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双螺线圈射频共振结构增强硅空位自旋传感灵敏度方法

张文杰 刘郁松 郭浩 韩星程 蔡安江 李圣昆 赵鹏飞 刘俊

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双螺线圈射频共振结构增强硅空位自旋传感灵敏度方法

张文杰, 刘郁松, 郭浩, 韩星程, 蔡安江, 李圣昆, 赵鹏飞, 刘俊

Methodology of improving sensitivity of silicon vacancy spin-based sensors based on double spiral coil RF resonance structure

Zhang Wen-Jie, Liu Yu-Song, Guo Hao, Han Xing-Cheng, Cai An-Jiang, Li Sheng-Kun, Zhao Peng-Fei, Liu Jun
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  • 针对硅空位自旋磁共振信号射频场非均匀展宽问题, 提出并设计了一种双螺线圈射频共振结构, 利用双螺线圈平行对称特性, 构建射频场均匀区, 非均匀性小于0.9%, 相比单根直线性结构, 均匀性提高了56.889倍. 同时, 利用射频信号近距离互感耦合共振特性, 实现了射频场的增强, 相比单线圈结构增强了1.587倍, 等效的自旋传感灵敏度提高了4.833倍. 实验中搭建基于SiC硅色心自旋磁共振效应的光探测磁共振传感测量系统, 通过对比不同类型的射频天线, 测试得到基于双螺线圈射频共振天线结构的硅空位色心自旋磁共振信号对比度提高了6倍, 通过调制解调信息解算方法得到传感器的灵敏度提高了4.833倍, 传感器噪声降低了8倍, 提高了硅空位自旋传感测量灵敏度, 结合SiC晶圆芯片制造技术, 为高精度、芯片级自旋量子传感器件的制造提供了技术支撑.
    Due to the power instability and field non-uniformity of radio frequency (RF), microwave (MW) and laser signals, inhomogeneous broadening of spin magnetic resonance line causes the absorption to decrease in a nuclear resonance system, which can reduce the sensitivity of spin-based sensing and testing technology. In this paper, we propose and design a double solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure. The nearly uniform RF field density is produced by the two solenoid coil antenna structures that are parallel to the symmetry axis. The size of the uniformity in the center region of double solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure is about π×375 mm2 × 10 mm. And the non-uniformity is less than 0.9%. Comparing with a single straight wire antenna and the single solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure, the uniformity is improved by about 56.889 times and 42.889 times, respectively. At the same time, based on the near-field mutual inductance coupled resonance effect, the intensities of RF field in the center region of the two-solenoid coil antenna structure is enhanced. Comparing with the single solenoid coil antenna structures, it is enhanced by about 1.587 times. And the equivalent sensitivity of the silicon vacancy color center spin based sensor is enhanced by about 4.833 times. In the experiment, an optical detection magnetic resonance measurement system based on the spin magnetic resonance effect of silicon vacancy color center in single crystal SiC is built. Comparing with the single straight wire antenna and the single solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure, the contrast of the silicon vacancy color center spin magnetic resonance signals of the double solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure increases about 6 times and 2.4 times, respectively. The sensitivity of the spin-based sensor is increased by 4.833 times and 2.071 times through using the modulation and demodulation method, and the noise decreases by 8 times and twice. Hence, based on this double solenoid coil RF resonance antenna structure, the sensitivity of the silicon vacancy spin sensor can be improved. Combined with chip manufacturing technology of SiC wafer, it proves to be a potential approach to developing the high precision, chip scale spin sensor devices and measurement technology.
      通信作者: 郭浩, guohao@nuc.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2017YFB0503100)、博士后创新人才支持计划(批准号: BX20180276)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51805493, 51922009, 51727808, 51775522)、中国博士后科学基金(批准号: 2018M641684)、山西省应用基础研究项目(批准号: 201801D221202, 201901D111011(ZD), 201801D121164)、山西省重点研发计划(批准号: 201803D121067)、重点实验室基金(批准号: 6142001180410, 6142001180409)、山西省重点实验室(批准号: 201905D121001)、中北大学青年学术带头人(批准号: QX201901)和山西省1331工程重点学科建设计划(1331Project)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Guo Hao, guohao@nuc.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB0503100), the China Postdoctoral Innovative Talents Support Program (Grant No. BX20180276), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51805493, 51922009, 51727808, 51775522), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2018M641684), the Applied Basic Research Program in Shanxi Province, China (Grant Nos. 201801D221202, 201901D111011(ZD), 201801D121164), the Key R&D Program in Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 201803D121067), the Key Laboratory Project Fund (Grant Nos. 6142001180410, 6142001180409), the Key Laboratory of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 201905D121001), the Foundation for Young Academic Leaders of North University of China (Grant No. QX201901), and the Shanxi “1331Project”, China.
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  • 图 1  (a) DHCRA结构示意图, 红色部分为碳化硅样品, 黄色部分为天线, 绿色部分为碳化硅硅空位色心激发用的红光730 nm激光器, 色心发出的光为红外890—1000 nm; (b) DHCRA设计参数: 天线铜线线宽d = 0.4 mm, 天线铜线线间距w = 0.73 mm, 天线铜线厚度t = 0.035 mm, 双天线之间的距离s = 10 mm, 输入接口线宽d1 = 0.67 mm, d2 = 1.2 mm

    Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic diagram of double helical coil resonant antenna, the red part is the silicon carbide sample, the yellow part is the antenna, the green part is the red light 730 nm laser used for the excitation of the vacancy color center of silicon carbide silicon, the light emitted by the color center is infrared 890−1000 nm; (b) spiral antenna design parameters: antenna copper wire width d = 0.4 mm, antenna copper wire spacing w = 0.73 mm, antenna copper wire thickness t = 0.035 mm, distance between dual antennas s = 10 mm, input interface line width d1 = 0.67 mm, d2 = 1.2 mm.

