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第三代半导体材料及器件中的热科学和工程问题

程哲

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第三代半导体材料及器件中的热科学和工程问题

程哲

Thermal science and engineering in third-generation semiconductor materials and devices

Cheng Zhe
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  • 简单回顾了半导体材料的发展历史, 并以基于氮化镓的高电子迁移率晶体管为例, 介绍了第三代半导体器件的产热机制和热管理策略. 以β相氧化镓为例, 简单讨论了新兴的超宽禁带半导体的发展和热管理挑战. 然后重点讨论了一些界面键合技术用于半导体散热的进展, 同时指出这些器件中大量存在的界面散热的工程难题背后的科学问题: 界面传热的物理理解. 在回顾了之前界面传热的理论发展后, 指出了理解界面传热当前遇到的一些困难、机遇和方向.
    The history of semiconductor materials is briefly reviewed in this work. By taking GaN-based high electron mobility transistor as an example, the heat generation mechanisms and thermal management strategies of wide bandgap semiconductor devices are discussed. Moreover, by taking β-Ga2O3 as an example, the thermal management challenges of emerging ultrawide bandgap semiconductors are briefly discussed. The following discussions focus on the interfacial thermal transport which widely exists in the semiconductor devices mentioned above. The recent advancements in room-temperature wafer bonding for thermal management applications are summarized. Furthermore, some open questions about the physical understanding of interfacial thermal transport are also mentioned. Finally, the theoretical models for calculating thermal boundary conductance are reviewed and the challenges and opportunities are pointed out.
      通信作者: 程哲, zcheng18@illinois.edu
      Corresponding author: Cheng Zhe, zcheng18@illinois.edu
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    [2]

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    [4]

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    Jiang P, Qian X, Li X, Yang R 2018 Appl. Phys. Lett. 113 232105Google Scholar

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    Cheng Z, Wheeler V D, Bai T, Shi J, Tadjer M J, Feygelson T, Hobart K D, Goorsky M S, Graham S 2020 Appl. Phys. Lett. 116 062105Google Scholar

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    Mu F, Cheng Z, Shi J, Shin S, Xu B, Shiomi J, Graham S, Suga T 2019 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 11 33428

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    Cheng Z, Mu F, Yates L, Suga T, Graham S 2020 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 12 8376

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    Kang JS, Li M, Wu H, Nguyen H, Aoki T, Hu Y 2021 Nat. Electron. 17 1

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    Cheng Z, Mu F, You T, Xu W, Shi J, Liao M E, Wang Y, Huynh K, Suga T, Goorsky M S, Ou X, Graham S 2020 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 12 44943

    [12]

    Cheng Z, Mu F, Ji X, You T, Xu W, Suga T, Ou X, Cahill D G, Graham S 2021 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 13 31843

    [13]

    Cheng Z, Shi J, Yuan C, Kim S, Graham S 2021 Semiconduc. and Semimetals (Elsevier) 107 77

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    Dai J, Tian Z 2020 Phys. Rev. B. 101 041301Google Scholar

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    Gaskins J T, Kotsonis G, Giri A, Ju S, Rohskopf A, Wang Y, Bai T, Sachet E, Shelton C T, Liu Z, Cheng Z, Foley B, Graham S, Luo T, Henry A, Goorsky M S, Shiomi J, Maria J P, Hopkins P E 2018 Nano Lett. 18 7469Google Scholar

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    Zhang Y, Ma D, Zang Y, Wang X, Yang N 2018 Front. in Energ. Res. 6 48Google Scholar

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    [23]

    Cheng Z, Li R, Yan X, Jernigan G, Shi J, Liao M E, Hines N J, Gadre C A, Idrobo J C, Lee E, Hobart K D, Goorsky M S, Pan X, Luo T, Graham S 2021 Nat. Commun. 12 6901

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    Murakami T, Hori T, Shiga T, Shiomi J 2014 Appl. Phys. Exp. 7 121801Google Scholar

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    Yang N, Luo T, Esfarjani K, Henry A, Tian Z, Shiomi J, Chalopin Y, Li B, Chen G 2015 J. of Comput. and Theoret. Nanosci. 12 168Google Scholar

    [26]

    Muraleedharan M G, Gordiz K, Rohskopf A, Wyant S T, Cheng Z, Graham S, Henry A 2020 arXiv: 2011.01070

    [27]

    Cheng Z, Koh Y R, Ahmad H, Hu R, Shi J, Liao M E, Wang Y, Bai T, Li R, Lee E, Clinton E A, Matthews M C, Engel Z, Yates L, Luo T, Goorsky M S, Doolittle W A, Tian Z, Hopkins P E, Graham S 2020 Commun. Phys. 3 1Google Scholar

    [28]

    Xu D, Hanus R, Xiao Y, Wang S, Snyder G J, Hao Q 2018 Mater. Today Phys. 6 53Google Scholar

    [29]

    Wang S, Xu D, Gurunathan R, Snyder G J, Hao Q 2020 J. of Materiomics 6 248Google Scholar

    [30]

    Hao Q, Garg J 2021 ES Mater. & Manuf. 14 36

  • 图 1  基于氮化镓的高电子迁移率晶体管的示意图和节点附近的电场分布. 热点位于栅极附近

    Fig. 1.  The schematic diagram of a GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and the electric field distribution across the channel. The hotspot is located close to the gate.

