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基于相变材料的慢光和吸收可切换多功能太赫兹超材料

金嘉升 马成举 张垚 张跃斌 鲍士仟 李咪 李东明 刘洺 刘芊震 张贻歆

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基于相变材料的慢光和吸收可切换多功能太赫兹超材料

金嘉升, 马成举, 张垚, 张跃斌, 鲍士仟, 李咪, 李东明, 刘洺, 刘芊震, 张贻歆

Switchable multifunctional terahertz metamaterial with slow-light and absorption functions based on phase change materials

Jin Jia-Sheng, Ma Cheng-Ju, Zhang Yao, Zhang Yue-Bin, Bao Shi-Qian, Li Mi, Li Dong-Ming, Liu Ming, Liu Qian-Zhen, Zhang Yi-Xin
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  • 基于相变材料Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) 设计了一种太赫兹超材料, 在太赫兹波段实现了慢光和吸收功能的切换. 该超材料由三部分构成, 分别是金环构成的微结构层、SiO2介质层和GST薄膜. 研究结果表明: 当GST薄膜处于绝缘态时, 由于两个谐振环的电磁诱导透明效应, 入射THz光脉冲通过该THz超材料时群速度会减慢, 最大群延迟可以达到3.6 ps; 当GST薄膜转变为金属态时, THz超材料可实现双波段吸收, 在0.365 THz处吸收率可以达到97%, 在0.609 THz处吸收率可以实现完美吸收(吸收率100%). 另外还研究了该THz超材料的入射光偏振不敏感特性, 发现当入射光脉冲的偏振角从0°变化到90°时, THz超材料的慢光和吸收特性不受影响. 所设计的THz超材料在光缓存器、光传感器、光开关等领域具有潜在的应用价值.
    Terahertz (THz) wave usually refers to the electromagnetic wave with a frequency between 0.1—10.0 THz. It has potential applications in wireless communication, biomedical image processing, nondestructive testing, military radar, and other fields. However, owing to function limitation of the natural material, multifunctional terahertz devices are difficult to design and fabricate, which becomes a bottleneck for THz technology. The emergence of metamaterials fills the gap in the electromagnetic materials in the THz frequency band, and now they are widely used in THz functional devices, such as THz modulators, THz absorbers, THz filters, THz sensors, and THz slow-light devices. However, the above-mentioned THz devices all have a single function. For practical application, multifunction integrated THz devices have broader application prospects. As is well known, the Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is a typical phase transition material. Under excitation of light or electronic field, GST can realize a reversible phase transition between insulating state and metallic state. In order to achieve a switchable multifunctional THz device, in this work we design a THz metamaterial based on the phase transition material GST and realize a switchable function with slow-light and absorption functions. The THz metamaterial consists of a microstructure layer, which is composed of gold rings arranged periodically, and a GST thin film spaced by an SiO2 dielectric layer. When GST is in an insulating state, the two gold rings are coupled to each other under the excitation of the THz pulse. Then, we can observe the EIT-like effect. The THz pulses propagating in the metamaterial we proposed can be slowed down, and a maximum group delay of the THz pulse can reach 3.6 ps. However, when GST is in a metallic state, we can observe two absorption peaks in the spectrum of the proposed THz metamaterial, and the absorption rate is 97% at a frequency of 0.365 THz and 100% at a frequency of 0.609 THz. Furthermore, we also investigate the polarization properties of the proposed THz metamaterial, and find that it has polarization insensitive characteristic. When the polarization angle of the incident THz light pulse changes from 0° to 90°, the slow-light and absorption properties of the THz metamaterial are unaffected. The proposed THz metamaterial has potential applications in THz biomedical image processing, THz optical switching, and THz optical buffer.
      通信作者: 马成举, chengjuma@xsyu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 西安石油大学创新与实践能力培养项目(批准号: YCS20213210)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Ma Cheng-Ju, chengjuma@xsyu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Innovation and Practice Ability Training Project of Xi’an Shiyou University, China (Grant No. YCS20213210).
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    Seddon N, Bearpark T 2003 Science 302 1537Google Scholar

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    Zhong Y J, Huang Y, Zhong S C 2021 Opt. Mater. 14 110996Google Scholar

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    Cai H 2018 Adv. Opt. Mater. 6 1800257Google Scholar

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    Zhu H L, Zhang Y, Ye L F, Li Y K, Xu Y H, Xu R 2020 Opt. Express 28 414039Google Scholar

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    Hu F R, Wang H, Zhang X W, Xu X L, Jiang W Y, Rong Q, Zhao S, Jiang M Z, Zhang W T 2019 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25 4700207Google Scholar

