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基于Mie散射在线测量真空弧放电液滴方法探索

董攀 田昌 李杰 王韬 于海涛 苏明旭 何佳龙 石金水

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基于Mie散射在线测量真空弧放电液滴方法探索

董攀, 田昌, 李杰, 王韬, 于海涛, 苏明旭, 何佳龙, 石金水

Mie scattering based on-line measurement of droplet from vacuum arc

Dong Pan, Tian Chang, Li Jie, Wang Tao, Yu Hai-Tao, Su Ming-Xu, He Jia-Long, Shi Jin-Shui
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  • 金属液滴是真空弧放电的伴随产物, 它对理解阴极斑放电性质具有重要作用, 而且对工程应用也有重要影响. 金属液滴的测量一般采用离线的收集法, 不能获得全部空间和单次放电信息. 本文提出了一种通过Mie散射在线测量真空弧放电液滴的新方法, 并对它的可行性进行了探索研究. 首先通过仿真程序计算了钛金属液滴的散射光性质, 结果表明小直径颗粒散射光在全部角度上均有分布, 随着直径增加, 散射光越来越集中在前向, 这为不同直径液滴信号的反演提供了可能. 接着对探测器进行了分环设计, 当探测器分为35环时, 光能系数矩阵容易求解, 同时保证测量系统具有良好的分辨率. 初步实验结果表明, 钛金属液滴直径主要分布在9.8 μm附近, 验证了Mie散射测量真空弧液滴方法的有效性. 但液滴直径分布和离线测量有较大差异, 缺少小直径液滴信息, 主要原因来源于测量系统信噪比不够, 不能有效地获得小直径液滴散射信号, 还需要进一步优化.
    Metal droplet is produced accompanied with vacuum arc discharge, which is important to the research of cathode spot and the application of vacuum arc. The droplet comes from the cathode spot crater and can reflect the physical process of the cathode spot. However, it will destroy the uniformity of surface deposition in engineering and should be avoided as much as possible. The measurement of metal droplet usually adopts off-line collector, which cannot obtain the signal of the whole space and singe arc. In order to on-line measure the droplet, a new method by the Mie scattering is developed in this work, and its feasibility is investigated. The characteristic of the scattering light of titanium droplet is computed by the simulation code. The results indicate that the scattering light beams of the small droplet are distributed at all angles. With the increase of the diameter, the scattered light beams are more and more concentrated in the forward direction, which allows the inversion of the signals of the droplets with different diameters. Then the detector is designed with different annuluses. When the detector is divided into 35 annuluses, the light energy coefficient matrix is easy to solve and the measurement system has a good resolution. The experimental setup is built and the preliminary experiment is carried out. The results indicate that the diameters of titanium droplets are mainly around 9.8 μm, which verifies the effectiveness of the Mie scattering method of measuring vacuum arc droplets. However, the small droplet information is not detected, so the droplet diameter distribution is quite different from the off-line measurement. The reason is that the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement system is poor, thereby leading the scattered signals of the small droplet to fail to be obtained effectively. The experimental setup need to be further optimized.
      通信作者: 李杰, nlijie@sina.com
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11735012, 11975217)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Li Jie, nlijie@sina.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11735012, 11975217).
    [1]

    Brown I G 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 3061Google Scholar

    [2]

    Anders A 2008 Cathodic Arcs (New York: Springer Science+ Business Media) p7

    [3]

    Ge G W, Cheng X, Liao M F, Duan X Y, Zou J Y 2018 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 46 1003Google Scholar

    [4]

    Boudot C, Kuhn M, Kauffeldt K M, Schein J 2017 Mater. Sci. Eng., C 74 508Google Scholar

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    Liu F X, Long J D, Zheng L, Dong P, Li C, Chen W 2018 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 27 025001Google Scholar

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    李杰, 郑乐, 董攀, 龙继东, 王韬, 刘飞翔 2022 物理学报 71 042901Google Scholar

    Li J, Zheng L, Dong P, Long J D, Wang T, Liu F X 2022 Acta Phys. Sin. 71 042901Google Scholar

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    G. A. 米夏兹著 (李国政译) 2007 真空放电物理和高功率脉冲技术 (北京: 国防工业出版社) 第202—204页

    Mesyats G A (translated by Li G Z) 2007 Vacuum discharge physics and high power pulse technology (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp202–204 (in Chinese)

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    Kaufmann H T C, Cunha M D, Benilov M S, Hartmann W, Wenzel N 2017 J. Appl. Phys. 122 163303Google Scholar

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    董攀, 李杰, 郑乐, 刘飞翔, 龙继东, 石金水 2018 强激光与粒子束 30 014001

    Dong P, Li J, Zheng L, Liu F X, Long J D, Shi J S 2018 High Power Laser Part. Beam 30 014001

    [10]

