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铁基超导体的输运性质

李妙聪 陶前 许祝安

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铁基超导体的输运性质

李妙聪, 陶前, 许祝安

The transport properties of iron-based superconductors

Li Miao-Cong, Tao Qian, Xu Zhu-An
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  • 在铁基超导体中存在着多种有序态, 例如电子向列相和自旋密度波等, 从而呈现出丰富的物理现象. 输运性质的测量能为认识铁基超导体的低能激发提供极为有用的信息. 铁砷超导体由于其电子结构的多能带特性, 其电阻率和霍尔系数与温度的关系出现多样性的变化, 但在正常态并没有看到有类似铜氧化物超导体的赝能隙打开等奇异行为. 在空穴型掺杂的铁基超导体中观测到霍尔系数在低温下变号, 对应温区的电阻率上出现一个很宽的鼓包等, 可能是从非相干到相干态的转变. 热电势行为也表现出与铜氧化物超导体的明显差异, 比如铁基超导体的正常态热电势的绝对值反而在最佳掺杂区是最大的, 这也许跟强的带间散射有关. 能斯特效应表明铁基超导体在$T_{\rm{c}}$以上的超导位相涨落并不明显, 与铜氧化物超导体存在明显差别. 在铁基超导体上所显示出来的这些反常热电性质, 并没有在类似结构的镍基超导体(如LaNiAsO)上观测到, 镍基超导体表现得更像一个通常的金属. 这些均说明铁基超导体的奇异输运性质与其高温超导电性存在内在的关联, 这些因素是建立其超导机理时需要考虑进去的.
    There are a variety of order states in iron-based pnictides, such as electronic nematic phase, spin density wave, and so on, which leads to plenty of novel physical phenomena. The measurements of transport properties can provide extremely useful information for understanding of the low-energy excitations of iron-based superconductors. Due to the multi-band electronic structure in iron-based pnictides, the temperature dependence of resistivity and Hall coefficient varies with different systems, however, there are no evidence for the pseudo-gap opening in the normal state which is a common feature in underdoped high-$T_{\rm{c}}$ cuprates. In the hole-doped iron-based superconductors, the Hall coefficient changes its sign in low temperatures, and meanwhile the resistivity shows a broad hump in the same temperature range. Such a behavior is proposed as a crossover from incoherent to coherent transport. The Seebeck coefficients of iron-based superconductors also show remarkable differences from the cuprates. In iron-based superconductors, the absolute value of Seebeck coefficients in the normal state becomes the largest at the optimally doping point with highest $T_{\rm{c}}$, which is probably related to the strong inter-band scattering. The Nernst effect in the normal state of iron-based superconductors indicates that superconducting phase fluctuations is not obvious above $T_{\rm{c}}$, which is also significantly different from the cuprates. These unusual thermoelectric properties observed in iron-based superconductors have not been observed in the nickel-based pnictide superconductors with the analogous structure, i.e., LaNiAsO, and the nickel-based superconductors behave more like a usual metal. All these results above illustrate that these unusual transport properties of iron-based superconductors are inherently associated with their high temperature superconductivity, and these factors should be taken into account in the theory on its superconducting mechanism.
      通信作者: 许祝安, zhuan@zju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划重点专项(批准号: 2016YFA0300402)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11774305)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Xu Zhu-An, zhuan@zju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key Projects for Research & Development of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0300402), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.11774305)
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  • 图 1  各掺杂浓度下的面内电阻率随温度变化的曲线, 分别为以下样品: (a) Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2, (b) BaFe2(As1–xPx)2, (c) Ba1–xKxFe2As2[19]

    Fig. 1.  Doping evolution of the temperature dependence of the in-plane resistivity for (a) Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2, (b) BaFe2(As1–xPx)2, and (c) Ba1–xKxFe2As2[19]

    图 2  空穴掺杂的“122”体系的霍尔系数随温度的变化[38]

    Fig. 2.  The temperature dependence of Hall coefficients for hole-doping “122”-type iron-based superconductors[38]

    图 3  (a) 样品SmFe1–xCoxAsO随温度变化的热电势, (b) 热电势绝对值及超导转变温度随掺杂浓度的变化[45]

    Fig. 3.  (a) The temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficients for SmFe1–xCoxAsO, (b) Doping dependence of thermopower, |S(300 K)|, |S'(300 K)| and superconducting transition temperature $T^{\rm{mid}}_{{\rm{c}}}$ for SmFe1–xCoxAsO samples[45]

    图 4  多个体系铁基超导体的热电势最大值与$T_{\rm{c}}$之间的关系. 图中未加引文的部分为本文作者尚未发表的数据

    Fig. 4.  The relation between the maximum of thermopower and the $T_{\rm{c}}$ for various iron-based superconductors. The unreferenced portion of the figure is the unpublished data

    图 5  能斯特系数与温度之间的曲线, 分别为: (a) “1111”体系[49]; (b) “122”体系中. 图中BaFe2As2的结果与文献[60]一致

    Fig. 5.  The temperature dependence of Nernst coefficients for (a) “1111”-type[49]; (b) “122”-type. The result of BaFe2As2 is consistent with the report in the Ref. [60]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-04
  • 修回日期:  2020-12-25
  • 上网日期:  2020-12-24
  • 刊出日期:  2021-01-05

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