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基于时间反演技术的电磁器件端口场与内部场转换方法

陈传升 王秉中 王任

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基于时间反演技术的电磁器件端口场与内部场转换方法

陈传升, 王秉中, 王任

Conversion method between port field and internal field of electromagnetic device based on time-reversal technique

Chen Chuan-Sheng, Wang Bing-Zhong, Wang Ren
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  • 随着电磁器件的集成化, 器件搭载的模块、实现的功能愈发多样. 各模块间的耦合难以忽略, 设计难度陡然增加, 传统设计方法逐渐力不从心, 迫切需要寻找一种新的电磁综合设计方法. 本文利用时间反演电磁波的时空同步聚焦特性, 探索了将时间反演技术应用于器件设计的可能性. 首先, 基于通用的器件逆设计流程, 利用时间反演技术、并矢格林函数及电磁学的基本原理, 提出了将器件端口场分布转换为内部场分布的方法, 并证明由端口期望场的时间反演场在空间某一位置获得的连续等效源的共轭分布可在端口处产生与期望场接近的场分布. 且在单点频逆设计过程中, 只需知道端口电场或磁场的切向分量即可完成端口场与内部场的转换. 同时, 借助格林函数的互易性对本文所提理论做适当变换后, 进行数值仿真验证, 分析讨论了不同初始信息条件下该方法的适用性. 仿真结果与理论相符, 证明了理论的正确性, 为将时间反演技术应用于电磁器件的逆设计提供了可能.
    With the integration of electromagnetic devices, the modules that make up into the devices and the functions that the devices needed to achieve are becoming more and more diverse. The coupling between the modules is difficult to ignore, the difficulty in designing increases sharply, and the traditional design methods gradually become incompetent. It is urgent to find a new comprehensive electromagnetic design method. This paper is to use the spatiotemporally synchronous focusing characteristics of time-reversed electromagnetic waves to explore the possibility of applying time-reversal technique to device design. First, based on the general device inverse design process, using the time-reversal technique, dyadic Green's function and basic principle of electromagnetics, a method of converting the port field distribution into the internal field distribution of the device is proposed. It is also proved that the continuous equivalent source obtained by the time-reversed field at a certain position in space can produce a field distribution close to the desired field at the port. In the single frequency inverse design process, only the tangential component of the electric field or magnetic field of the port is needed to be known. Then, with the help of the reciprocity of Green's function, the above theory is transformed to facilitate the numerical simulation. This numerical simulation realizes the reconstruction of the amplitude distribution source and the phase distribution source. It should be noted that the amplitude distribution source and phase distribution source are both randomly constructed. The numerical simulation verification is completed in two different cases and a variety of different initial conditions. All the simulation results are consistent with the theoretical results, which proves that it is feasible to apply time-reversal technique to the inverse design of electromagnetic devices.
      通信作者: 王秉中, bzwang@uestc.edu.cn ; 王任, rwang@uestc.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61901086)、博士后创新人才支持计划(批准号: BX20180057)、中国博士后科学基金(批准号: 2018M640907)和中央高校基本科研业务费(批准号: ZYGX2019J101, ZYGX2019Z016)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Wang Bing-Zhong, bzwang@uestc.edu.cn ; Wang Ren, rwang@uestc.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61901086), the Postdoctoral Innovation Talents Support Program, China (Grant No. BX20180057), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2018M640907), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. ZYGX2019J101, ZYGX2019Z016)
    [1]

    Molesky S, Lin Z, Piggott A Y, Jin W, Vucković J, Rodriguez A W 2018 Nat. Photonics 12 659Google Scholar

    [2]

    Zhu Y, Ju Y, Zhang C 2019 P. I. Mech. Eng. A-J. Pow. 233 431

    [3]

    Brown T, Narendra C, Vahabzadeh Y, Caloz C, Mojabi P 2020 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 68 1812Google Scholar

    [4]

    Piggott A Y, Lu J, Lagoudakis K G, Petykiewicz J, Babinec T M, Vučković J 2015 Nat. Photonics 9 374Google Scholar

    [5]

    Wang M Y, Wang X, Guo D 2003 Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 192 227Google Scholar

    [6]

    Lee H, Itoh T 1997 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45 803Google Scholar

    [7]

    Su L, Piggott A Y, Sapra N V, Petykiewicz J A, Vuckovic J 2018 ACS Photonics 5 301Google Scholar

    [8]

