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基于光学隐藏视觉密码的欺骗追踪系统

吴承哲 刘睿泽 史祎诗

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基于光学隐藏视觉密码的欺骗追踪系统

吴承哲, 刘睿泽, 史祎诗

Optical-hidden-visual-cryptography-based spoofing tracking system

Wu Cheng-Zhe, Liu Rui-Ze, Shi Yi-Shi
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  • 提出了一种基于光学隐藏视觉密码的欺骗追踪系统. 该系统将秘密图像分解为多幅有实际意义的掩饰图像, 将其中一张掩饰图像嵌入脆弱水印, 作为检验密钥, 检验密钥单独传输. 然后将其余掩饰图像隐藏在相位密钥中, 进行传输时有很好的不可见性. 掩饰图像的像素排列若被不诚实的参与者篡改, 则称为欺骗图像. 将每张相位密钥分发给不同的参与者, 以保证在追踪到欺骗图像时可找到对应的欺骗者. 在提取过程中, 只需要对该相位密钥进行傅里叶变换, 即可得到掩饰图像. 检验时, 将检验密钥与任一掩饰图像进行非相干叠加, 以是否出现验证图像为条件, 就可检验掩饰图像是否被篡改, 以达到欺骗追踪的目的, 将数量大于等于门限k的掩饰图像和检验密钥进行非相干叠加即可得到秘密图像, 仿真实验结果表明, 该系统可应用于利用不可见视觉密码术传递实际信息时, 对内部欺骗者的追踪.
    A deception tracking system based on optical hidden visual code is proposed. The system uses visual cryptography to decompose the secret image into a number of realistic masked images, which can be used to conceal the secret information. One of the masked images is embedded with a fragile watermark to ensure that it is not modified, and the image is used as an inspection key to verify the other images, and the inspection key is transmitted separately. The rest of the camouflaged image is hidden in the phase key by using the phase recovery algorithm, which has good invisibility during transmission. If the pixel arrangement of the masked image is tampered with by a dishonest participant, it is called a fraudulent image. Each phase key is distributed to different participants to ensure that the corresponding deceiver can be found when the spoofing image is traced. In the extraction process, only the diffraction transformation of the phase key is needed to obtain the mask image. During the inspection, the inspection key is incoherently superimposed with any masking image, and the condition of whether the verification image appears is that the masked image is tampered with, thereby achieving the purpose of deception tracking. The secret image can be obtained by being incoherently superimposed between the masking images whose number is greater than or equal to the threshold k, and the inspection key. The inspection key is superimposed with any masked image, and if there is a spoofed image, no verification image will appear, and eventually no secret image will be restored. If there is no spoofed image, the verification image will appear, and the secret image can be restored by covering all the images. The system can be used to track internal fraudsters when actual information is transmitted through invisible visual cryptography.
  • 图 1  再现、检验、恢复过程

    Fig. 1.  Reproducing, verifying, and restoring process.

    图 2  分解、隐藏、嵌入脆弱水印过程

    Fig. 2.  Decomposition, hiding, embedding fragile watermarking process.

    图 3  当秘密图像、验证图像、掩饰图像像素的像素分别为黑色、黑色、白色时的编码方案

    Fig. 3.  Encoding scheme when the pixels of secret image, verification image, and masking image pixels are black, black, and white respectively.

    图 4  GS算法流程

    Fig. 4.  GS algorithm flow.

    图 5  嵌入脆弱水印流程

    Fig. 5.  Fragile watermark embedding process.

    图 6  提取脆弱水印图像流程

    Fig. 6.  Process of extracting fragile watermark image.

    图 7  欺骗追踪过程 (a) 检验密钥; (b) 被篡改像素排列顺序的欺骗图像; (c) 从相位密钥恢复的掩饰图像; (d) 检验密钥与欺骗图像叠加结果; (e) 检验密钥与掩饰图像叠加结果; (f) 无法恢复秘密图像的结果

    Fig. 7.  Spoofing tracking process: (a) Test key; (b) spoofing images with altered pixel arrangement order; (c) masking image recovered from phase key; (d) test key and spoofing image superposition result; (e) test key and masking image superposition result; (f) failure to recover secret image.

    图 8  脆弱水印功能验证 (a) 宿主图像; (b) 水印图像; (c) 嵌入脆弱水印的宿主图像; (d) 提取水印图像; (e) 0.01椒盐噪声攻击提取的水印; (f) 0.01高斯噪声攻击提取的水印; (g) 图像压缩后提取的水印; (h) 10×10像素裁剪攻击后提取的水印

    Fig. 8.  Fragile watermarking function verification: (a) Host image; (b) watermarked image; (c) host image embedded with fragile watermark; (d) extract watermark image; (e) watermark extracted by 0.01 salt and pepper noise attack; (f) watermark extracted by 0.01 Gaussian noise attack; (g) watermark extracted after image compression; (h) watermark extracted after 10×10 pixel cropping attack.

    图 9  获得秘密图像的过程 (a) 检验密钥; (b)从相位密钥恢复出的掩饰图像1; (c)从相位密钥恢复出的掩饰图像2; (d) 检验密钥和掩饰图像1叠加得到的验证图像; (e) 检验密钥和掩饰图像2叠加得到的验证图像; (f) 3张图像叠加恢复的秘密图像

    Fig. 9.  Process of obtaining secret image: (a) Test key; (b) masking image 1 recovered from phase key; (c) masking image 2 recovered from phase key; (d) the verification image obtained by superimposing the test key and the masking image 1; (e) verification images obtained by superimposing the test key and masking image 2; (f) the secret image recovered by superimposing three images.

    图 10  (a)—(f)分别为14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 30像素大小的字符图像信息

    Fig. 10.  (a)–(f) The character images information with the size of 14, 16, 18, 20, 24 and 30 pixels respectively.

    图 11  对掩饰图像进行加噪声处理后秘密图像的相关系数曲线

    Fig. 11.  Correlation coefficient curves of secret images after noise processing of masking image.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-10-29
  • 修回日期:  2024-05-15
  • 上网日期:  2024-06-18

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