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从蘸笔纳米刻印术到力化学打印

俞奕飞 曹毅

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从蘸笔纳米刻印术到力化学打印

俞奕飞, 曹毅

Evolution from dip-pen nanolithography to mechanochemical printing

Yu Yi-Fei, Cao Yi
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  • 蘸笔纳米刻印术(dip-pen nanolithography, DPN)作为一种独特的纳米加工手段, 具有在各类基底上书写精细图案的能力. 自20世纪末诞生以来, 研究者们对DPN中的墨水输运原理有了更深入的理解, 同时受惠于材料学的发展并结合复杂生化反应体系, 数种基于DPN衍生的纳米加工技术被开发出来. 与此同时, 依靠机械作用引发的一类化学反应, 即力化学(mechanochemistry), 在最近数十年来获得了越来越多的关注, 多种新颖的实验方法被引入. 本综述将介绍DPN及若干衍生技术的原理与应用, 以及力化学的机理与实现方法, 进而探讨结合这两者优势发展力化学打印的可能, 并揭示其在纳米技术及原子制造领域的应用前景.
    As a unique nanomanipulation and nanofabrication tool, dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) has enjoyed great success in the past two decades. The DPN can be used to create molecular patterns with nanoscale precision on a variety of substrates with different chemistry properties. Since its advent, the DPN has been steadily improved in the sense of applicable inks, fabrication throughput, and new printing chemistry. Among these developments, mechanical force induced mechanochemistry is of special interest.In this review, we introduce the physical principles behind the DPN technique. We highlight the development of DPN for writing with various types of “inks”, including small molecules, viscous polymer solutions, lipids, and biomolecules, especially, the development of thermal-DPN allowing printing with inks that are usually in solid phase at room temperature. Next, we introduce the parallel-DPN and polymer pen nanolithography. These techniques greatly speed up the fabrication speed without sacrificing the precision. We also summarize the advances in chemical reaction based DPN technologies, including electrochemical DPN, metal tip-induced catalytical DPN, and mechanochemical DPN (or mechanochemical printing). To further elaborate the mechanism behind the mechanochemical printing, we briefly review the development of mechanochemistry, including the reaction mechanism, various experimental approaches to realizing mechanochemistry, and recent development in this field. We highlight the advantages of using atomic force microscopy to study mechanochemistry at a single molecule level and indicate the potential of combining this technique with DPN to realize mechanochemical printing. We envision that with the further discovery of novel mechanophores that are suitable for mechanochemical printing, this technique can be broadly applied to nanotechnology and atomic fabrication.
      通信作者: 曹毅, caoyi@nju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费(批准号: 020414380148, 020414380138, 020414380080)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Cao Yi, caoyi@nju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 020414380148, 020414380138, 020414380080)
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  • 图 1  (a) DPN书写示意图, 针尖在吸附大量16-巯基十六烷基酸(16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, MHA)后, 与金质基底接触, 在探针水平运动的过程中, MHA扩散到金基底上, 迅速与之形成稳定的金-硫键; (b), (c) 由DPN书写得到的纳米图案的LFM图像, 纳米结构的宽度达到100 nm, 且连续书写的长度可达数微米[10]

    Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic diagram of dip-pen nanolithography, AFM tip dipped in thiol solution gets contacted with Au substrate, as the tip is moving horizontally, the small thiol molecules diffuse onto the substrate, then, stabilized gold-sulfur bonds will be formed; (b), (c) lateral force image of a molecule-based grid, each line is 100 nm in width and 2 μm in length. Reproduced with permission[10].

    图 2  扩散墨水转移示意图, 小分子墨料溶解于溶剂体系中, 主要依靠扩散的形式从针尖向基底转移

    Fig. 2.  Schematic diagram of the diffusive ink transport, diffusion dominates the transport between AFM tip and the substrate.

    图 3  液体墨水转移示意图, 液体墨水依靠黏滞流向基底转移

    Fig. 3.  Schematic diagram of the liquid ink transport, transport of liquid ink is dominated by the surface tension.

    图 4  (a) lipid-DPN效果示意图, 使用磷脂分子作为墨料, 利用其两端的亲疏水性差异, 可以使用DPN书写多层形成堆叠; (b), (c)使用lipid-DPN在氧化石墨烯表面书写磷脂酰胆碱的多层次纳米结构, (b)为其AFM扫描图像, (c)为(b)中标记线部分的高度分布[35]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Schematic presentation of the lipid-DPN, using the differences between hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites of phospholi-pid molecules, it is available to transport multiple phospholipid layers to form stacks; (b) AFM images of L-DPN generated lipid membranes (DOPC) on graphene oxide surfaces in air; (c) AFM height measurements of the same patches measured between the red dots shown in (b)[35].

