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新型电磁波隐身研究进展

陈天航 郑斌 钱超 陈红胜

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新型电磁波隐身研究进展

陈天航, 郑斌, 钱超, 陈红胜

Progress of novel electromagnetic cloaking research

Chen Tian-Hang, Zheng Bin, Qian Chao, Chen Hong-Sheng
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  • 随着科技的发展, 隐身逐步从一种简单、朴素的视觉欺骗手段, 走向一种精准化、系统化的现代技术体系. 通过设计合理的电磁参数, 新型电磁波隐身技术能够灵活地调控电磁波的传播与散射, 从而降低被隐身物体的可探测性. 新型隐身器件的电磁参数可以通过人工设计微纳结构的方法来实现, 也可以结合自然界中已存在的介质来制备. 本文在详细介绍新型电磁波隐身研究进展的基础上, 探讨了这一领域所面临的难点和挑战, 并对未来的发展做了展望.
    With the development of science and technology, the invisibility has gradually moved from a simple and plain visual deception trick to a precise and systematic modern technology system. By designing appropriate electromagnetic parameters, the novel electromagnetic wave cloaking technology is able to control the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic wave, thereby reducing the detectability of the cloaked object. The electromagnetic parameters of these novel cloaking devices can be realized by using the artificially designed nanostructures, or by combining the medium that already exists in nature. In this review, according to a detailed introduction of the research progress of novel electromagnetic wave cloaking, we discuss the difficulties and challenges in this field, and give an outlook on the future development.
      通信作者: 郑斌, zhengbin@zju.edu.cn ; 陈红胜, hansomchen@zju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61625502, 11961141010, 61975176)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Zheng Bin, zhengbin@zju.edu.cn ; Chen Hong-Sheng, hansomchen@zju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61625502, 11961141010, 61975176)
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  • 图 1  吸波或定向散射隐身, 美国空军F117A隐身战机的独特外观可以针对单基站雷达系统有效隐身

    Fig. 1.  Examples of absorbing or directional scattering cloaking methods: The unique appearance of U.S. Air Force F117A stealth fighter enables it to be effectively cloaked under the single-based station radar system

    图 2  吸收式隐身举例 (a)中红外波段吸收型表面遮罩[32], 若被隐身物体放置遮罩下方, 则反射波会被吸收而不会进入任何探测器; (b)红外隐身/幻觉对热成像图像的影响[33]

    Fig. 2.  Examples of absorption cloaking. (a) A mid-infrared absorption cloaking sheet[32]. Most of the reflected wave will be absorbed without entering any detector. (b) Effect of infrared cloaking/illusion on thermal images[33].

    图 3  “完美隐身”示意[37] (电磁波在通过所设计的各向异性隐身球体后, 仍然沿着原来的方向传播)

    Fig. 3.  “A perfect cloak”[37]. The electromagnetic wave still propagates in the original direction after passing through the designed anisotropic cloaking sphere.

    图 4  “自隐身材料”的工作原理及效果示意[39] (a)不同层数金属线谐振结构的等效电磁参数; (b) 自隐身结构在10 GHz斜入射平面波作用下的电场分布

    Fig. 4.  The working principle and effect of “self-cloaked material”[39]: (a) Effective parameters of the solid slab composed of closely arranged corrugated wires with different layer thickness; (b) steady-state electric field distribution under an oblique plane-wave incidence at 10 GHz upon such self-cloaked material.

    图 5  散射相消法的基本原理[41]

    Fig. 5.  Schematic of the scattering cancellation cloaking method[41].

    图 6  基于变换光学的隐身衣实例[61]

    Fig. 6.  Photo of cloak based on transformation optics[61].

    图 7  利用均匀光学变换设计的一维方向隐身衣[64] (a)变换的原始虚空间, 红色场线代表某条光线; (b)变换后的实空间, 红色场线代表该条变换后的光线; (c)用周期性层状结构实现的该一维方向隐身衣示意图

    Fig. 7.  Invisibility cloak designed by homogeneous transformation optics[64]: (a) The original virtual space of the transform; the red line represents a selected ray; (b) real space after transformation; the red line represents the transformed ray; (c) layered system for modeling the one-directional cloak.

