, 莫秋菊2005光子学报34 1697]

    [7]

    Wu Z G, Dong X Y, Zhang W G, Yuan S Z 2002 Acta Nankai Univ. 35 10 (in Chinese)[武志刚, 董孝义, 张伟刚, 袁树忠2002南开大学学报35 10]

    [8]

    Shang R B, Zhang W G, Zhu W B, Geng P C, Li X N, Cao Q X, Zen X 2013 J. Opt. 15 075402

    [9]

    Li X L, Zhang X L, Chen L, Yan T Y 2015 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27 1946

    [10]

    Chiavaioli F, Trono C, Baldini F 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 231109

    [11]

    Vengsarkar A M, Lemaire P J, Judkins J B Tech. Dig. OFC'95, paper PD4-2

    [12]

    Zhang W G, Dong X Y 2003 J. Optoelectron. Laser 14 939 (in Chinese)[张伟刚, 董孝义2003光电子激光14 939]

    [13]

    Fan H J, Zhang W G, Yan A D, Jiang M, Qu K N, Wang S W, Wang K 2010 Chin. J. Lasers 37 1547 (in Chinese)[范弘建, 张伟刚, 颜爱东, 姜萌, 屈柯楠, 王思文, 王恺2010中国激光37 1547]

    [14]

    Yoon M S, Kim H J, Kim S J, Han Y G 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 2669

    [15]

    Tan Y Z, Sun L P, Jin L, Li J, Guan B O 2013 Opt. Exp. 21 154

    [16]

    Fu M Y, Lin G R, Liu W F, Wu C W 2011 Opt. Rev. 18 93

    [17]

    Davis D D, Gaylord T K, Glytsis E N, et al. 1998 Electron. Lett. 34 302

    [18]

    Lin C Y, Wang L A, Chern G W 2001 J. Lightwave Technol. 19 1159

    [19]

    Miao R, Zhao J H, Dai Y T 2006 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18 1949

    [20]

    Bock W J, Chen J H, Mikulic P 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1176

    [21]

    Cui Z Q, Zhang W G, Liu F, Zhang H, Bai Z Y, Geng P C, Gao S C 2013 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 1961

    [22]

    Zhou Q, Zhang W G, Chen L, Bai Z Y, Zhang L Y, Wang L, Wang B, Yan T Y 2015 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27 713

    [23]

    Zhang W G 2012 Principle and Applications of Fiber Optics (Beijing:Tsinghua University Press) pp198-199(in Chinese)[张伟刚2012光纤光学原理及应用(北京:清华大学出版社)第198199页]

    [24]

    Zhang W G 2016 Novel Fiber Grating:Design, Technology and Application (Shanghai:Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press) p120(in Chinese)[张伟刚2016新型光纤光栅设计、技术及应用(上海:上海交通大学出版社)第120页]

    [25]

    Zhang W G 2007 Prog. Phys. 27 449 (in Chinese)[张伟刚2007物理学进展27 449]

    [26]

    Zhang W G, Tu Q C, Sun L, Kai G Y, Yuan S J, Dong X Y 2004 Prog. Phys. 24 398 (in Chinese)[张伟刚, 涂勤昌, 孙磊, 开桂云, 袁树忠, 董孝义2004物理学进展24 398]

    [27]

    Zhang W G 2016 Novel Fiber Grating:Design, Technology and Application (Shanghai:Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press) pp32-36(in Chinese)[张伟刚2016新型光纤光栅设计、技术及应用(上海:上海交通大学出版社)第3236页]

    [28]

    Lu S H, Feng S C, Ning T G 2011 Int. Conf. Electron. Optoelectron. 4 V4247

    [29]

    Wang R K, Rao Y J, Zhu T, Gu Y J 2007 Acta Opt. Sin. 27 1409 (in Chinese)[王若崑, 饶云江, 朱涛, 谷彦菊2007光学学报27 1409]

    [30]

    Grubsky V, Feinberg J 2006 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18 2296

    [31]

    Zhu T, Rao Y J, Wang J L 2007 Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 1971

    [32]

    Melo M, Marques P V S 2013 Photon. Sens. 3 81

    [33]