    Su L, Vercruysse D, Skarda J, Sapra N V, Petykiewicz J A, Vučković J 2020 Appl. Phys. Rev. 7 011407Google Scholar

    [9]

    Callewaert F, Aydin K 2016 Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization XIX. (San Diego: International Society for Optics and Photonics) p9948

    [10]

    Wang J, Yang X S, Wang B Z 2017 IET Microw. Antennas P. 12 385

    [11]

    Wang J, Yang X S, Ding X, Wang B Z 2018 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66 2254Google Scholar

    [12]

    Wang L, Wang G, Sidén J 2015 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 63 3962Google Scholar

    [13]

    Pehlivanoglu Y V 2014 Appl. Soft Comput. 24 781Google Scholar

    [14]

    Chen C T, Gu G X 2020 Adv. Sci. 7 1902607Google Scholar

    [15]

    Salucci M, Gelmini A, Oliveri G, Anselmi N, Massa A 2018 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66 5805Google Scholar

    [16]

    Wigner E P 1959 Group Theory and Its Application to the Quantum Mechanics of Atomic Spectra (New York: Academic Press)

    [17]

    王秉中, 王任 2019 时间反演电磁学 (北京: 科学出版社)

    Wang B Z, Wang R 2019 Time-Reversed Electromagnetics (Beijing: Science Press) (in Chinese)

    [18]

    Oestges C, Kim A D, Papanicolaou G, Paulraj A J 2005 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53 283Google Scholar

    [19]

    Qiu R C 2006 IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 5 2685Google Scholar

    [20]

    Gong Z S, Wang B Z, Yang Y, Zhou H C, Ding S, Wang X H 2017 IEEE Photonics J. 9 6900108

    [21]

    Davy M, de R J, Joly J C, Fink M 2010 Phys. Rev. C 11 37

    [22]

    Bacot V, Labousse M, Eddi A, Fink M, Fort E 2016 Nat. Phys. 12 972Google Scholar

    [23]

    Vahabzadeh Y, Achouri K, Caloz C 2016 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 64 4753Google Scholar

    [24]

    龚志双, 王秉中, 王任 2018 物理学报 67 084101Google Scholar

    Gong Z S Wang B Z, Wang R 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 084101Google Scholar

    [25]

    Harrington R F 2001 Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (New York: Wiley-IEEE Press) pp106−110

  • 图 1  空间拓扑关系

    Fig. 1.  Topological relation of space.

    图 2  用于数值验证的问题转化示意图 (a)数理模型对应的数值验证模型; (b)利用互易原理转换后的数值验证模型

    Fig. 2.  A problem transformation diagram for numerical validation: (a) Numerical verification model corresponding to mathematical model; (b) numerical verification model converted by reciprocity principle.

    图 3  数值仿真实验示意图 (a)自由空间验证示意图; (b)四周为理想电导体边界的验证示意图

    Fig. 3.  Schematic diagram of numerical simulation experiment: (a) Schematic diagram of free space verification; (b) schematic diagram of verification of PEC boundaries around.

    图 4  重建源代价函数计算结果

    Fig. 4.  The calculation results of the cost function of the rebuild source.

    图 5  初始源幅相分布图 (a) $ {Ex} $相位分布为特定函数; (b) $ {Ex} $幅度分布为特定函数

    Fig. 5.  The amplitude-phase distribution of the original source: (a) The phase distribution is a special function; (b) the amplitude distribution is a special function.

    图 6  自由空间条件下重建源的幅相分布 (a)序号为5的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (b) 序号为8的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (c)序号为2的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (d)序号为8的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布

    Fig. 6.  The amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed source in free space: (a) The amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex{\rm{Phase}}}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 5; (b) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex{\rm{Phase}}}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 8; (c) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 2; (d) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 8.

    图 7  四周为理想电导体条件下重建源的幅相分布 (a)序号为4的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (b) 序号为7的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (c)序号为3的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布; (d)序号为9的重建$ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $的幅相分布

    Fig. 7.  The amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed source in PEC space: (a) The amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 4; (b) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Phase}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 7; (c) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 3; (d) the amplitude-phase distribution of the reconstructed $ {{{\mathit{\boldsymbol{f}}}}}_{{Ex}\text{Amplitude}}^{a}\left(x, y\right) $ with experimental number 9.

    表 1  数值仿真结果表

    Table 1.  Table of numerical simulation results.

