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Nd-Ce-Fe-B纳米复合薄膜的磁性及交换耦合作用

孙亚超 朱明刚 石晓宁 宋利伟 李卫

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Nd-Ce-Fe-B纳米复合薄膜的磁性及交换耦合作用

孙亚超, 朱明刚, 石晓宁, 宋利伟, 李卫

Magnetic properties and exchange coupling of Nd-Ce-Fe-B nanocomposite films

Sun Ya-Chao, Zhu Ming-Gang, Shi Xiao-Ning, Song Li-Wei, Li Wei
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  • 采用磁控溅射技术制备了具有永磁特征的Nd-Ce-Fe-B多层纳米复合薄膜,并对其进行了退火处理.通过改变退火温度,研究其对薄膜磁性能和晶体结构的影响.结果表明,随着退火温度的提高薄膜磁性能逐渐增大,但当温度达到695℃以上时,薄膜的磁性能急剧下降.当退火温度为675℃时,薄膜的矫顽力Hci=10.1 kOe(1 Oe=79.5775 A/m),垂直于薄膜表面方向的剩余磁化强度4Mr=5.91 kG(1 G=103/(4)A/m).薄膜的X射线衍射结果表明,磁性薄膜具有较好的c轴取向.通过对薄膜磁化反转过程的研究,发现随着外加磁场的增大,Mrev的极小值向Mirr减小的方向移动,这与畴壁弯曲模型类似,表明在薄膜中存在较强烈的局部钉扎作用,而剩余磁化强度曲线表明这种钉扎作用在薄膜矫顽力机制中并不占支配作用.此外,薄膜的Henkel曲线结果表明在薄膜中存在较强的交换耦合作用,在经过685℃退火的薄膜中磁相互作用更加显著.
    In the early 1980 s, the soft and hard magnetic nano-two-phase permanent magnet materials were developed and exchange coupling model was put forward. Moreover, the theoretical maximum magnetic energy product could reach 120 MGOe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m). However a great many of experimental research results are always disappointing for theoretical calculation, but previous studies have shown that there exists also a strong exchange coupling in hard magnetic phase, which can improve the magnetic property of magnet. In this paper, nanocomposite Ta(50 nm)/NdFeB(100 nm)/Ta(2 nm)/NdCeFeB(100 nm)/Ta(2 nm)/NdFeB(100 nm)/Ta(40 nm) multilayer films with Ta underlayers and coverlayers are fabricated on Si substrates by direct current sputtering. A 50 nm Ta underlayer and a 40 nm coverlayer are sputtered at room temperature to align the easy axis of the RE2Fe14B grains to the direction perpendicular to the film plane and to prevent the magnetic film from oxidizing, respectively. The 2 nm Ta spacer layer serves as suppressing the diffusion of elements between different magnetic layers. The NdFeB and NdCeFeB magnetic film are deposited at 630℃ and 610℃, respectively, and then they are followed by in situ rapid thermal annealing at 645-705℃ for 30 min. The microstructures and morphologies of the films are characterized by X-ray diffractometry with Cu K radiation, atomic force microscope, and magnetic force microscope. The magnetic properties of the films are measured with vibrating sample magnetometer. The influences of annealing temperature on magnetic property and crystal structure of the film are investigated. The results show that the magnetic property of the film improves gradually with the increase of annealing temperature, but deteriorates sharply when the temperature reaches above 695℃. When the annealing temperature is 675℃, the coercivity Hci of the film reaches 10.1 kOe and the remanence 4Mr is 5.91 kG (1 G=103/(4) A/m), with a magnetic field applied to the direction perpendicular to the plane of the Nd-Ce-Fe-B thin film. The X-ray diffraction results show that the grains of the hard magnetic phase (2:14:1 phase) grow almost along the substrate normal (c-axis direction), of course, with a certain misorientation. Through the magnetization reversal process of the Nd-Ce-Fe-B thin film, it is found that the minimum value of Mrev moves in the direction of decreasing Mirr as the applied magnetic field increases, which is similar to the domain wall bowing model. This indicates that there is a strong local domain wall pinning in the film. Moreover, the remanence curve shows that the pinning type mechanism is indeed not dominant in the magnetization reversal process of the Nd-Ce-Fe-B thin film after annealing at 685℃. In addition, Henkel plots are also investigated in the films at different annealing temperatures. It is believed that nonzero m is due to the interaction between particles in the magnet. It can be stated based on the measuring results that there exists a strong magnetic exchange coupling effect in the Nd-Ce-Fe-B thin film.
      通信作者: 朱明刚, mgzhu@sina.com
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2014CB643701)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:51571064)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhu Ming-Gang, mgzhu@sina.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No.2014CB643701) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51571064).
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    Sato T, Oka N, Ohsuna T, Kaneko Y, Suzuki S, Shima T 2011 J. Appl. Phys. 110 023903

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    Herbst J F 1991 Rev. Mod. Phys. 63 819

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    Zhu M G, Li W, Wang J D, Zheng L Y, Li Y F, Zhang K, Feng H B, Liu T 2013 IEEE Trans. Magn. 50 1000104

    [9]

    Huang S L, Feng H B, Zhu M G, Li A H, Zhang Y, Li W 2014 AIP Adv. 4 107127

    [10]

    Coehoorn R, de Mooij D B, Duchateau J P W B, Buschow K H J 1988 J. Phys. Colloques 49 C8-669

    [11]

    Skomski R, Coey J M D 1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 15812

    [12]

    Leineweber T, Kronmller H J 1997 Magn. Magn. Mater. 176 145

    [13]

