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在人工拓扑超导体磁通涡旋中寻找Majorana零能模

李耀义 贾金锋

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在人工拓扑超导体磁通涡旋中寻找Majorana零能模

李耀义, 贾金锋

Search for Majorana zero mode in the magnetic vortex of artificial topological superconductor

Li Yao-Yi, Jia Jin-Feng
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  • 寻找具有拓扑序的新物质态是目前一个非常活跃和令人激动的研究领域. 与拓扑绝缘体类似, 在超导体中也存在着拓扑非平庸的超导态, 它与传统的超导体在拓扑性上是不等价的, 这种具有非平庸拓扑序的超导体被称为拓扑超导体. 拓扑超导体在体内具有非零的超导能隙, 而在表面有无能隙的表面态. 理论预言在拓扑超导体中能够实现具有非Abelian 统计特性的Majorana费米子. Majorana费米子可以用来构建拓扑量子比特, 在拓扑量子计算方面有重大的科研和应用前景. 拓扑绝缘体的出现催生出了许多人工拓扑超导体材料. 本专题将主要介绍在拓扑绝缘体/超导体异质结中探测Majorana费米子的一系列实验工作. 通过对拓扑超导体的研究, 人们对超导电性有了全新的认识, 有可能找到实现Majorana费米子新奇量子物理性质的方法.
    The search for new states that exhibit topological order is currently a very active and exciting area of research. Like a topological insulator, superconducting order can also exhibit topological order, which is different from that of a conventional superconductor. This superconductor is so-called " topological superconductor”, which has a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface state. Majorana Fermions obey non-Abelian fractional statistics, and have been proposed to construct topological qubits, so there is a great prospect of scientific research and application in topological quantum computing. It is very interesting that Majorana Fermions are predicted to exist in topological superconductors. However, natural topological superconductor is very rare. Inspired by the realization of topological insulators, theoretical physicists have proposed that via the fabrication of the s-wave superconductor/topological insulator heterostructure, Majorana Fermions may exist in the superconducting topological insulator induced by proximate effect. Due to various kinds of topological insulators and conventional s-wave superconductors, heterostructures constructed by this method can greatly increase the variety of artificial topological superconductors. In this paper we review the experimental progress in the heterostructure composed of the Bi2Te3-type topological insulator and the conventional s-wave superconductor NbSe2. Using molecular beam epitaxy, atomically flat topological insulator film can be fabricated at the top of superconductor substrate. The spatial distribution of Majorana Fermions on the surface of topological insulator can be directly observed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. In the center of a magnetic vortex, Majorana Fermions will appear as the Majorana zero mode, a zero-energy peak inside the superconducting gap. Although the energy gap between low energy quasiparticle excitation and the Majorana zero mode is very small, the evidences such as zero bias conductance anomaly, Y-shape splitting of zero-bias conductance, spin-selective Andreev reflection are self-consistent and reveal that the Majorana zero mode exists in the center of a magnetic vortex. These experiments have led to a new insight into superconductivity. It may open a door to probing the novel physics of Majorana fermions.
      通信作者: 李耀义, yaoyili@sjtu.edu.cn ; 贾金锋, jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2016YFA0301003, 2016YFA0300403)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11521404, 11634009, U1632102, 11504230, 11674222, 11574202, 11674226, 11574201, U1632272, 11655002)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)(批准号: XDB28000000)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Li Yao-Yi, yaoyili@sjtu.edu.cn ; Jia Jin-Feng, jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0301003, 2016YFA0300403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11521404, 11634009, U1632102, 11504230, 11674222, 11574202, 11674226, 11574201, U1632272, 11655002), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. XDB28000000).
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  • 图 1  (a)在NbSe2衬底上生长的Bi2Se3薄膜的形貌; (b)Bi2Se3/NbSe2异质结示意图; (c)NbSe2衬底表面的原子分辨STM图; (d) Bi2Se3薄膜表面的原子分辨STM图[30]

    Fig. 1.  (a) Morphology of Bi2Se3 thin films grown on NbSe2 substrate; (b) schematic diagram of the Bi2Se3/NbSe2 heterostructure; (c) atomically resolved STM image of the NbSe2 substrate; (d) atomically resolved STM image of the Bi2Se3 film[30].

    图 2  在Bi2Se3/NbSe2上探测的超导能隙[30] (a) 4.2 K和 (b) 0.4 K温度下3 QL厚的Bi2Se3薄膜的dI/dV谱; (c) 4.2 K和 (d) 0.4 K温度下6 QL厚的Bi2Se3薄膜的dI/dV

    Fig. 2.  Superconducting energy gap detected in Bi2Se3 thin films grown on NbSe2 substrate[30]: dI/dV spectra measured on 3 QL Bi2Se3 films at (a) 4.2 K and (b) 0.4 K; dI/dV spectra measured on 6 QL Bi2Se3 films at (c) 4.2 K and (d) 0.4 K.

    图 3  厚度为 (a) 3 QL, (b) 6 QL, (c) 9 QL, (d) 12 QL 的Bi2Se3/NbSe2的能带结构[30]

    Fig. 3.  Band structure of (a) 3 QL, (b) 6 QL, (c) 9 QL, (d) 12 QL Bi2Se3 thin films grown on NbSe2 substrate[30].

    图 4  (a)在NbSe2衬底上生长的Bi2Te3薄膜的形貌; (b) 2 QL, (c) 3 QL, (d) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2在4.2 K温度下测得的dI/dV[31]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Morphology of Bi2Te3 thin films grown on NbSe2 substrate; dI/dV spectra measured at 4.2 K on (b) 2 QL, (c) 3 QL, (d) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2[31].

