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关于压水堆产武器级钚的模拟计算

徐雪峰 付元光 朱剑钰 李瑞 田东风 伍钧 李凯波

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关于压水堆产武器级钚的模拟计算

徐雪峰, 付元光, 朱剑钰, 李瑞, 田东风, 伍钧, 李凯波

Simulation calculation of weapon-grade plutonium production in pressurized water reactor

Xu Xue-Feng, Fu Yuan-Guang, Zhu Jian-Yu, Li Rui, Tian Dong-Feng, Wu Jun, Li Kai-Bo
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  • 防止核扩散是国际社会共同努力的目标,其中武器级核材料的防扩散是重中之重. 钚是反应堆的副产品,如果不计较经济效益,利用铀为核燃料的反应堆都可以生产武器级钚. 本文基于日本Takahama-3压水堆建立了五个模型,并进行中子和燃耗计算,得到两种燃料棒产武器级钚的条件、燃料棒轴向的燃耗分布、组件内燃料棒燃耗的变化区间和全堆芯燃料棒径向燃耗分布. 基于上述模型和计算数据给出压水堆堆芯内含有武器级钚的准确位置和UO2燃料棒中武器级钚的产量. 这种低燃耗的乏燃料给国际核不扩散带来了巨大风险,国际社会应该加强对此类乏燃料的监管.
    The nuclear nonproliferation is a common objective for the international society, of which one of the most important issues is the nonproliferation of weapon-grade nuclear material. Plutonium is a by-product when nuclear reactors are operated. If a commercial power nuclear reactor operates without counting its economic benefits, it is possible that weapon-grade plutonium (WGPu) would be produced in the nuclear reactor with using uranium as nuclear fuel. In the paper, we quantitatively study the plutonium isotopic composition and yield of the WGPu produced in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and thereby investigate the proliferation risk of commercial nuclear reactors. The properties of plutonium produced in the PWR are calculated by MCORGS, which is developed by us to link MCNP and ORIGENS for calculating the transport-burnup. For evaluating the changing behavior of plutonium isotopic ratio dependent on the cooling time after being discharged from a PWR, we add the model of calculating the depletion and decay properties of nuclear fuel into the MCORGS code system. In order to calculate the yield of WGPu produced in the PWR, we carry out the neutron and burnup calculations by using five reactor models. The simulation models and operation history are based on the configuration and parameters of Japanese Takahama-3 unit. According to the positions and proportions of UO2 fuel rods, burnable poison rods and guide tubes in Takahama-3 PWR, we build a PWR model of an infinite heterogeneous 66 pin cell lattice, carry out simulation calculation and explore the condition for WGPu existing in the two kinds of fuel rods. When the burnup of a UO2 fuel rod is no more than 4.7 MWd/kgU, it contains WGPu. When the burnup of a burnable poison rod is no more than 2.7 MWd/kgU, it contains WGPu. Therefore, the issue of WGPu production in PWR is transformed into the research of the spatial distribution of PWR burnup. In order to obtain the axial PWR burnup, we build an infinite fuel pin cell model in which the PWR is divided into 20 equal zones in the axial direction, and calculate PWR axial burnup distribution when it is operated at 9 typical powers of Takahama-3 PWR. It is found that the burnup value of the two ends of 1/20 section is worth 1/3 of the two middle ones. Based on the principle of neutron leakage in a PWR and the simulation results of a fuel assembly, we build a special PWR mode, in which the PWR is divided into 10 zones in radial direction, and obtain the radial distribution of PWR burnup after the first, the second and the third fuel cycle. Based on the WGPu existing condition and the spatial distribution of a PWR burnup, in this paper we present the exact position of WGPu contained in PWR core and the yield of WGPu in UO2 fuel rods. The calculation results indicate that the spent nuclear fuel with low burnup brings huge proliferation risk, of which the supervision should be strengthened.
      通信作者: 李凯波, li_kaibo@iapcm.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 能源局06专项(批准号:2015ZX06002008)、国防科工局国防基础科研计划(批准号:C1520110002)和国家磁约束核聚变能源研究专项(批准号:2015GB108002)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Li Kai-Bo, li_kaibo@iapcm.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Sub-item of Special Project, National Energy Bureau, China (Grant No. 2015ZX06002008), the National Defence Basic Scientific Research Program of State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence, China (Grant No. C1520110002), and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Project, China (Grant No. 2015GB108002).
    [1]

