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低维材料中的电荷密度波

樊金泽 方展伯 罗超杰 张汇

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低维材料中的电荷密度波

樊金泽, 方展伯, 罗超杰, 张汇

Charge density waves in low-dimensional material

Fan Jin-Ze, Fang Zhan-Bo, Luo Chao-Jie, Zhang Hui
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  • 电荷密度波(charge density wave, CDW)是低维体系中存在的一种重要的物理现象, 对CDW的研究有助于人们对低维系统中内禀电声子耦合和关联等相互作用有更深层次的认识, 同时通过对材料中CDW的精准调控可以有效控制低维材料中磁性、超导等物理性质. CDW的研究最早起源于一维和准一维材料, 本文首先简要介绍了CDW的一些基本性质和一维体系中CDW的一些研究. 而近些年的研究发现CDW在很多二维材料中普遍存在. 本文将着重介绍二维材料中CDW的最新研究进展. 通过介绍二维材料中CDW的基本物性和产生机理, 讨论CDW与Mott相、超导序和其他序(自旋密度波、配对密度波)之间的相互作用; 探讨CDW中存在的多电子集体激发和手性性质; 介绍掺杂、高压和激光脉冲等手段对CDW的调控; 最后展望相关领域中可能的研究方向.
    Charge density waves (CDWs) have triggered off extensive research in low-dimensional systems. The discovery of CDW offers a new crucial clue to understanding the intrinsic mechanisms of low-dimensional electron-phonon coupling and electron correlation. In addition, the physical properties of low-dimensional material such as magnetism and superconductivity can be fine-tuned with accurately and effectively controlled CDW phase. At the beginning,we briefly introduce the basic properties of CDW in one-dimensional and quasi one-dimensional materials, revealing the physical proprieties of the CDW, for instance, the excited state and the manipulation technologies. Then, focusing on the CDW in a two-dimensional system, we mainly introduce the recent research progress and the generation mechanism of CDW of two-dimensional materials. The interaction between CDW and Mott insulator and between superconductivity and other orders such as spin density wave and pair density wave provide a new perspective to research the multi-electron collective excitation and electron interaction. The manipulation of multi-electron collective excitation and electron-phonon interaction in CDW through doping, high pressure and laser pulse is also introduced and shares similarity with the one-dimensional system. Finally, in this article we propose a potential research application of two dimensional CDW.
      通信作者: 张汇, huiz@ustc.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2017YFA0205004)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11804324, 12074357)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Hui, huiz@ustc.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0205004) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11804324, 12074357).
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  • 图 1  一维Peierls相变的基本原理 (a) 均匀排列的一维原子链示意图; (b) Peierls相变后的原子链示意图; (c) 发生Peierls相变前后的能带结构, 能带在kF处打开带隙[2]; (d) 一维、二维和三维自由电子气的Lindhard响应函数实部[4]; (e) 2kF处的声子软化过程[4]

    Fig. 1.  Fundamentals of Peierls transition: (a) Diagram of uniformly arranged one-dimensional (1D) atomic chain; (b) diagram of the 1D atomic chain after Peierls transition; (c) band structure of the 1D atomic chain before and after Peierls transition, with a gap opening at kF[2]; (d) real part of Lindhard function for 1D, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) free electron gas models[4]; (e) process of phonon softening at 2kF[4].

    图 2  (a) In-Si原子链在Peierls相变时的STM图, 插图是In-Si原子链相变前后的重构[39]; (b) In-Si原子链中存在的手性拓扑孤子的STM图[52]; (c) 缺陷调控的In-Si原子链金属相和绝缘相共存, 插图为缺陷密度对4×1相的面积分数的调控作用[58]; (d) MTB结构的示意图[62]; (e) 二维材料MoSe2中MTB的STM图[63]; (f) STS测量的二维材料MoSe2中MTB和畴中心的dI/dV[63]

    Fig. 2.  (a) STM image of Peierls transition in In-Si atomic chain. Inset: 4×1 reconstruction before the Peierls transition and 8 × 2 reconstruction after the Peierls transition[39]. (b) STM image of chiral topological solitons in In-Si atomic chain[52]. (c) STM images of the coexistence of metallic phase and CDW phase in defect-rich In-Si atomic chain. Inset: manipulation of defect density on areal fraction of 4 × 1 phase[58]. (d) Diagram of MTB structure[62]. (e) STM image of MTB in 2D material MoSe2[63]. (f) dI/dV spectrum of MTB and domain center in 2D material MoSe2 measured by STS[63].

    图 3  常见二维材料的CDW性质, 数据来源于文献[68, 69].

    Fig. 3.  CDW properties of 2D material, data from Ref. [68, 69].

    图 4  二维体系中CDW产生的几种机理图 (a) ARPES测量的单层VSe2费米面结构[71]; (b) 单层VSe2中的完美费米面嵌套[71]; (c) 通过非弹性X射线散射测量的不同温度下2H-NbSe2中电声子耦合导致的声子软化[84]; (d) ARPES测量的RbV3Sb5费米面结构, 在鞍点处有高态密度[80]; (e) 1T-TiSe2中Jahn-Teller畸变示意图[92]; (f) 1T-TiSe2中普通态和激子绝缘体的能带色散和光谱权重[94]

    Fig. 4.  Several mechanisms of CDW transitions: (a) Fermi surface map of monolayer VSe2 measured by ARPES[71]; (b) perfect Fermi surface nesting of monolayer VSe2[71]; (c) phonon softening in 2H-NbSe2 at different temperature induced by Electron-phonon coupling, measured by inelastic X-ray scattering[84]; (d) Fermi surface map of RbV3Sb5 measured by ARPES with high density of state around saddle point[80]; (e) diagram of Jahn-Teller distortions in 1T-TiSe2[92]; (f) band dispersions and corresponding spectral weights of normal state and exciton insulator in 1T-TiSe2[94].