    图 2  (a)本文设计的天线结构的X-Z平面磁场分布图; (b) DHCRA结构的S11仿真结果与测试结果. 插图为DHCRA的实物照片

    Fig. 2.  (a) Magnetic field distribution in the X-Z plane of our antenna structure; (b) simulation results and measurement results of the parameter S11 of the DHCRA structure. The inset shows the physical photograph of DHCRA.

    图 3  (a) 70 MHz下X-Z平面的场强仿真分布图(图中的$\varepsilon $为非均匀度); (b) 70 MHz下的X-Y平面的场强仿真分布图; (c) 70 MHz下的均匀区(X = 14.86 mm)Z轴方向场强仿真曲线图; (d) 70 MHz下X轴方向的场强仿真曲线图

    Fig. 3.  (a) Simulated distribution of the magnetic field in the X-Z plane at 70 MHz (In the figure $\varepsilon $is the non-uniformity); (b) simulated distribution of magnetic field in the X-Y plane at 70 MHz; (c) simulation curve of magnetic field in the X-axis direction at 70 MHz; (d) simulation curve of magnetic field in the Z-axis direction of the uniform zone (X = 14.68 mm) at 70 MHz.

    图 4  (a)未加入样品时X-Z平面磁场仿真分布图; (b)加入碳化硅样品后X-Z磁场仿真分布图

    Fig. 4.  (a) Simulation distribution of X-Z plane magnetic field without adding samples; (b) X-Z magnetic field simulation distribution after adding silicon carbide sample.

    图 5  (a) SCA, SLA与DHCRA的三维结构示意图; (b)三种结构磁场强度仿真分析图与非均匀度参数示意图

    Fig. 5.  (a) Three-dimensional structure diagram of SCA, SLA and DHCRA; (b) three kinds of structure magnetic field strength simulation analysis diagram and non-uniformity parameter diagram.

    图 6  (a)光学检测共振光路与频率调制系统; (b)三种结构的光学检测共振谱分布; (c) 70 MHz共振频率下三种结构的噪声波动图; (d) 三种结构的解调测试结果图

    Fig. 6.  (a) Optical detection resonance light path and signal modulation system; (b) resonance spectrum distribution of three structures for optical detection; (c) noise fluctuation graphs of three structures at 70 MHz resonance frequency; (d) demodulation test results of three structures.

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    [2]

    van der Heijden J, Kobayashi T, House M G, Salfi J, Barraud S, Lavieville R, Simmons M Y, Rogge S 2018 Sci. Adv. 4 aat9199Google Scholar

    [3]

    Widmann M, Niethammer M, Fedyanin D Y, Khramtsov I A, Rendler T, Booker I D, Hassan J U, Morioka N, Chen Y C, Ivanov I G, Nguyen Tien S, Ohshima T, Bockstedte M, Gali A, Bonato C, Lee S Y, Wrachtrup J 2019 Nano Lett. 19 7173Google Scholar

    [4]

    Wang J, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Liu F, Li Y, Li K, Liu Z, Wang G, Gao W 2017 Phys. Rev. Appl. 7 064021Google Scholar

    [5]

    Christle D J, Klimov P V, Casas C F d l, Szasz K, Ivady V, Jokubavicius V, Hassan J U, Syvajarvi M, Koehl W F, Ohshima T, Son N T, Janzen E, Gali A, Awschalom D D 2017 Phys. Rev. X 7 021046

    [6]

    Dubrovkin A M, Qiang B, Salim T, Nam D, Zheludev N I, Wang Q J 2020 Nat. Commun. 11 1863Google Scholar

    [7]

    Niethammer M, Widmann M, Rendler T, Morioka N, Chen Y C, Stoehr R, Ul Hassan J, Onoda S, Ohshima T, Lee S Y, Mukherjee A, Isoya J, Nguyen Tien S, Wrachtrup J 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 5569Google Scholar

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    Nagy R, Niethammer M, Widmann M, Chen Y C, Udvarhelyi P, Bonato C, Hassan J U, Karhu R, Ivanov I G, Son N T, Maze J R, Ohshima T, Soykal Ö O, Gali Á, Lee S Y, Kaiser F, Wrachtrup J 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 1954Google Scholar

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    彭世杰, 刘颖, 马文超, 石发展, 杜江峰 2018 物理学报 67 167601Google Scholar

    Peng S J, Liu Y, Ma W C, Shi F Z, Du J F 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 167601Google Scholar

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    Childress L, Dutt M V G, Taylor J M, Zibrov A S, Jelezko F, Wrachtrup J, Hemmer P R, Lukin M D 2006 Science 314 281Google Scholar

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    [25]

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    El-Ella H A R, Ahmadi S, Wojciechowski A M, Huck A, Andersen U L 2017 Opt. Express 25 14809Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-20
  • 修回日期:  2020-06-26
  • 上网日期:  2020-11-27
  • 刊出日期:  2020-12-05

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