  • [1]

    Cheng Z, Bougher T, Bai T, Wang S Y, Li C, Yates L, Foley B M, Goorsky M, Cola B A, Faili F, Graham S 2018 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 10 4808

    [2]

    Anaya J, Rossi S, Alomari M, Kohn E, Toth L, Pecz B, Hobart K D, Anderson T J, Feygelson T I, Pate B B, Kuball M 2016 Acta Mater. 103 141Google Scholar

    [3]

    Yates L, Anderson J, Gu X, Lee C, Bai T, Mecklenburg M, Aoki T, Goorsky M S, Kuball M, Piner E L, Graham S 2018 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 10 24302

    [4]

    Reese S B, Remo T, Green J, Zakutayev A 2019 Joule 3 903Google Scholar

    [5]

    Jiang P, Qian X, Li X, Yang R 2018 Appl. Phys. Lett. 113 232105Google Scholar

    [6]

    Cheng Z, Yates L, Shi J, Tadjer M J, Hobart K D, Graham S 2019 APL Mater. 7 031118Google Scholar

    [7]

    Cheng Z, Wheeler V D, Bai T, Shi J, Tadjer M J, Feygelson T, Hobart K D, Goorsky M S, Graham S 2020 Appl. Phys. Lett. 116 062105Google Scholar

    [8]

    Mu F, Cheng Z, Shi J, Shin S, Xu B, Shiomi J, Graham S, Suga T 2019 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 11 33428

    [9]

    Cheng Z, Mu F, Yates L, Suga T, Graham S 2020 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 12 8376

    [10]

    Kang JS, Li M, Wu H, Nguyen H, Aoki T, Hu Y 2021 Nat. Electron. 17 1

    [11]

    Cheng Z, Mu F, You T, Xu W, Shi J, Liao M E, Wang Y, Huynh K, Suga T, Goorsky M S, Ou X, Graham S 2020 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 12 44943

    [12]

    Cheng Z, Mu F, Ji X, You T, Xu W, Suga T, Ou X, Cahill D G, Graham S 2021 ACS Appl. Mater. & Interf. 13 31843

    [13]

    Cheng Z, Shi J, Yuan C, Kim S, Graham S 2021 Semiconduc. and Semimetals (Elsevier) 107 77

    [14]

    Dai J, Tian Z 2020 Phys. Rev. B. 101 041301Google Scholar

    [15]

    Gaskins J T, Kotsonis G, Giri A, Ju S, Rohskopf A, Wang Y, Bai T, Sachet E, Shelton C T, Liu Z, Cheng Z, Foley B, Graham S, Luo T, Henry A, Goorsky M S, Shiomi J, Maria J P, Hopkins P E 2018 Nano Lett. 18 7469Google Scholar

    [16]

    Zhang Y, Ma D, Zang Y, Wang X, Yang N 2018 Front. in Energ. Res. 6 48Google Scholar

    [17]

    Deng C, Huang Y, An M, Yang N 2020 Mater. Today Phys. 16 100305

    [18]

    Dames C, Chen G 2004 J. of Appl. Phys. 95 682Google Scholar

    [19]

    Prasher R S, Phelan P E 2001 J. Heat Transf. 123 105Google Scholar

    [20]

    Hopkins P E, Duda J C, Norris P M 2011 J. Heat Transf. 133 062401Google Scholar

    [21]

    Chalopin Y, Volz S 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 051602Google Scholar

    [22]

    Gordiz K, Henry A 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 23139Google Scholar

    [23]

    Cheng Z, Li R, Yan X, Jernigan G, Shi J, Liao M E, Hines N J, Gadre C A, Idrobo J C, Lee E, Hobart K D, Goorsky M S, Pan X, Luo T, Graham S 2021 Nat. Commun. 12 6901

    [24]

    Murakami T, Hori T, Shiga T, Shiomi J 2014 Appl. Phys. Exp. 7 121801Google Scholar

    [25]

    Yang N, Luo T, Esfarjani K, Henry A, Tian Z, Shiomi J, Chalopin Y, Li B, Chen G 2015 J. of Comput. and Theoret. Nanosci. 12 168Google Scholar

    [26]

    Muraleedharan M G, Gordiz K, Rohskopf A, Wyant S T, Cheng Z, Graham S, Henry A 2020 arXiv: 2011.01070

    [27]

    Cheng Z, Koh Y R, Ahmad H, Hu R, Shi J, Liao M E, Wang Y, Bai T, Li R, Lee E, Clinton E A, Matthews M C, Engel Z, Yates L, Luo T, Goorsky M S, Doolittle W A, Tian Z, Hopkins P E, Graham S 2020 Commun. Phys. 3 1Google Scholar

    [28]

    Xu D, Hanus R, Xiao Y, Wang S, Snyder G J, Hao Q 2018 Mater. Today Phys. 6 53Google Scholar

    [29]

    Wang S, Xu D, Gurunathan R, Snyder G J, Hao Q 2020 J. of Materiomics 6 248Google Scholar

    [30]

    Hao Q, Garg J 2021 ES Mater. & Manuf. 14 36

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-07
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-13
  • 上网日期:  2021-10-28
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-05

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