    图 5  (a) 1T-TaS2中的David星、CCDW、NCCDW示意图[97]; (b) 2H-NbS2中的1T层示意图, 每个David星中心都有一个未配对的局域磁矩[100]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Diagrams of the Star of David pattern, CCDW, and NCCDW in 1T-TaS2[97]; (b) Diagram of the 1T layer in 2H-NbS2, each Star of David contains an unpaired magnetic moment localized in the center[100].

    图 6  二维体系中的CDW调控研究 (a) 1T-TaS2中电脉冲诱导金属镶嵌相的STM图像, 插图为金属镶嵌相中CCDW的David星构型, 未发生过改变[101]; (b) 光脉冲使1T-TaS2在CCDW和隐藏态之间切换, 插图为实验装置的示意图[104]; (c) 1T-TaS2中部分吸附水分子层的STM图像, 插图为STM图像的傅里叶变换, 存在 $ \sqrt{\text{13}}\times \sqrt{\text{13}} $ 和3×3两种CDW周期[109]; (d), (e) 单层的NbSe2/双层石墨烯和NbSe2/SrTiO3的STM图像[122]

    Fig. 6.  CDW manipulation in 2D system: (a) STM image of metallic mosaic phase induced by voltage pulses in 1T-TaS2. Inset: unchanged David-star formation in CCDW of metallic mosaic phase[101]. (b) Switching between CCDW and hidden state induced by optical pulse in 1T-TaS2. Inset: diagram of experimental setup[104]. (c) STM image of partially water-adsorbed 1T-TaS2. Inset: Fourier transform images of STM topography showing two types of CDW periodicity including $ \sqrt{\text{13}}\times\sqrt{\text{13}} $ and 3×3[109]. (d), (e) STM images of monolayer NbSe2/BLG and NbSe2/SrTiO3(111) [122].

    图 7  CDW与Mott绝缘体的关系 (a) 1T-TaS2中电阻和CDW相随温度的变化, 插图为CCDW、三斜CDW、NCCDW、ICCDW的示意图[124]; (b), (c) STM测量的1T-TaS2和4Hb-TaS2中dI/dV谱的空间分布, 插图为1T-TaS2和4Hb-TaS2结构的示意图[126]; (d) 单层1T-NbSe2的STM图像, UHB的分布相对CDW有$\sqrt{\text{3}}\times\sqrt{\text{3}}$R30°的超结构[132]; (e) 单层1T-NbSe2中电荷转移绝缘体示意图[99]; (f) STS测量的单层1T-NbSe2的dI/dV[99]

    Fig. 7.  Relationship between CDW and Mott insulators: (a) The changes of resistivity and CDW phase with respect to temperature in 1T-TaS2, where the insert is the diagram of CCDW, triclinic CDW, NCCDW and ICCDW[124]. (b), (c) Spatial distribution of dI/dV spectrum of 1T-TaS2 and 4Hb-TaS2 measured by STS. Insets are diagrams of their structure[126]. (d) STM image of monolayer 1T-NbSe2. The distribution of UHB shows $\sqrt{\text{3}}\times\sqrt{\text{3}}$ R30° superstructure with respect to CDW[132]. (e) Diagram of charge transfer insulator in monolayer 1T-NbSe2[99]. (f) dI/dV spectrum of 1T-NbSe2 measured by STS[99].

    图 8  超导与CDW的关系 (a) 1T-FexTaS2的相图[167]; (b) ARPES测量的不同掺杂下1T- FexTaS2的能量分布曲线, 在Γ点有电子口袋[167]; (c) Cu0.08TiSe2的STM图像, 插图为STM图的傅里叶变换[173]; (d) STS测量的Cu0.08TiSe2中CDW区域和畴壁的dI/dV[173]; (e) 电子辐照的2H-NbSe2中温度-剩余电阻率相图[162]

    Fig. 8.  Relationship between CDW and superconductivity: (a) Phase diagram of 1T-FexTaS2[167]; (b) ARPES-measured energy distribution curves of 1T-FexTaS2 at different doping level showing an electron pocket at Γ point[167]; (c) STM topography of Cu0.08TiSe2, where the inset is the Fourier transform of STM image[173]; (d) STS-measured dI/dV spectra of CDW regions and domain walls in Cu0.08TiSe2[173]; (e) temperature-residual resistivity phase diagram of 2H-NbSe2 upon electron irradiation[162].

    图 9  (a) 2H-NbSe2中拉曼谱的CDW模式和超导模式随温度变化, 进入超导态后谱权重从CDW模式向超导模式中转移, 插图为减去8 K测量数据后的拉曼谱[213]; (b) 1T-TiSe2中STM图像的傅里叶变换[216]; (c) 图(b)中沿3个波矢方向的线截面[216]; (d) STS测量的不同磁场下RbV3Sb5中dI/dV图的傅里叶变换[223]

    Fig. 9.  (a) Changes of CDW mode and SC mode of Raman spectra with respect to temperature in 2H-NbSe2 with spectral weight transfer from CDW mode to SC mode when going into SC state, inset: Raman spectra subtracted from the data measured at 8 K[213]; (b) Fourier transform of STS-measured dI/dV map in 1T-TiSe2[216]; (c) line profiles along three wave vectors of figure (b) [216]; (d) Fourier transform of STS image in RbV3Sb5 at different magnetic field[223].

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-08
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-12
  • 上网日期:  2022-02-28
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-20

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