    图 8  利用均匀光学变换原理设计的由方解石所构成的TM波可见光隐身器件[68]

    Fig. 8.  A TM wave visible light invisibility cloak composed of calcite under natural light designed by homogeneous transformation optics[68].

    图 9  利用均匀光学变换原理, 舍弃相位一致性后制作的自然光大尺寸物体隐身器件示意图[71] (a), (b) 水中型自然光大尺寸物体隐身器件对一条鱼的隐身效果; (c), (d) 陆上型自然光大尺寸物体隐身器件对一只猫的隐身效果

    Fig. 9.  Schematics of a nature light cloak for large objects when the phase consistency is ignored[71]: (a), (b) Dynamic monitoring of a fish swimming through the aquatic ray cloak; (c), (d) experimental observation of a cat in the terrestrial ray cloak.

    图 10  地毯式隐身衣 (a)地毯式隐身衣的设计方法[74], 通过对虚空间的压缩, 右侧子图的蓝色区域被变换至左侧子图中的蓝色区域, 从而隐藏实空间中的绿色物体; (b)首次实验实现的地毯式隐身衣及工字型单元结构[75]

    Fig. 10.  Carpet invisibility cloak: (a) The design of carpet invisibility cloak[74], through the compression of virtual space, the blue region of right sub-figure is transformed to the blue region in the left sub-figure, thus concealing the green objects existing in the real space in figure (a); (b) experimentally realized carpet invisibility cloak and I-shaped unit structure by Liu et al[75].

    图 11  (a)地毯式隐身效果的原理图[84]; (b)可见光频段隐身衣[86]; (c)使用环形谐振器结构在太赫兹和毫米波频段上设计的隐身器件[88]; (d)使用闭口谐振环实现的全极化表面隐身衣[92]

    Fig. 11.  (a) A schematic of carpet cloak[84]; (b) schematic view of a visible spectrum invisibility cloak[86]; (c) cloaking devices designed at terahertz and millimeter wave frequencies by applying ring resonators to metasurfaces[88]; (d) a full-polarization carpet cloak by applying closed-loop resonators[92].

    图 12  (a) 基于“补偿介质”的隐身[97]; (b) 基于多重变换光学的远程非接触式隐身[100]

    Fig. 12.  (a) Cloaking by designing a “complementary media” [97]; (b) remote cloaking based on multi-folded transformation optics[100]

    图 13  有源隐身的实现 (a) 微波电磁场有源隐身衣[110]; (b) 稳恒电流场有源隐身衣[111]; (c) 热传导场有源隐身衣[112]

    Fig. 13.  Experimental realization of active cloaking: (a) Active invisibility cloak at microwave frequency[110]; (b) active direct current field invisibility cloak[111]; (c) active heat conduction field invisibility cloak[112].

    图 14  拟态隐身效果实例 (a)捷蛙的保护色使得其与草原环境融为一体; (b)身着吉利服士兵的散射波与草原背景的散射波大体一致, 很难被观察者发现

    Fig. 14.  Examples of imitation cloaking methods: (a) The protective color of a frog (Rana dalmatina) makes it difficult to be distinguished from the grasslands environment; (b) the scattering wave of soldiers in ghillie suit is almost the same as that of grasslands background, which is difficult to be spotted by enemy observers.

    图 15  可调隐身衣 (a)一维温控变换光学隐身衣[137]; (b) 基于可调超构表面设计的地毯式隐身/幻觉设备[140]; (c)针对时谐电磁波的数字可调超构表面, 可以用来人为制造多普勒相移, 即物体移动速度的光学幻觉[141]; (d)基于人工神经网络模型的自适应微波段隐身设备[143]

    Fig. 15.  Tunable invisibility cloak: (a) Temperature tunable one-dimensional transformation optics invisibility cloak[137]; (b) carpet cloaking/illusion device based on tunable metasurface[140]; (c) the time-domain digital-coding metasurface which is able to create the analogue of Doppler shift, or velocity illusion[141]; (d) deep learning-enabled self-adaptive microwave cloak[143].

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-06-26
  • 修回日期:  2020-07-10
  • 上网日期:  2020-07-20
  • 刊出日期:  2020-08-05

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