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    Seo M, Park H R 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1900662Google Scholar

    [13]

    Cui W, Wang Y X, He Z H, He H 2021 Results Phys. 26 104356Google Scholar

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    Gansel J K, Thiel M, Rill M S, Decker M, Bade K, Saile V, Freymann G V, Linden S, Wegener M 2009 Science 325 1513Google Scholar

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    Makino K, Kato K, Saito Y, Fons P, Kolobov A V, Tominaga J J, Nakano T, Nakajima M 2019 J. Mater. Chem. C 7 8209Google Scholar

    [16]

    Zhou K, Nan J Y, Shen J B, Li Z P, Cao J C, Song Z T, Zhu M, He B Q, Yan M, Zeng H P, Li H 2021 APL Mater. 9 101113Google Scholar

    [17]

    Guo L Y, Ma X H, Chang Z Q, Xu C L, Liao J, Zhang R 2021 J. Mater. Res. Technol 14 772Google Scholar

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    Fabio A, Brian K, Dragoslav G, Nickolay V L, Gamani K 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 111104Google Scholar

    [19]

    Sun H Y, Zhao L, Dai J S, Liang Y Y, Guo J P, Meng H Y, Liu H Z, Dai Q F, Wei Z C 2020 Nanomaterials 10 1359Google Scholar

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    Galván A M, Hernández J G 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 760Google Scholar

    [21]

    Manjappa M, Chiam S Y, Cong L Q, Bettiol A A, Zhang W L, Singh R J 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 181101Google Scholar

    [22]

    Meng F Y, Wu Q, Erni D, Wu K, Lee J C 2012 IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 60 3013Google Scholar

    [23]

    Niakan N, Askari M, Zakery A 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 2329Google Scholar

    [24]

    Sun H, Hu Y Z, Tang Y H, You J, zhou J H, Liu H Z, Zheng X 2020 Photonics Res. 8 263Google Scholar

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    Bagcia F, Akaoglu B 2018 J. Appl. Phys. 123 173101Google Scholar

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    Suna Y B, Shi Y P, Liu X Y, Song J M, Lia M P, Wang X D, Yang F H 2021 Nanoscale Adv. 3 4072Google Scholar

    [27]

    Mattiucci N, Bloemer M J, Aközbek N, D’Aguanno G 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 3203Google Scholar

  • 图 1  THz超材料结构示意图 (a) THz超材料阵列; (b) 微结构单元俯视图; (c) 微结构单元侧视图

    Fig. 1.  Schematic structure diagram of the THz metamaterials: (a) THz metamaterial array; (b) top view of microstructure cells; (c) side view of microstructure units.

    图 2   (a) GST薄膜处于绝缘状态时, 外环、内环和双环结构的透射光谱图; (b)—(d) 0.453, 0.547, 0.834 THz处超材料结构的表面电流分布

    Fig. 2.  (a) Transmission spectrum of outer ring, inner ring, and double ring structures with GST films in an insulating state; (b)–(d) surface current distribution of metamaterial structures at 0.453, 0.547, and 0.834 THz.

    图 3   (a) THz超材料的类EIT效应的理论计算与仿真结果; (b) THz光脉冲在超材料中传输时的相位变化和相对群延迟

    Fig. 3.  (a) Theoretical calculation and simulation results of EIT-like effects of THz metamaterials; (b) phase change and relative group delay of THz light pulse transmission in metamaterials.

    图 4   (a) THz超材料的透射、反射和吸收光谱; (b) THz超材料的外环、内环和双环微结构的吸收光谱

    Fig. 4.  (a) Transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of THz metamaterials; (b) absorption spectra of the outer ring, inner ring, and two-loop microstructures of THz metamaterials.

    图 5  (a)—(c) SiO2层厚度h = 24 μm时, THz超材料结构的介电常数 (a)、磁导率(b)和等效阻抗(c); (d)不同SiO2层厚度时THz超材料结构的吸收光谱

    Fig. 5.  (a)–(c) Permittivity(a), permeability (b) and equivalent impedance (c) of THz metamaterial structure at SiO2 layer thickness h = 24 μm; (d) absorption spectrum of THz metamaterial structure at different SiO2 layer thickness.

    图 6  吸收光谱与入射角的关系

    Fig. 6.  Dependence of the absorption spectra on the incidence angle.

