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强场X射线激光物理

沈百飞 吉亮亮 张晓梅 步志刚 徐建彩

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强场X射线激光物理

沈百飞, 吉亮亮, 张晓梅, 步志刚, 徐建彩

High field X-ray laser physics

Shen Bai-Fei, Ji Liang-Liang, Zhang Xiao-Mei, Bu Zhi-Gang, Xu Jian-Cai
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  • 相干X光, 特别是X射线自由电子激光技术的发展提供了一种新的产生超强光场的途径. 由于其较高的光子能量、高峰值功率密度与超短的脉冲长度, 有望将强场激光物理从可见光波段推进到X光波段. 目前, 基于X射线的非线性原子分子物理已取得了初步进展, 随着X射线光强的提升, 相互作用将进入相对论物理、强场量子电动力学(quantum electrodynamics, QED)物理等领域, 为激光驱动加速与辐射、QED真空、暗物质的产生与探测等带来新的科学发现机会. 本文对强场X射线激光在固体中的尾场加速、真空极化、轴子的产生与探测等方面进行介绍, 旨在阐明X射线波段强场物理在若干基础前沿与关键应用方面的独特优势, 并对未来的发展方向进行展望.
    Development of coherent X-ray source, especially X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), offers a new approach to reaching a strong X-ray field. High field laser physics will extend from optical to X-ray regime since the X-ray beam has high photon energy, high intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. Till now, nonlinear atomic physics and nonlinear molecular physics have been explored based on intense X-ray beam sources. They will extend to relativistic physics and quantum electrodynamics (QED) physics area with X-ray intensity increasing, and thus offering a new opportunity to innovatively investigate the particle acceleration and radiation, QED vacuum, dark matter generation and vacuum birefringence. This review provides an overview of the wake field acceleration, vacuum birefringence as well as axion generation and detection based on strong X-ray laser field. Intense X-ray pulse will show unique potential both in basic science and in practical applications. Finally, an outlook for the future development and perspectives of high-field X-ray physics is described. The invention of chirped pulse amplification results in the generation of the light intensity in the relativistic regime (> 1018 W/cm2). Laser-plasma interaction in this regime motivates multiple disciplines such as laser-driven particle acceleration, laser secondary radiation sources, strong-field physics, etc. While petawatt (PW) lasers have been established in various institutions, several projects of building 10 PW or even 100 PW lasers are proposed. However, pushing the laser power to the next level (EW) confronts significant challenges. Current technology is approaching to its limit in producing large aperture size optics due to the damage threshold of optical material. Alternatively, plasma is considered as a potential medium to amplify or compress laser pulses. This requires further validation in future studies. In recent years, XFEL has made significant progress of producing high brightness light sources. Based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) or self-seeding in undulators, the XFEL provides a brightest light source up to the hard X-ray wavelength. The existing major XFEL facilities are LCLS-II in USA, EuXFEL in Europe, SACLA in Japan, Swiss FEL in Switzerland and PAL-XFEL in South Korea. In China, a new facility SHINE consisting of a high-repetition rate hard X-ray FEL and ultra-intense optical laser is under construction. After implementing the tapered undulator in XFEL, the peak power of X-ray pulses now reaches multi-terawatt. The pulses can also be compressed to an attosecond level. Following this trend, it is expected that the coherent XFEL will be able to generate a super strong light field, thus pushing strong-field physics to the X-ray regime. The relativistic threshold for 1-nm X-ray is about 1024 W/cm2, which we believe will be achievable in the near future. Such relativistic X-ray pulses can be used to stimulate relativistic dynamics in solid materials, realizing high-gradient low-emittance particle acceleration in solids. This may open a new path towards high-energy physics, advanced light sources, fast imaging, etc. In addition, the combination of strong X-rays and ultra-intense lasers offers a new opportunity to study the light-by-light scattering in vacuum and detecting the candidate particles for dark matter. The field of strong-field X-ray physics is largely unexplored realm. In this review, we show a few key science cases brought up by high power X-rays and shed light on this important direction.The ultra-intense coherent X-ray laser with a wavelength in a range from 100 nm to less than 0.1nm can interact directly with the nanostructured materials with solid density. Benefiting from the ultra-intense field and ultra-high critical density, acceleration field with gradient of TeV/cm can be stimulated on a nanometer scale, and thus ultra-high energy particle beams can be obtained. The available nanometer material technique promotes such a development. For example, the recent research reported that high-repetition/few-attosecond high-quality electron beams can be generated from crystal driven by an intense X-ray laser. Beside electrons, ions including protons are expected to be accelerated to ultra-high energy via target normal sheath or light pressure acceleration mechanisms on a nanometer scale if the X-ray is intense enough. It should be noted that ultra-high acceleration gradient is not the unique advantage of the X-ray laser driven acceleration. A more important quality is the beam emittance that can be low enough because of the small size of the beam source. This is very significant for ultrafast microscopy to achieve a high resolution.In classical physics, photon-photon interaction is prohibited in vacuum. However, according to the QED theory, vacuum is full of quantum fluctuation, in which virtual particle-antiparticle pairs emerge and annihilate in ultra-short instants. When excited by strong fields, the vacuum fluctuation appears as a weak nonlinear medium and allows photon-photon interaction therein, which is referred to as vacuum polarization. Based on the effective field theory, the vacuum polarization can be described by Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian density, and then classical Maxwell equations are modified. Vacuum polarization can induce some novel physical effects, including vacuum birefringence, light-by-light scattering, vacuum diffraction, etc. Up to now, none of these effects has been verified experimentally under strong fields. The XFEL is regarded as a promising probe to explore these vacuum polarization effects. In this paper, the research progress of vacuum polarization driven by strong fields is summarized, the potential detection proposal using XFEL is discussed.Dark matter is one of the puzzles in contemporary physics. Till now, we still have not known what particles constitute it. Axion is a spinless massive hypothetical boson that is proposed as the solution to strong CP problem. It is the particle beyond the standard model and has extremely weak interaction with the standard-model particle like photon, and hence there appears a significant obstacle to detecting it. Therefore, axion and axion-like-particles (ALPs) are a kind of promising candidate of dark matter. In this paper, we summarize the research progress of axions and ALP detection, including detecting the axions sources from universe, the production and detection of artificial axions and ALPs. It is shown that the XFEL is a potential tool for detecting the artificial axions and ALPs under strong electromagnetic fields.The XFEL provides a coherent ultrafast X-ray beam for exploring particle acceleration and radiation, QED vacuum, dark matter generation, vacuum birefringence, etc. The probing of these dynamics requires different X-ray diagnoses, including the measurement of polarization purity, spectrum, pulse duration and focal condition. The X-ray polarization purity has been improved to a 10-10 level by using 6 reflections based on channel-cut silicon crystal and it will efficiently probe the vacuum birefringence. The pulse duration of isolated X-ray pulse in FEL reaches as short as 200 as, which allows probing ultrafast electron dynamics. A new self-seeding scheme using the Bragg reflection in SACLA is developed to obtain a narrow spectrum of 3 eV, 10 times smaller than that in the current SASE scheme. Therefore, the fast development of X-ray diagnostics will finely characterize X-ray beam itself and offer a unique tool for understanding the underlying phenomena for different applications.The peak intensity of coherent X-ray beam will reach to a relativistic level in future. A possible way is CPA technology, which is well developed in intense near-infrared laser system and may produce an ultrahigh intense attosecond X-ray pulse. High field X-ray laser physics will offer new opportunities both for basic science and for revolutionary application.
      通信作者: 沈百飞, bfshen@shnu.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Shen Bai-Fei, bfshen@shnu.edu.cn
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  • 图 1  上海硬X射线自由电子激光装置SHINE示意图[18]