    图 5  (a) t-DPN示意图, 加热悬臂将使粘附在针尖上的固态墨料融化为液态, 在针尖扫描过程中液态墨料留在基底上并冷却沉积; (b) 在云母基底上沉积熔点较高的墨料OPA后的LFM扫描图像, 随着针尖的冷却, 书写得到的OPA纳米线愈发模糊[15]; (c) 对于低熔点的墨料分子MHA, 升高针尖温度将显著增大书写印迹、降低纳米图像的精细度[37]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Schematic illustration of thermal-DPN, heating the cantilever turns adhered solid ink into liquid, then liquid ink is transported onto the substrate and cool back to solid; (b) LFM image of a mica surface scanned with a coated AFM cantilever tip for 60 s in each of three lines, the cantilever is heated for the first line (upper left), then allows to cool during the second two, OPA continues to transfer from the tip onto the surface after the cantilever heater has been turned off, reproduced with permission[15]; (c) LFM image of MHA dot patterns generated via tDPN on a gold substrate at different tip temperatures[37].

    图 6  (a) 使用压电喷管控制墨水流量, 在同一阵列的不同针尖上分别添加不同成分的墨水; (b) 蘸有不同墨水的针尖阵列并行书写

    Fig. 6.  (a) Addressable inking of pen arrays by inkjet printing; (b) multiplexed dip-pen nanolithography.

    图 7  (a) 利用硬质硅模板对PDMS橡胶成型, 只需使用刻蚀工艺打造一块硅模板便可以源源不断的生产PDMS阵列成型; (b) 集成了1100万针尖的一块针尖阵列; (c) SEM扫描到的针尖阵列图像, 单个针尖的直径可达到70 nm[44]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Schematic illustration of the polymer pen preparation; (b) a photograph of an 11-million-pen array; (c) SEM image of the polymer pen array, the average tip radius of curvature is 70 nm[44].

    图 8  在使用PPL时, 压印痕迹大小随软针尖阵列纵向移动的变化形势, 软针尖与基底的接触面积会随压力一同增大[44]

    Fig. 8.  Ink dot size as a function of relative z-piezo extension in PPL, the contact area between soft tip and substrate gets larger as the pressure increases[44].

    图 9  (a) e-DPN示意图, 外接电源构造针尖与基底的电势差, 利用弯月面内的离子溶液导电, 构建纳米级电化学池; (b) 使用e-DPN书写的铂纳米图案, 书写的宽度可达到30 nm[49]

    Fig. 9.  (a) Schematic diagram of e-DPN, a nano-scale electrochemical cell is set up with conductive tip, substrate, solution meniscus, and external voltage; (b) Pt-nano-image written with e-DPN, width of writing is 30 nm[49].

    图 10  基于金属催化反应衍生的DPN体系 (a) Pt催化叠氮分解; (b) Cu催化叠氮与炔的成环点击反应; (c) Pd催化硅氢加成反应[53]; (d) AP酶催化制备的氯化硝基四氮唑蓝纳米图案, 特征直径为150 nm[54]

    Fig. 10.  Schematic illustration of several DPN derivative from mental catalysed reaction: (a) Azide reductions; (b) CuAAC “click” ligations; (c) hydrosilylation[53];(d) AFM topography images showing features consisting of precipitated itro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) following nanolithography with a probe-bound AP enzyme[54].

    图 11  N, N二取代硫脲的球磨合成反应

    Fig. 11.  Synthetic reaction of N, N-disubstituted thiourea by ball-milling.

    图 12  超声振荡示意图 (a) 振荡在溶液中产生若干微泡; (b) 微泡的空化效应对溶液中的高分子链产生拉伸作用

    Fig. 12.  Schematic illustration of ultrasonic vibration: (a) the microbubbles produced by ultrasonic vibration; (b) chain stretched because of cavitation.

    图 13  马来酰亚胺-巯基合成物的超声拉伸实验示意 (a) 高分子P2, 由4, 4-双马来酰亚胺二苯甲烷分别在两侧连接分子量为5k的巯基末端聚乙二醇链得到, 每个P2分子中部有两个由巯基与马来酰亚胺结合成的硫醚键, AP2为P2接受碱处理后的产物, UP2为P2接受超声拉伸后的混合物; (b) 高分子P2及其分别接受碱处理、超声处理的产物的傅里叶红外光谱对比[78]

    Fig. 13.  Schematic presentation of maleimide–thiol adducts stretched by ultrasonication: (a) P2 is a polymer chain synthesized by treating a thiol-terminated PEG (Mw, 5kDa) with 4, 4′-bis-maleimidodiphenylmethane, the following process is alkaline treatment for AP2 or ultrasonication for UP2; (b) 1 H NMR spectra in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 (DMSO-d6) of P2, P2 after alkaline treatment (AP2) and P2 after ultrasonication for 30 min (UP2)[78].

    图 14  AFM示意图

    Fig. 14.  Schematic diagram of AFM.

