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四端双量子点系统中的自旋和电荷能斯特效应

郑军 李春雷 杨曦 郭永

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四端双量子点系统中的自旋和电荷能斯特效应

郑军, 李春雷, 杨曦, 郭永

Spin and charge Nernst effect in a four-terminal double quantum dot system

Zheng Jun, Li Chun-Lei, Yang Xi, Guo Yong
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  • 基于非平衡态格林函数方法,理论研究了与四个电极耦合的双量子点系统中的自旋和电荷能斯特效应,考虑了不同电极的磁动量结构和量子点内以及量子点间电子的库仑相互作用对热电效应的影响.结果表明铁磁端口中的磁化方向能够有效地调节能斯特效应:当电极1和电极3中的磁化方向反平行排列时,通过施加横向的温度梯度,系统中将会出现纯的自旋能斯特效应;当电极4从普通金属端口转变为铁磁金属端口时,将同时观测到电荷和自旋能斯特效应.研究发现,能斯特效应对于铁磁电极极化强度的依赖程度较弱,但对库仑排斥作用十分敏感.在量子点内和点间库仑排斥作用的影响下,自旋及电荷能斯特系数有望提高两个数量级.
    With the increase of integration scale, heat dissipation becomes one of the major problems in high density electronic devices and circuits. Controlling and reusing the heat energy in such miniaturized structures are essential topics for current and future technologies. With the development of microfabrication technology and low-temperature measurement technology in the last two decades, the thermoelectric measurement in low-dimensional sample has been feasible, and the thermal transport has received more and more attention. For the multi-terminal device, there is a novel thermoelectric phenomenon, called the spin Nernst effect, in which spin currents (or spin voltages) are generated perpendicularly to the temperature gradient. The spin Nernst effect has been confirmed experimentally, and has been theoretically studied in a variety of materials. In this paper, the spin and charge Nernst effect in a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots attached to four leads are studied in the Coulomb blockade regime based on the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. We focus on the influences of magnetic configuration and intra-dot (inter-dot) Coulomb interaction on the spin and charge Nernst effect. It is found that the signs and the magnitudes of spin and charge Nernst effect can be modulated by adjusting the magnetization directions of ferromagnetic electrodes. When the magnetic moments in the 1 and 3 electrodes are turned to antiparallel alignment, the pure spin Nernst (without charge Nernst) effect can occur by applying a transverse temperature gradient. Conversely, the spin and charge Nernst effect disappear if the magnetic moments of lead 1 and lead 3 are in the case of parallel configuration. Except for left and right thermal leads, we investigate the effect of the middle lead (lead 4) on the property of the Nernst effect. We find that when the normal metal lead 4 is transferred to ferromagnetic metal, the spin and charge Nernst effect both can be obtained simultaneously. In the end of the paper, we study the influences of intra-dot and inter-dot Coulomb interaction on the spin dependent Nernst coefficient. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the Nernst effect is less dependent on the polarization strength of ferromagnetic electrodes, but can be remarkably enhanced by the Coulomb blockade. The spin Nernst coefficient is predicted to be more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of the case of zero Coulomb interaction. All the results indicate that the proposed four-terminal double quantum dot nano system is a promising candidate for spin caloritronic device.
      通信作者: 郑军, zhengjun@bhu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11547209,11604021,11574173)、辽宁省博士科研启动基金指导计划(批准号:201601352)、低维量子物理国家重点实验室开放课题(批准号:KF201613)和北京市教育委员会科技计划一般项目(批准号:KM201410028021)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zheng Jun, zhengjun@bhu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547209, 11604021, 11574173), the Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Liaoning Province, China (Grant No. 201601352), the Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, China (Grant No. KF201613), and the General Program of Science and Technology Development Project of Beijing Municipal Education Commission of China (Grant No. KM201410028021).
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    [2]

    Scheibner R, Buhmann H, Reuter D, Kiselev M N, Molenkamp L W 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 176602

    [3]

    Chen X B, Duan W H 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 186302 (in Chinese) [陈晓彬, 段文晖 2015 物理学报 64 186302]

    [4]

    Xu Z A, Shen J Q, Zhao S R, Zhang Y J, Ong C K 2005 Phys. Rev. B 72 144527

    [5]

    Lee W L, Watauchi S, Miller V L, Cava R J, Ong N P 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 226601

    [6]

    Banerjee A, Fauque B, Izawa K, Miyake A, Sheikin I, Flouquet J, Lenoir B, Behnia K 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 161103

    [7]

    Small J P, Perez K M, Kim P 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 256801

    [8]

    Scheibner R, Buhmann H, Reuter D, Kiselev M N, Molenkamp L W 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 176602

    [9]

    Fert A 2008 Rev. Mod. Phys. 80 1517

    [10]

    Guo Y, Gu B L, Yoshiyuki K 2000 Acta Phys. Sin. 49 1814 (in Chinese) [郭永, 顾秉林, 川添良幸 2000 物理学报 49 1814]

    [11]

    Seki T, Hasegawa Y, Mitani S, Takahashi S, Imamura H, Maekawa S, Nitta J, Takanashi K 2008 Nature Mater. 7 125

    [12]

    Checkelsky J G, Ong N P 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 081413

    [13]

    Cyr-Choiniere O, Daou R, Laliberte F, LeBoeuf D, Doiron-Leyraud N, Chang J, Yan J Q, Cheng J G, Zhou J S, Goodenough J B, Pyon S, Takayama T, Takagi H, Tanaka Y, Taillefer L 2009 Nature 458 743

    [14]

    Tauber K, Gradhand M, Fedorov D V, Mertig I 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 026601

    [15]

    Cheng S G, Xing Y X, Sun Q F, Xie X C 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 045302

    [16]

    Bulka B R, Kostyrko T 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 205333

    [17]

    Sun Q F, Xing Y X, Shen S Q 2008 Phys. Rev. B 77 195313

    [18]

    Jonson M, Girvin S M 1984 Phys. Rev. B 29 1939

    [19]

    Oji H, Streda P 1985 Phys. Rev. B 31 7291

    [20]

    Sun Q F, Xie X C 2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 235301

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-12-20
  • 修回日期:  2017-01-20
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-05

四端双量子点系统中的自旋和电荷能斯特效应

  • 1. 渤海大学新能源学院, 锦州 121013;
  • 2. 首都师范大学初等教育学院, 北京 100048;
  • 3. 清华大学物理系, 北京 100084;
  • 4. 量子物质科学协同创新中心, 北京 100084
  • 通信作者: 郑军, zhengjun@bhu.edu.cn
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11547209,11604021,11574173)、辽宁省博士科研启动基金指导计划(批准号:201601352)、低维量子物理国家重点实验室开放课题(批准号:KF201613)和北京市教育委员会科技计划一般项目(批准号:KM201410028021)资助的课题.

摘要: 基于非平衡态格林函数方法,理论研究了与四个电极耦合的双量子点系统中的自旋和电荷能斯特效应,考虑了不同电极的磁动量结构和量子点内以及量子点间电子的库仑相互作用对热电效应的影响.结果表明铁磁端口中的磁化方向能够有效地调节能斯特效应:当电极1和电极3中的磁化方向反平行排列时,通过施加横向的温度梯度,系统中将会出现纯的自旋能斯特效应;当电极4从普通金属端口转变为铁磁金属端口时,将同时观测到电荷和自旋能斯特效应.研究发现,能斯特效应对于铁磁电极极化强度的依赖程度较弱,但对库仑排斥作用十分敏感.在量子点内和点间库仑排斥作用的影响下,自旋及电荷能斯特系数有望提高两个数量级.

English Abstract

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