    Fig. 1.  Schematic of Shanghai high repetition rate XFEL and extreme light facility (SHINE)[18].

    图 2  超强激光产生相干X射线脉冲的原理. 利用薄膜将数十飞秒的可见光波段激光压缩至数飞秒(单周期)[23], 压缩后与固体等离子体表面相互作用. 通过“相对论振荡镜”机制产生单个相干的阿秒X射线脉冲辐射[24]

    Fig. 2.  Coherent X-ray beam generation based on relativistic laser pulse: A foil works as a compressor to single cycle from optical laser pulse with pulse duration of several tens femtoseconds[23]. When the compressed laser pulse reaches a solid target surface, single X-ray attosecond pulse is produced based on relativistic oscillating mirror scheme[24].

    图 3  (a) 真空极化单圈费曼图; (b) 光子-光子散射费曼图

    Fig. 3.  (a) One-loop contribution to the vacuum polarization diagram; (b) diagram of photon-photon scattering.

    图 4  X光探针与相对传播的强激光碰撞后的椭偏率[37]

    Fig. 4.  Ellipticity of the XFEL beam when it head-on collides with 100 PW laser pulse[37].

    图 5  QED真空双折射实验示意图[37]

    Fig. 5.  Schematic design for the proposed QED vacuum birefringence experiment[37].

    图 6  四波混频示意图, 三束入射光相互作用散射出信号光[48,49]

    Fig. 6.  Schematic three-dimensional setup for four-wave mixing, the signal is scattered in the interaction of three incident light beams (two incoming beams (in blue), an assisting one (in red))[48,49].

    图 7  强激光与XFEL的真空四波混频示意图[57], 二者分别沿着逆x轴和顺x轴方向传播, 对撞时发生相互作用, 并以θ角度散射出信号光, 总的散射光是所有散射光子的相干叠加, 并形成一个散射环

    Fig. 7.  Schematic design for four-wave mixing using strong laser and XFEL probe, laser and XFEL are travelling backwards and forwards along the x-axis, and polarized in z and y direction, respectively. The scattered photons are emitted in the oblique angle of θ. The composition of all the scattered photons forms a scattering ring.

    图 8  真空双缝衍射条纹[62], 黑色“叉”标记的是普通双缝衍射极小值的位置, 与真空极化衍射的极小值相符

    Fig. 8.  Vacuum bright and dark diffraction fringes resembling the characteristic double-slit pattern, the crosses indicate the prediction of the classic formula for minima, which is consistent with the vacuum diffraction.

    图 9  X光偏振纯度提升装置示意图[115]

    Fig. 9.  Experimental setup of high-purity polarization state of X-rays[115].

    图 10  利用THz场测量飞秒X光脉冲时域波形[119]

    Fig. 10.  Schematic of the experimental setup for terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera[119].

    图 11  利用圆偏振steaking场测量X光脉冲宽度[126]

    Fig. 11.  Angular streaking resolves the X-ray pulse structure via angle-dependent kinetic energy changes of photoelectrons[126].

    图 12  X光波前测量[132]

    Fig. 12.  Schematic of the X-ray wavefront sensor[132].

    图 13  测量X光光谱的几种方案比较[137]

    Fig. 13.  Schematic drawings of the setup concepts for hard X-ray single shot spectrometers[137].

    图 14  Self-seeding模式产生方案[138]

    Fig. 14.  Schematic of the reflection self-seeding at SACLA[138].

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  • 修回日期:  2021-02-10
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