    Liu X H, Yan G, Cui L Y, Zhou S X, Zheng W, Wang A L, Chen J C 1999 IEEE Trans. Magn. 35 3331

    [14]

    Feng W C, Li W, Zhu M G, Han G B, Gao R W 2008 Acta Metall. Sin. 44 8 (in Chinese) [冯维存, 李卫, 朱明刚, 韩广兵, 高汝伟 2008 金属学报 44 8]

    [15]

    Ding J, Street R, McCormick P G 1992 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 115 211

    [16]

    Hadjipanayis G C, Kim A 1988 J. Appl. Phys. 63 3310

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    Wohlfarth E P 1958 J. Appl. Phys. 29 595

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    Cammarano R, McCormick P G, Street R 1996 J. Phys. D 29 2327

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    Livingston J D 1987 IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-23 2109

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    Crew D C, McConrmick P G, Street R 1999 J. Appl. Phys. 86 3278

    [21]

    Henkel O 1964 Phys. Stat. Sol. 7 919

    [22]

    Kelly P E, Grady K O, Mayo P I, Chantrell R W 1989 IEEE Trans. Magn. 25 3881

  • [1]

    Sagawa M, Togawa N, Yamamoto H, Matsuura Y 1984 J. Appl. Phys. 55 2083

    [2]

    Sato T, Oka N, Ohsuna T, Kaneko Y, Suzuki S, Shima T 2011 J. Appl. Phys. 110 023903

    [3]

    Wang W J, Guo Z H, Li A H, Li X M, Li W 2006 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 303 392

    [4]

    Zhu M G, Li W, Gao R W, Han G B, Feng W C 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 3171 (in Chinese) [朱明刚, 李卫, 高汝伟, 韩广兵, 冯维存 2004 物理学报 53 3171]

    [5]

    Dai L C, Jian X L, Zhao Y Y, Yao X X, Zhao Z G 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 234101 (in Chinese) [戴存礼, 骞兴亮, 赵艳艳, 姚雪霞, 赵志刚 2016 物理学报 65 234101]

    [6]

    Akdogan O, Dobrynin A, LeRoy D, Dempsey N M, Givord D 2014 J. Appl. Phys. 115 17A764

    [7]

    Herbst J F 1991 Rev. Mod. Phys. 63 819

    [8]

    Zhu M G, Li W, Wang J D, Zheng L Y, Li Y F, Zhang K, Feng H B, Liu T 2013 IEEE Trans. Magn. 50 1000104

    [9]

    Huang S L, Feng H B, Zhu M G, Li A H, Zhang Y, Li W 2014 AIP Adv. 4 107127

    [10]

    Coehoorn R, de Mooij D B, Duchateau J P W B, Buschow K H J 1988 J. Phys. Colloques 49 C8-669

    [11]

    Skomski R, Coey J M D 1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 15812

    [12]

    Leineweber T, Kronmller H J 1997 Magn. Magn. Mater. 176 145

    [13]

    Liu X H, Yan G, Cui L Y, Zhou S X, Zheng W, Wang A L, Chen J C 1999 IEEE Trans. Magn. 35 3331

    [14]

    Feng W C, Li W, Zhu M G, Han G B, Gao R W 2008 Acta Metall. Sin. 44 8 (in Chinese) [冯维存, 李卫, 朱明刚, 韩广兵, 高汝伟 2008 金属学报 44 8]

    [15]

    Ding J, Street R, McCormick P G 1992 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 115 211

    [16]

    Hadjipanayis G C, Kim A 1988 J. Appl. Phys. 63 3310

    [17]

    Wohlfarth E P 1958 J. Appl. Phys. 29 595

    [18]

    Cammarano R, McCormick P G, Street R 1996 J. Phys. D 29 2327

    [19]

    Livingston J D 1987 IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-23 2109

    [20]

    Crew D C, McConrmick P G, Street R 1999 J. Appl. Phys. 86 3278

    [21]

    Henkel O 1964 Phys. Stat. Sol. 7 919

    [22]

    Kelly P E, Grady K O, Mayo P I, Chantrell R W 1989 IEEE Trans. Magn. 25 3881

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-03-22
  • 修回日期:  2017-05-02
  • 刊出日期:  2017-08-05

Nd-Ce-Fe-B纳米复合薄膜的磁性及交换耦合作用

  • 1. 钢铁研究总院功能材料研究所, 北京 100081
  • 通信作者: 朱明刚, mgzhu@sina.com
    基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2014CB643701)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:51571064)资助的课题.

摘要: 采用磁控溅射技术制备了具有永磁特征的Nd-Ce-Fe-B多层纳米复合薄膜,并对其进行了退火处理.通过改变退火温度,研究其对薄膜磁性能和晶体结构的影响.结果表明,随着退火温度的提高薄膜磁性能逐渐增大,但当温度达到695℃以上时,薄膜的磁性能急剧下降.当退火温度为675℃时,薄膜的矫顽力Hci=10.1 kOe(1 Oe=79.5775 A/m),垂直于薄膜表面方向的剩余磁化强度4Mr=5.91 kG(1 G=103/(4)A/m).薄膜的X射线衍射结果表明,磁性薄膜具有较好的c轴取向.通过对薄膜磁化反转过程的研究,发现随着外加磁场的增大,Mrev的极小值向Mirr减小的方向移动,这与畴壁弯曲模型类似,表明在薄膜中存在较强烈的局部钉扎作用,而剩余磁化强度曲线表明这种钉扎作用在薄膜矫顽力机制中并不占支配作用.此外,薄膜的Henkel曲线结果表明在薄膜中存在较强的交换耦合作用,在经过685℃退火的薄膜中磁相互作用更加显著.

English Abstract

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