    序号使用的反演源Field域FPCFFACFPPCFPACF
    1${ { {\cal{F} } }_{{field} }^{ \xi \text{, up} } }^{*}$${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}, {Ez}, {Hx}, {Hy}, {Hz}\}$0.00770.06470.01890.0712
    2${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}, {Ez}\}$0.00860.07840.00850.0735
    3${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}\}$0.00820.07500.00850.0735
    4${ { {\cal{F} } }_{{field} }^{ \xi \text{, down} } }^{*}$${field}=\{ {Ex, }{Ey}, {Ez}, {Hx}, {Hy}, {Hz}\}$0.00810.06240.01910.0735
    5${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}, Ez\}$0.00920.07030.00980.0707
    6${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}\}$0.00880.06680.00980.0707
    7${ { {\cal{F} } }_{{field} }^{ \xi \text{, up} } }^{*}$, ${ { {\cal{F} } }_{{field} }^{ \xi \text{, down} } }^{*}$${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}, {Ez}, {Hx}, {Hy}, {Hz}\}$0.00780.06350.01890.0713
    8${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}, {Ez}\}$0.00870.07470.00900.0718
    9${field}=\{ {Ex}, {Ey}\}$0.00830.07120.00900.0718
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Molesky S, Lin Z, Piggott A Y, Jin W, Vucković J, Rodriguez A W 2018 Nat. Photonics 12 659Google Scholar

    [2]

    Zhu Y, Ju Y, Zhang C 2019 P. I. Mech. Eng. A-J. Pow. 233 431

    [3]

    Brown T, Narendra C, Vahabzadeh Y, Caloz C, Mojabi P 2020 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 68 1812Google Scholar

    [4]

    Piggott A Y, Lu J, Lagoudakis K G, Petykiewicz J, Babinec T M, Vučković J 2015 Nat. Photonics 9 374Google Scholar

    [5]

    Wang M Y, Wang X, Guo D 2003 Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 192 227Google Scholar

    [6]

    Lee H, Itoh T 1997 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45 803Google Scholar

    [7]

    Su L, Piggott A Y, Sapra N V, Petykiewicz J A, Vuckovic J 2018 ACS Photonics 5 301Google Scholar

    [8]

    Su L, Vercruysse D, Skarda J, Sapra N V, Petykiewicz J A, Vučković J 2020 Appl. Phys. Rev. 7 011407Google Scholar

    [9]

    Callewaert F, Aydin K 2016 Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization XIX. (San Diego: International Society for Optics and Photonics) p9948

    [10]

    Wang J, Yang X S, Wang B Z 2017 IET Microw. Antennas P. 12 385

    [11]

    Wang J, Yang X S, Ding X, Wang B Z 2018 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66 2254Google Scholar

    [12]

    Wang L, Wang G, Sidén J 2015 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 63 3962Google Scholar

    [13]

    Pehlivanoglu Y V 2014 Appl. Soft Comput. 24 781Google Scholar

    [14]

    Chen C T, Gu G X 2020 Adv. Sci. 7 1902607Google Scholar

    [15]

    Salucci M, Gelmini A, Oliveri G, Anselmi N, Massa A 2018 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66 5805Google Scholar

    [16]

    Wigner E P 1959 Group Theory and Its Application to the Quantum Mechanics of Atomic Spectra (New York: Academic Press)

    [17]

    王秉中, 王任 2019 时间反演电磁学 (北京: 科学出版社)

    Wang B Z, Wang R 2019 Time-Reversed Electromagnetics (Beijing: Science Press) (in Chinese)

    [18]

    Oestges C, Kim A D, Papanicolaou G, Paulraj A J 2005 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53 283Google Scholar

    [19]

    Qiu R C 2006 IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 5 2685Google Scholar

    [20]

    Gong Z S, Wang B Z, Yang Y, Zhou H C, Ding S, Wang X H 2017 IEEE Photonics J. 9 6900108

    [21]

    Davy M, de R J, Joly J C, Fink M 2010 Phys. Rev. C 11 37

    [22]

    Bacot V, Labousse M, Eddi A, Fink M, Fort E 2016 Nat. Phys. 12 972Google Scholar

    [23]

    Vahabzadeh Y, Achouri K, Caloz C 2016 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 64 4753Google Scholar

    [24]

    龚志双, 王秉中, 王任 2018 物理学报 67 084101Google Scholar

    Gong Z S Wang B Z, Wang R 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 084101Google Scholar

    [25]

    Harrington R F 2001 Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (New York: Wiley-IEEE Press) pp106−110

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-12
  • 修回日期:  2020-11-11
  • 上网日期:  2021-03-30
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-05

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