    图 15  针尖修饰高分子链时, 一个完整的下针、上抬流程 ①自由下针; ②针尖挤压基底, 分子链“自由端”结合到基底上; ③针尖抬离基底, 分子链被拉伸; ④分子链断裂后针尖不受束缚地自由抬起

    Fig. 15.  Schematic presentation of a full circle of cantilever’s trace and retrace driven by AFM. One terminal of the polymer chain is linked on the AFM tip and the other side is “free”: ① Cantilever approaches the substrate; ② tip contacts the substrate and the pressure keeps increasing until it reaches the setpoint. The “free” terminal links to the substrate; ③ as cantilever retracting, polymer chain is stretched and a pulling force is applied to the tip; ④ polymer chain is broken and cantilever leaves the substrate with no bound.

    图 16  (a) 使用聚合物笔阵列蘸墨, 将含炔的墨水打印到修饰有叠氮的基板; (b) 在针尖碰撞基底的位置, 机械挤压作用会介导叠氮与炔的合成反应(Huisgen反应), 而未碰撞的位置上则不会发生该反应; (c) 在不同挤压时间及挤压压力下, 力致 PPL加工得到的微纳图案在荧光染色后的图像[103]

    Fig. 16.  Schematic presentation of Alkyne-Azide “printing” by polymer pen nanolithography: (a) Polymer pen arrays are dipped with alkyne solution and substrate is modified with azide molecules; (b) addition reaction can only be triggered by mechanical force, the substrate part away from contact is reaction-forbidden; (c) fluorescent images of 2 × 3 dot arrays of 1 printed at different time (0, 60, 180, 300, 420, 600 s) and pressure (0.29, 0.32, 0.34, 0.37, 0.39, 0.42 MPa)[103].

    图 17  (a) DNL流程示意图; (b), (c) DNL制备的MUDBr纳米结构的LFM图像, 前者在边长2 μm的刮擦图像中保持了加工结构的均匀, 后者使用了单次、1000 nN的压力来对每个点位施加机械作用, 得到单点位特征直径仅为25 nm的成规模的纳米点阵[105]

    Fig. 17.  (a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of polymer brushes by DNL; (b) LFM image of a MUDBr square written by DNL; (c) MUDBr nanodots made by DNL at constant tip-substrate contact force (1000 nN), but different tip-substrate contact time. Each dot is made by indenting the tip onto the MHA-Au one at a time[105]

    图 18  (a) 利用DNL制作抗刻蚀的PMMA聚合物刷, 进而刻蚀金纳米点阵的流程示意; (b) 对制成的金纳米结构的AFM扫描图像; (c) 对大规模金纳米结构点阵的SEM扫描图像[107]

    Fig. 18.  (a) Schematic of the fabrication of Au nanostructures by parallel DNL, SI-ATRP, and wet-chemical etching; (b) AFM topography of the resulting Au structures; (c) SEM image of the fabricated Au nanorod arrays[107]

    表 1  影响超声效果的数个要素[71]

    Table 1.  Several elements that influence ultrasonic stretch[71]

    调节变量拉伸效果变化
    增大超声强度空化效应增强直至达到一个上限, 拉伸效果增强
    增大溶剂蒸气压空化效应受到气蚀缓冲而削弱, 拉伸效果降低
    增大溶剂黏度空化效应削弱, 拉伸效果降低
    升高温度导致溶剂蒸气压增大, 拉伸效果降低
    提升聚合物浓度导致溶剂黏度增大, 拉伸效果降低
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  不同DPN衍生技术的加工尺度、技术优势与局限性

    Table 2.  The fabrication scales, advantages, and limitations among all derivatives of DPN.

    纳米加工技术加工尺度技术优势技术局限性
    DPN30—100 nm快速书写; 高操控性低通量, 低规模
    t-DPN100 nm—10 μm可使用常温固态的墨料; 升温加速反应;
    加工尺度一定程度上受温度调节
    墨料易扩散污染基底
    Lipid-DPN200—500 nm磷脂预自组装可形成多层堆叠的立体结构较难通过针尖控制纳米结构的形态
    e-DPN30—100 nm可用于金属离子电镀、局部电改性针尖电极的产物影响操控性
    金属、生物催
    化DPN
    80—150 nm催化加工生物软材料的纳米结构硬质陶瓷针尖易对软材料产生机械破坏
    p-DPN40—100 nm多针尖, 大规模高通量纳米加工成本昂贵
    PPL200 nm—50 μm低成本大规模纳米加工难以对针尖进行化学修饰;
    弹性针尖受力大幅形变
    HSL50 nm尖端坚固不形变、精细度较高的大
    规模聚合物笔纳米加工
    针尖制造流程复杂
    DNL25—75 nm可控高精细度; 无扩散污染; 与三维刻蚀结合针尖成本高、长时间受大机械力易损耗; 适用的
    化学体系不多, 待进一步开发
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-16
  • 修回日期:  2020-10-22
  • 上网日期:  2021-01-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-01-20

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