    图 7  入射光的偏振角从0°到90°变化时, THz超材料的透射光谱(a)、群延迟(b)和吸收光谱(c)

    Fig. 7.  Transmission spectrum (a), group delay (b), and absorption spectrum (c) of the THz metamaterials, when the polarization angle of the incident light varies from 0° to 90°.

    表 1  三种相态GST材料的Drude模型参数

    Table 1.  Drude model parameters of the GST materials for the three phases.

    相态ετσdc
    非晶态(a-GST)15.30
    面心立方(c-GST)38.21.61382
    六方(h-GST)60.65.292230
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Tonouchi M 2007 Nat. Photonics 1 97Google Scholar

    [2]

    Yang X W, Zhao F 2022 Acta Opt. Sin. 42 0806002Google Scholar

    [3]

    Wang Y Y, Wang G Q, Xu D G, Jiang B Z, Ge M L, Wu L M, Yang C Y, Mu N, Wang S, Chang C, Chen T, Feng H, Yao J Q 2022 Acta Opt. Sin. 42 1017001Google Scholar

    [4]

    Shen Y C, Lo T, Taday P F, Cole B E, Tribe W R, Kemp M C 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 241116Google Scholar

    [5]

    Li H Y, Li Q, Xia Z W, Zhao Y P, Chen D Y Wang Q 2013 J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 34 88Google Scholar

    [6]

    Zhou J F, Zhang L, Tuttle G, Koschny T, Soukoulis C M 2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 041101Google Scholar

    [7]

    Seddon N, Bearpark T 2003 Science 302 1537Google Scholar

    [8]

    Zhong Y J, Huang Y, Zhong S C 2021 Opt. Mater. 14 110996Google Scholar

    [9]

    Cai H 2018 Adv. Opt. Mater. 6 1800257Google Scholar

    [10]

    Zhu H L, Zhang Y, Ye L F, Li Y K, Xu Y H, Xu R 2020 Opt. Express 28 414039Google Scholar

    [11]

    Hu F R, Wang H, Zhang X W, Xu X L, Jiang W Y, Rong Q, Zhao S, Jiang M Z, Zhang W T 2019 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25 4700207Google Scholar

    [12]

    Seo M, Park H R 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1900662Google Scholar

    [13]

    Cui W, Wang Y X, He Z H, He H 2021 Results Phys. 26 104356Google Scholar

    [14]

    Gansel J K, Thiel M, Rill M S, Decker M, Bade K, Saile V, Freymann G V, Linden S, Wegener M 2009 Science 325 1513Google Scholar

    [15]

    Makino K, Kato K, Saito Y, Fons P, Kolobov A V, Tominaga J J, Nakano T, Nakajima M 2019 J. Mater. Chem. C 7 8209Google Scholar

    [16]

    Zhou K, Nan J Y, Shen J B, Li Z P, Cao J C, Song Z T, Zhu M, He B Q, Yan M, Zeng H P, Li H 2021 APL Mater. 9 101113Google Scholar

    [17]

    Guo L Y, Ma X H, Chang Z Q, Xu C L, Liao J, Zhang R 2021 J. Mater. Res. Technol 14 772Google Scholar

    [18]

    Fabio A, Brian K, Dragoslav G, Nickolay V L, Gamani K 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 111104Google Scholar

    [19]

    Sun H Y, Zhao L, Dai J S, Liang Y Y, Guo J P, Meng H Y, Liu H Z, Dai Q F, Wei Z C 2020 Nanomaterials 10 1359Google Scholar

    [20]

    Galván A M, Hernández J G 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 760Google Scholar

    [21]

    Manjappa M, Chiam S Y, Cong L Q, Bettiol A A, Zhang W L, Singh R J 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 181101Google Scholar

    [22]

    Meng F Y, Wu Q, Erni D, Wu K, Lee J C 2012 IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 60 3013Google Scholar

    [23]

    Niakan N, Askari M, Zakery A 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 2329Google Scholar

    [24]

    Sun H, Hu Y Z, Tang Y H, You J, zhou J H, Liu H Z, Zheng X 2020 Photonics Res. 8 263Google Scholar

    [25]

    Bagcia F, Akaoglu B 2018 J. Appl. Phys. 123 173101Google Scholar

    [26]

    Suna Y B, Shi Y P, Liu X Y, Song J M, Lia M P, Wang X D, Yang F H 2021 Nanoscale Adv. 3 4072Google Scholar

    [27]

    Mattiucci N, Bloemer M J, Aközbek N, D’Aguanno G 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 3203Google Scholar

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-07
  • 修回日期:  2023-02-12
  • 上网日期:  2023-02-23
  • 刊出日期:  2023-04-20

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