    吴先映, 廖斌, 张旭, 李强, 彭建华, 张荟星, 张孝吉 2014 北京师范大学学报(自然科学版) 50 132

    Wu X Y, Liao B, Zhang X, Li Q, Peng J H, Zhang H X, Zhang X J 2014 J. Beijing Normal Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 50 132

    [11]

    Lee W Y, Jang Y J, Tokoroyama T, Murashima M, Umehara N 2020 Diamond Relat. Mater. 105 107789Google Scholar

    [12]

    Anders S, Anders A, Yu K M, Yao X Y, Brown I G 1993 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21 440Google Scholar

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    Daalder J E 1976 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 9 2379Google Scholar

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    Proskurovsky D I, Popov S A, Kozyrev A V, Pryadko E L, Batrakov A V, Shishkov A N 2007 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 980Google Scholar

    [15]

    Siemroth P, Laux M, Pursch H, Sachtleben J, Balden M, Rohde V, Neu R 2018 28 th International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum Greifswald, Germany, September 23–28, 2018 p325

    [16]

    Mesyats G A, Uimanov I V 2015 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 43 2241Google Scholar

    [17]

    Zhang X, Wang L J, Ma J W, Wang Y, Jia S L 2019 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 52 035204Google Scholar

    [18]

    Wang L J, Zhang X, Li J G, Luo M, Jia S L 2021 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 54 215202Google Scholar

    [19]

    Takamune M, Sasaki S, Kondo D, Naoi J, Kumakura M, Ashida M, Moriwaki Y 2022 Appl. Phys. Express 15 012007Google Scholar

    [20]

    Monfared S K, Buttler W T, Frayer D K, Grover M, LaLone B M, Stevens G D, Stone J B, Turley W D, Schauerat M M 2015 J. Appl. Phys. 117 223105Google Scholar

    [21]

    Hudgins D, Gambino N, Rollinger B, Abhari R 2016 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 49 185205Google Scholar

    [22]

    陈哲敏, 胡朋兵, 孟庆强 2015 光散射学报 27 54

    Chen Z M, Hu P B, Meng Q Q 2015 The Journal of Light Scattering 27 54

    [23]

    Zhang H, Liang Y, Chen J G, Peng H T 2021 Opt. Lasers Eng. 144 106642Google Scholar

    [24]

    蔡小舒, 苏明旭, 沈建琪著 2010 颗粒粒度测量技术及应用 (北京: 化学工业出版社) 第32页

    Cai X S, Su M X, Shen J Q 2010 Particle size Measurement Technology and Application (Beijing: Chemical Industry Press) p32

    [25]

    Johnson P, Christy R 1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 5056Google Scholar

    [26]

    Hirofumi T, Koji S, Tateki S 1998 Thin Solid Films 316 73Google Scholar

  • 图 1  Mie散射原理示意图

    Fig. 1.  Schematic diagram of Mie scattering.

    图 2  不同直径Ti液滴散射光强分布矢极图 (a) 0.1 μm; (b) 0.5 μm; (c) 1.0 μm; (d) 2.0 μm; (e) 4.0 μm; (f) 8.0 μm

    Fig. 2.  Sagittal distribution of the scattered light intensity of Ti droplet: (a) 0.1 μm; (b) 0.5 μm; (c) 1.0 μm; (d) 2.0 μm; (e) 4.0 μm; (f) 8.0 μm.

    图 3  Ti液滴相对散射光强分布曲线图

    Fig. 3.  Distribution of the relative scattered light intensity of Ti droplet.

    图 4  Mie散射法测试液滴实验布局

    Fig. 4.  The measurement layout of droplet by Mie scattering.

    图 5  Ti液滴在探测器不同环上的光能分布

    Fig. 5.  Light energy distribution of Ti droplet on different annulus of detector.

    图 6  弧流为100 A (a) 无金属Ti液滴的背景信号; (b) 有金属Ti液滴的散射信号

    Fig. 6.  When arc current is 100 A: (a) Background signal without Ti droplet; (b) scattering signal with Ti droplet.

    图 7  (a) 散射光能分布; (b) Ti液滴直径分布

    Fig. 7.  (a) Scattering light energy distribution; (b) Ti droplet diameter distribution.

    表 1  CCD光环设计尺寸

    Table 1.  Design size of CCD annulus.

    环数内环/mm外环/mm环数内环/mm外环/mm环数内环/mm外环/mm
    10.1050.117130.3730.414251.3211.468
    20.1170.13140.4140.461261.4681.631
    30.130.144150.4610.512271.6311.812
    40.1440.161160.5120.569281.8122.014
    50.1610.178170.5690.632292.0142.238
    60.1780.198180.6320.702302.2382.486
    70.1980.22190.7020.78312.4862.763
    80.220.245200.780.867322.7633.07
    90.2450.272210.8670.963333.073.411
    100.2720.302220.9631.07343.4113.79
    110.3020.336231.071.189353.794.212
    120.3360.373241.1891.321
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  标准颗粒粒径测量结果对比表

    Table 2.  Comparision results of standard particle between measurement and nominal diameter.

