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基于教室人群疏散实验的行人流建模和模拟

董力耘 陈立 段晓茵

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基于教室人群疏散实验的行人流建模和模拟

董力耘, 陈立, 段晓茵

Modeling and simulation of pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit classroom based on experimental features

Dong Li-Yun, Chen Li, Duan Xiao-Yin
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  • 基于教室人群疏散实验, 从中归纳出疏散过程中行人的基本运动特征. 将桌椅分别视为不可穿越和可穿越的静态障碍物, 而行人则被当成可移动的障碍物, 这将导致背景场随人群的运动而动态更新, 因此可以更好地反映前方拥挤程度对后面人群路径选择行为的影响. 采用基于动态背景场的元胞自动机模型研究了不同桌椅排列和出口宽度的教室人群疏散过程, 给出了疏散时间的空间分布以及平均和最大疏散时间, 再现了实验中人群疏散的基本特征. 数值模拟结果表明, 疏散时间取决于桌椅的排列方式和教室出口的宽度. 对于同一种排列, 出口越小则疏散时间越长; 对于给定的出口宽度, 通常随着过道数的增加, 疏散时间随之减少; 当过道数增加且过道宽度不足以两人并行, 从两侧进入过道的行人会发生冲突, 使疏散效率有所降低; 靠近出口一侧墙壁设置过道有利于人群的疏散. 文中进一步分析了模拟与实验结果存在差异的原因.
    It is of fundamental importance to investigate the evacuation process from a room with obstacles. The typical case is the evacuation of students from a classroom. Based on evacuation experiments from a classroom, the essential features of evacuee are concluded. In the original floor field model, the dynamic floor field is introduced in order to reflect the interaction among pedestrians. A pedestrian may follow the virtual trace of another one in front. The static floor field does not consider the influence of pedestrians. In this paper, the original dynamic floor field is ignored. These desks and chairs are treated as impassable and passable static obstacles, respectively. The static and passible obstacles, such as chairs, lead to the delay of movement of pedestrians. Furthermore, pedestrians are regarded as movable obstacles. The effect of static obstacles on floor field does not change with time. However, the effect of movable obstacles on floor field is dynamic. Therefore, the whole floor field is updated dynamically according to the movement of crowd. Pedestrians may try to find another uncongested path or exit when they find the crowd in front. It provides a better description of the influence of downstream congestions on upstream crowd. The cellular automaton model based on the dynamic floor field is used to investigate the evacuation process in the case of four layouts and three exit widths. The spatial distributions of evacuation time in different conditions and also the average and maximum evacuation times are obtained. Numerical simulations reproduce the evacuation process observed in the experiment quite well. The evacuation time depends on arrangement of these desks and the exit width. For a given layout, the smaller exit leads to longer evacuation time. It is found that the evacuation time does not decrease monotonically with increasing the number of aisles, which depends on the width of aisle as well. When the aisle is not wide enough, the conflict of pedestrians from both sides reduces the efficiency of evacuation. It is helpful for coping with crowd evacuation with an aisle close to the exit side of the wall. The reasons of the differences between experimental and simulation results are also discussed in more detail.
      通信作者: 董力耘, dly@shu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2012CB725404)和国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11172164)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Dong Li-Yun, dly@shu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB725404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11172164).
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    Helbing D, Farkas I, Vicsek T 2000 Nature 407 487

    [2]

    Helbing D, Buzna L, Johansson A, Werner T 2005 Transport. Sci. 39 1

    [3]

    Helbing D, Isobe M, Nagatani T, Takimoto K 2003 Phys. Rev. E 67 067101

    [4]

    Nagai R, Nagatani T, Isobe M, Adachi T 2004 Physica A 343 712

    [5]

    Isobe M, Helbing D, Nagatani T 2004 Phys. Rev. E 69 066132

    [6]

    Zhang J, Song W G, Xu X 2008 Physica A 387 5901

    [7]

    Liu S B, Yang L Z, Fang T Y, Li J 2009 Physica A 388 1921

    [8]

    Duan X Y, Dong L Y, Wang G Y, Wei Y F, Tian H H 2013 J. Shanghai Univ. 19 585 (in Chinese) [段晓茵, 董力耘, 王甘赟, 韦艳芳, 田欢欢 2013 上海大学学报(自然科学版) 19 585]

    [9]

    Helbing D, Molnr P 1995 Phys. Rev.E 51 4282

    [10]

    Yu W J, Chen R, Dong L Y, Dai S Q 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 026112

    [11]

    Muramatsu M, Irie T, Nagatani T 1999 Physica A 267 487

    [12]

    Blue V J, Adler J L 2001 Transp. Res. B 35 293

    [13]

    Burstedde C, Klauck K, Schadschneider A, Zittartz J 2001 Physica A 295 507

    [14]

    Kirchner A, Schadschneider A 2002 Physica A 312 260

    [15]

    Song W G, Yu Y F, Fan W C, Zhang H P 2005 Sci. China Ser E$ 35 725 (in Chinese) [宋卫国, 于彦飞, 范维澄, 张和平 2005 中国科学: E辑 35 725]

    [16]

    Varas A, Cornejo M D, Mainemer D, Toledo B, Rogan J, Munoz V, Valdivia J A 2007 Physica A 382 631

    [17]

    Huang H J, Guo R Y 2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 021131

    [18]

    Guo R Y, Huang H J 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 030501

    [19]

    Zhu K J, Yang L Z 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 7701 (in Chinese) [朱孔金, 杨立中 2010 物理学报 59 7701]

    [20]

    Alizadeh R 2011 Safety Sci. 49 315

    [21]

    Guo R Y, Huang H J 2011 J. Stat. Mech. P04018

    [22]

    Chen L, Guo R Y, Ta N 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 050506 (in Chinese) [陈亮, 郭仁拥, 塔娜 2013 物理学报 62 050506]

    [23]

    Tian H H, Dong L Y, Xue Y 2015 Physica A 420 164

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2015-03-02
  • 修回日期:  2015-07-20
  • 刊出日期:  2015-11-05

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