    Wang X, Yang J, Yuan L B 2010 Chin. J. Lasers 37 1473 (in Chinese)[王雪, 杨军, 苑立波2010中国激光37 1473]

    [34]

    Sakata H, Yamahata K 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 1250

    [35]

    Li B, Liu Y, Tan Z W, Xu O, Lu S H, Jian S S 2008 Acta Opt. Sin. 28 414(in Chinese)[李彬, 刘艳, 谭中伟, 许鸥, 鲁韶华, 简水生2008光学学报28 414]

    [36]

    Shang R B, Zhang W G, Zhu W B, Geng P C, Li X N, Cao X, Zen X 2013 J. Opt. 15 075402

    [37]

    Lus C, Jos L S, Diana V, Jos M 2016 J. Lightwave Technol. 34 2533

    [38]

    Lee C L, Liu L W 2009 8th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Shanghai, China, August 31-September 3, 1

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    [40]

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    [41]

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    [43]

    Gao R, Jiang Y, Jiang L 2014 Opt. Exp. 22 15697

    [44]

    Yin B, Bai Y L, Qi Y H, Feng S C, Jian S S 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 214213 (in Chinese)[尹彬, 柏云龙, 齐艳辉, 冯素春, 简水生2013物理学报62 214213]

    [45]

    Zhang W G 2016 Novel Fiber Grating:Design, Technology and Application (Shanghai:Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press) p92(in Chinese)[张伟刚2016新型光纤光栅设计、技术及应用(上海:上海交通大学出版社)第92页]

    [46]

    Zhang W G 2016 Novel Fiber Grating:Design, Technology and Application (Shanghai:Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press) p93(in Chinese)[张伟刚2016新型光纤光栅设计、技术及应用(上海:上海交通大学出版社)第93页]

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    Westbrook P S, Eggleton B J, Windeler R S 2000 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12 495

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    Han Q, Lan X. W, Huang J, Kaur A, Wei T, Gao Z, Xiao H 2012 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24 1130

    [49]

    Zhang J, Tang X L, Dong J H, Wei T, Xiao H 2008 Opt. Exp. 16 8317

    [50]

    Kerbage C, Windeler R S, Eggleton B J, Mach P, Dolinski M, Rogers J A 2002 Opt. Commun. 204 179

    [51]

    Li J, Zhang W G, Du J B, Jiang M, Zhang Q, Liu Y P, Liu Z L, Qu K N, Liu Y G, Wang Z 2009 Chin. J. Lasers 36 705 (in Chinese)[李蜻, 张伟刚, 杜江兵, 姜萌, 张绮, 刘亚萍, 刘卓琳, 屈柯楠, 刘艳格, 王志2009中国激光36 705]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-10-08
  • 修回日期:  2016-12-08
  • 刊出日期:  2017-04-05

新型长周期光纤光栅的设计与研制进展

  • 1. 南开大学现代光学研究所, 光学信息技术教育部重点实验室, 天津 300350;
  • 2. 天津理工大学材料科学与工程学院, 天津 300384;
  • 3. 中国电子科技集团公司第四十六研究所, 天津 300220;
  • 4. 天津理工大学理学院, 天津 300384
  • 通信作者: 张伟刚, zhangwg@nankai.edu.cn
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11274181,10974100,61405179)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(批准号:20120031110033)、天津市自然科学重点基金(批准号:15JCZDJC39800)和校企产学研横向项目(批准号:C201605013)资助的课题.

摘要: 长周期光纤光栅(long-period fiber grating,LPFG)是一种宽带的透射型无源光子器件,在光纤通信和光纤传感领域应用广泛.本文从折射率空间调制的角度,根据栅格周期长短、折射率调制深度和栅面法线取向三个特征参数,对LPFG进行了分类并分析了其不足,定义了新型长周期光纤光栅(novel long-period fiber grating,NLPFG)概念并指出了其研究意义;阐述了典型的LPFG写制新技术,建立了NLPFG模型和设计理论;提出了NLPFG正、反向设计流程,阐述了NLPFG典型设计方法;综述了近年来NLPFG的研制及典型应用,展望了NLPFG研究的发展趋势.

English Abstract

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