    Glaser A 2009 Nucl. Sci. Eng. 163 26

    [2]

    Gasner A, Glaser A 2011 Sci. Global Security 19 223

    [3]

    Takeda S 1978 J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 15 502

    [4]

    Mark J C, Hippel F V, Lyman E 2009 Sci. Global Security 17 170

    [5]

    Kord S 2003 MC+SNA Gatlinburg, Tennessee, USA, April 6-11, 2003

    [6]

    Horelik N, Herman B, Forget B, Smith K 2013 Proceedings of MC 2013 Sun Valley Idaho, USA, May 5-9, 2013 p2986

    [7]

    Smith K, Benoit F 2013 MC 2013 Sun Valley Idaho, USA, May 5-9, 2013 p1809

    [8]

    Li G, Deng L, Zhang B Y, Li R, Shi D F, Shangguan D H, Hu Z H, Fu Y G, Ma Y 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 052801 (in Chinese) [李刚, 邓力, 张宝印, 李瑞, 史敦福, 上官丹骅, 胡泽华, 付元光, 马彦 2016 物理学报 65 052801]

    [9]

    Shangguan D H, Li G, Deng L, Zhang B Y, Li R, Fu Y G 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 052801 (in Chinese) [上官丹骅, 李刚, 邓力, 张宝印, 李瑞, 付元光 2015 物理学报 64 052801]

    [10]

    Shangguan D H, Deng L, Li G, Zhang B Y, Ma Y, Fu Y G, Li R, Hu X L 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 062801 (in Chinese) [上官丹骅, 邓力, 李刚, 张宝印, 马彦, 付元光, 李瑞, 胡小利 2016 物理学报 65 062801]

    [11]

    Shi X M, Zhang B A 2010 Nucl. Power Eng. 3 1 (in Chinese) [师学明, 张本爱 2010 核动力工程 3 1]

    [12]

    Shi X M 2010 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: China Academy of Engineering Physics) (in Chinese) [师学明 2010 博士学位论文 (北京:中国工程物理研究院)]

    [13]

    Dalle H M 2009 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, September 27-October 2, 2009

    [14]

    Analysis of Experimental Data for High Burnup PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic Validation-Calvert Cliffs, Takahama, and Three Mile Island Reactors, Ilas G, Gauld I C, Difilippo F, Emmett M B https://www.nrc.gov/ reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr6968/ [2010-02]

    [15]

    Albright D, Berkhout F, Walker W 1997 Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1996 (New York: SIPRI) p19

    [16]

    Park C J, Park H G, Shon H D, Hong S G, Lee Y 2015 Ann. Nucl. Energy 81 174

    [17]

    Pirouzmand A, Roosta F 2016 Progress in Nucl. Energy 88 321

    [18]

    Chen B S, Liu C X 2007 Fuel Pin of LWR (Beijing: Chemistry Industry Press) p341 (in Chinese) [陈宝山, 刘承新 2007 轻水堆燃料元件 (北京:化学工业出版社) 第341页]

  • [1]

    Glaser A 2009 Nucl. Sci. Eng. 163 26

    [2]

    Gasner A, Glaser A 2011 Sci. Global Security 19 223

    [3]

    Takeda S 1978 J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 15 502

    [4]

    Mark J C, Hippel F V, Lyman E 2009 Sci. Global Security 17 170

    [5]

    Kord S 2003 MC+SNA Gatlinburg, Tennessee, USA, April 6-11, 2003

    [6]

    Horelik N, Herman B, Forget B, Smith K 2013 Proceedings of MC 2013 Sun Valley Idaho, USA, May 5-9, 2013 p2986