    标称粒径/μm测量粒径/μm相对误差/%
    0.70.657
    2.62.693
    5.45.756
    9.48.885
    15.015.202
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Brown I G 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 3061Google Scholar

    [2]

    Anders A 2008 Cathodic Arcs (New York: Springer Science+ Business Media) p7

    [3]

    Ge G W, Cheng X, Liao M F, Duan X Y, Zou J Y 2018 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 46 1003Google Scholar

    [4]

    Boudot C, Kuhn M, Kauffeldt K M, Schein J 2017 Mater. Sci. Eng., C 74 508Google Scholar

    [5]

    Liu F X, Long J D, Zheng L, Dong P, Li C, Chen W 2018 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 27 025001Google Scholar

    [6]

    李杰, 郑乐, 董攀, 龙继东, 王韬, 刘飞翔 2022 物理学报 71 042901Google Scholar

    Li J, Zheng L, Dong P, Long J D, Wang T, Liu F X 2022 Acta Phys. Sin. 71 042901Google Scholar

    [7]

    G. A. 米夏兹著 (李国政译) 2007 真空放电物理和高功率脉冲技术 (北京: 国防工业出版社) 第202—204页

    Mesyats G A (translated by Li G Z) 2007 Vacuum discharge physics and high power pulse technology (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp202–204 (in Chinese)

    [8]

    Kaufmann H T C, Cunha M D, Benilov M S, Hartmann W, Wenzel N 2017 J. Appl. Phys. 122 163303Google Scholar

    [9]

    董攀, 李杰, 郑乐, 刘飞翔, 龙继东, 石金水 2018 强激光与粒子束 30 014001

    Dong P, Li J, Zheng L, Liu F X, Long J D, Shi J S 2018 High Power Laser Part. Beam 30 014001

    [10]

    吴先映, 廖斌, 张旭, 李强, 彭建华, 张荟星, 张孝吉 2014 北京师范大学学报(自然科学版) 50 132

    Wu X Y, Liao B, Zhang X, Li Q, Peng J H, Zhang H X, Zhang X J 2014 J. Beijing Normal Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 50 132

    [11]

    Lee W Y, Jang Y J, Tokoroyama T, Murashima M, Umehara N 2020 Diamond Relat. Mater. 105 107789Google Scholar

    [12]

    Anders S, Anders A, Yu K M, Yao X Y, Brown I G 1993 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21 440Google Scholar

    [13]

    Daalder J E 1976 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 9 2379Google Scholar

    [14]

    Proskurovsky D I, Popov S A, Kozyrev A V, Pryadko E L, Batrakov A V, Shishkov A N 2007 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 980Google Scholar

    [15]

    Siemroth P, Laux M, Pursch H, Sachtleben J, Balden M, Rohde V, Neu R 2018 28 th International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum Greifswald, Germany, September 23–28, 2018 p325

    [16]

    Mesyats G A, Uimanov I V 2015 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 43 2241Google Scholar

    [17]

    Zhang X, Wang L J, Ma J W, Wang Y, Jia S L 2019 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 52 035204Google Scholar

    [18]

    Wang L J, Zhang X, Li J G, Luo M, Jia S L 2021 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 54 215202Google Scholar

    [19]

    Takamune M, Sasaki S, Kondo D, Naoi J, Kumakura M, Ashida M, Moriwaki Y 2022 Appl. Phys. Express 15 012007Google Scholar

    [20]

    Monfared S K, Buttler W T, Frayer D K, Grover M, LaLone B M, Stevens G D, Stone J B, Turley W D, Schauerat M M 2015 J. Appl. Phys. 117 223105Google Scholar

    [21]

    Hudgins D, Gambino N, Rollinger B, Abhari R 2016 J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 49 185205Google Scholar

    [22]

    陈哲敏, 胡朋兵, 孟庆强 2015 光散射学报 27 54

    Chen Z M, Hu P B, Meng Q Q 2015 The Journal of Light Scattering 27 54

    [23]

    Zhang H, Liang Y, Chen J G, Peng H T 2021 Opt. Lasers Eng. 144 106642Google Scholar

    [24]

    蔡小舒, 苏明旭, 沈建琪著 2010 颗粒粒度测量技术及应用 (北京: 化学工业出版社) 第32页

    Cai X S, Su M X, Shen J Q 2010 Particle size Measurement Technology and Application (Beijing: Chemical Industry Press) p32

    [25]

    Johnson P, Christy R 1974 Phys. Rev. B 9 5056Google Scholar

    [26]

    Hirofumi T, Koji S, Tateki S 1998 Thin Solid Films 316 73Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-18
  • 修回日期:  2023-02-06
  • 上网日期:  2023-02-28
  • 刊出日期:  2023-04-20

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