    图 5  在Bi2Te3/NbSe2上探测的超导能隙[31] (a)各种厚度的Bi2Te3薄膜上测得的超导能隙; (b)在NbSe2衬底, 2 QL以及3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2上测得的超导能隙; (c)超导能隙随厚度的变化, 插图为3 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2的超导能隙. 这些dI/dV谱都是在0.4 K温度下测量的

    Fig. 5.  Superconducting energy gap observed on Bi2Te3/NbSe2[31]: (a) A series of dI/dV spectra taken on different thicknesses of Bi2Te3 thin films at 0.4 K; (b) dI/dV spectra taken on pristine NbSe2, 2 QL, and 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2; (c) thickness dependence of the superconducting energy gap; Inset is the dI/dV spectra measured at 0.4 K on 3 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2.

    图 6  (a) 12 K时测得的4 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2的能带结构, 入射光子能量为18 eV; 4 QL 厚的Bi2Se3/NbSe2在 (b) k1和 (c) k2处的ARPES谱随温度的变化关系; (d) 12 K时测得的7 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2的能带结构, 入射光子能量为18 eV; 7 QL 厚的Bi2Se3/NbSe2在 (e) k1和(f) k2处的ARPES谱随温度的变化关系[51]

    Fig. 6.  (a) Band structure of a 4 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2 measured at 12 K using an incident photon energy of 18 eV; Temperature dependence of ARPES spectra at (b) k1 and (c) k2 indicated in Fig. (a); (d) Band structure of a 7 QL Bi2Se3/NbSe2 measured at 12 K using an incident photon energy of 18 eV; Temperature dependence of ARPES spectra at (e) k1 and (f) k2 indicated in Fig. (d)[51].

    图 7  在0.4 K和0.75 T下在 (a) NbSe2和 (b) 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2上的零偏压电导的映射图; 在 (c) NbSe2和 (d) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2上单个涡旋的零偏压电导的映射图[31]

    Fig. 7.  Large-scale zero-bias dI/dV maps measured at 0.4 K and 0.75 T on (a) NbSe2 and (b) 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2; Zero-bias dI/dV maps for a single vortex measured at 0.4 K and 0.1 T on (c) NbSe2 and (d) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2[31].

    图 8  (a)在0.4 K和0.1 T下在NbSe2和3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2上得到的穿过涡旋中心的零偏压电导轮廓图; (b) Bi2Te3/NbSe2的超导相干长度与薄膜厚度的依赖关系; (c) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2的超导相干长度与磁场强度的依赖关系[31]

    Fig. 8.  (a) Normalized ZBC profiles crossing through the centers of vortices at 0.4 K and 0.1 T on NbSe2 and 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2; (b) thickness dependence of the coherence length; (c) the coherence length as a function of the magnetic field measured on 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2[31].

    图 9  (a) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, (b) NbSe2, (c) 2 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2单个涡旋中心处的dI/dV谱随磁场强度的变化关系[32]

    Fig. 9.  Magnetic field-dependent dI/dV spectra taken at a vortex center of (a) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, (b) pristine NbSe2, and (c) 2 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2[32].

    图 10  (a)在0.4 K和0.1 T下在5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2上单个涡旋的零偏压电导映射图; (b)沿着图(a)中虚线方向做的一系列随空间演化的dI/dV[32]

    Fig. 10.  (a) A vortex mapped by zero bias dI/dV on 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2 at 0.1 T and 0.4 K; (b) spatially resolved dI/dV spectra taken along the dashed line in Fig. (a)[32].

    图 11  (a) 1 QL, (b) 2 QL, (c) 3 QL, (d) 4 QL, (e) 5 QL, (f) 6 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2在0.10 T外加磁场下测得的涡旋中束缚态随空间演化的dI/dV谱强度图[32]

    Fig. 11.  Spatially resolved bound states within a vortex at 0.10 T in (a) 1 QL, (b) 2 QL, (c) 3 QL, (d) 4 QL, (e) 5 QL, (f) 6 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2 heterostructures[32].

    图 12  (a)在0.10 T外加磁场下5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2的单个涡旋中心处束缚态随空间演化的dI/dV谱强度图; (b)在0.18 T外加磁场下5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2的单个涡旋中心处束缚态随空间演化的dI/dV谱强度图, 束缚态从一开始就发生劈裂, 这与图(a)形成鲜明的对比[32]

    Fig. 12.  (a) Spatially resolved bound states within a vortex at 0.10 T in the 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2 heterostructures; (b) spatially resolved bound states within a vortex at 0.18 T in the 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2 heterostructures. The peak-splitting start point is zero, in sharp contrast to that in Fig. (a)[32].

    图 13  (a)拓扑超导体5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2在0.1 T外加磁场下磁通涡旋的零偏压dI/dV映射图; (b)在磁通涡旋中心用自旋极化的针尖测得的dI/dV谱; (c)在离磁通涡旋中心10 nm远的地方用自旋极化的针尖测得的dI/dV[33]

    Fig. 13.  (a) Zero bias dI/dV mapping of a vortex at 0.1 T on the topological superconductor 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2. (b) dI/dV at the vortex center measured with a fully spin polarized tip. (c) dI/dV at 10 nm away from the center measured with a fully spin polarized tip[33].

    图 14  用自旋极化的针尖在磁通涡旋中心测得的dI/dV[33] (a) 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, B = 0.1 T; (b) NbSe2, B = 0.1 T; (c) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, B = 0.22 T

    Fig. 14.  dI/dV curves at the center of a vortex core measured with a fully spin polarized tip[33]: (a) 3 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, B = 0.1 T; (b) Bare NbSe2, B = 0.1 T; (c) 5 QL Bi2Te3/NbSe2, B = 0.22 T.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-09-12
  • 修回日期:  2018-10-11
  • 上网日期:  2019-07-01
  • 刊出日期:  2019-07-05

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