    [7]

    Smith K, Benoit F 2013 MC 2013 Sun Valley Idaho, USA, May 5-9, 2013 p1809

    [8]

    Li G, Deng L, Zhang B Y, Li R, Shi D F, Shangguan D H, Hu Z H, Fu Y G, Ma Y 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 052801 (in Chinese) [李刚, 邓力, 张宝印, 李瑞, 史敦福, 上官丹骅, 胡泽华, 付元光, 马彦 2016 物理学报 65 052801]

    [9]

    Shangguan D H, Li G, Deng L, Zhang B Y, Li R, Fu Y G 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 052801 (in Chinese) [上官丹骅, 李刚, 邓力, 张宝印, 李瑞, 付元光 2015 物理学报 64 052801]

    [10]

    Shangguan D H, Deng L, Li G, Zhang B Y, Ma Y, Fu Y G, Li R, Hu X L 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 062801 (in Chinese) [上官丹骅, 邓力, 李刚, 张宝印, 马彦, 付元光, 李瑞, 胡小利 2016 物理学报 65 062801]

    [11]

    Shi X M, Zhang B A 2010 Nucl. Power Eng. 3 1 (in Chinese) [师学明, 张本爱 2010 核动力工程 3 1]

    [12]

    Shi X M 2010 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: China Academy of Engineering Physics) (in Chinese) [师学明 2010 博士学位论文 (北京:中国工程物理研究院)]

    [13]

    Dalle H M 2009 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, September 27-October 2, 2009

    [14]

    Analysis of Experimental Data for High Burnup PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic Validation-Calvert Cliffs, Takahama, and Three Mile Island Reactors, Ilas G, Gauld I C, Difilippo F, Emmett M B https://www.nrc.gov/ reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr6968/ [2010-02]

    [15]

    Albright D, Berkhout F, Walker W 1997 Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1996 (New York: SIPRI) p19

    [16]

    Park C J, Park H G, Shon H D, Hong S G, Lee Y 2015 Ann. Nucl. Energy 81 174

    [17]

    Pirouzmand A, Roosta F 2016 Progress in Nucl. Energy 88 321

    [18]

    Chen B S, Liu C X 2007 Fuel Pin of LWR (Beijing: Chemistry Industry Press) p341 (in Chinese) [陈宝山, 刘承新 2007 轻水堆燃料元件 (北京:化学工业出版社) 第341页]

计量
  • 文章访问数:  2131
  • PDF下载量:  161
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-12-19
  • 修回日期:  2017-02-01
  • 刊出日期:  2017-04-05

关于压水堆产武器级钚的模拟计算

  • 1. 中国工程物理研究院战略研究中心, 北京 100088;
  • 2. 中国工程物理研究院, 绵阳 621900;
  • 3. 中国工程物理研究院北京研究生部, 北京 100088;
  • 4. 中国工程物理研究院高性能数值模拟软件中心, 北京 100083
  • 通信作者: 李凯波, li_kaibo@iapcm.ac.cn
    基金项目: 

    能源局06专项(批准号:2015ZX06002008)、国防科工局国防基础科研计划(批准号:C1520110002)和国家磁约束核聚变能源研究专项(批准号:2015GB108002)资助的课题.

摘要: 防止核扩散是国际社会共同努力的目标,其中武器级核材料的防扩散是重中之重. 钚是反应堆的副产品,如果不计较经济效益,利用铀为核燃料的反应堆都可以生产武器级钚. 本文基于日本Takahama-3压水堆建立了五个模型,并进行中子和燃耗计算,得到两种燃料棒产武器级钚的条件、燃料棒轴向的燃耗分布、组件内燃料棒燃耗的变化区间和全堆芯燃料棒径向燃耗分布. 基于上述模型和计算数据给出压水堆堆芯内含有武器级钚的准确位置和UO2燃料棒中武器级钚的产量. 这种低燃耗的乏燃料给国际核不扩散带来了巨大风险,国际社会应该加强对此类乏燃料的监管.

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