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电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动的研究进展

张楠 张保 杨美音 蔡凯明 盛宇 李予才 邓永城 王开友

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电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动的研究进展

张楠, 张保, 杨美音, 蔡凯明, 盛宇, 李予才, 邓永城, 王开友

Progress of electrical control magnetization reversal and domain wall motion

Zhang Nan, Zhang Bao, Yang Mei-Yin, Cai Kai-Ming, Sheng Yu, Li Yu-Cai, Deng Yong-Cheng, Wang Kai-You
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  • 电学方法调控磁性材料及器件的磁性是当前自旋电子学研究的热点之一.本综述简要介绍利用电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动的研究进展.首先简述了自旋极化电流的产生、自旋流与局域磁矩之间的作用原理以及对应的Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski磁动力学方程;然后分别讨论了单层磁性材料、铁磁层/重金属、铁磁层/非磁金属/铁磁层等不同结构中的电流诱导磁化翻转或驱动畴壁运动;最后介绍了利用压电效应、磁电耦合效应和栅极电场效应三种电压方式对磁矩的调控.在此基础上,对电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动进行了总结和展望.
    Electrical control of spins in magnetic materials and devices is one of the most important research topics in spintronics. We briefly describe the recent progress of electrical manipulations of magnetization reversal and domain wall motion.This review consists of three parts:basic concepts,magnetization manipulation by electrical current and voltage methods,and the future prospects of the field.The basic concepts,including the generation of the spin current,the interaction between the spin current and localized magnetization,and the magnetic dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation are introduced first.In the second part,we reviewed the progress of the magnetization controlled by electrical current and voltage. Firstly we review the electrical current control of the magnetization and domain wall motion.Three widely used structures, single-layer magnets,ferromagnet/heavy metal and ferromagnet/nonmagnetic metal/ferromagnet,are reviewed when current is used to induce magnetization reversal or drive domain wall motion.In a single-layer magnetic material structure,domain wall can be effectively driven by electrical current through spin transfer torque.The factors influencing the domain wall trapping and motion are also discussed.The electrical current control of the skyrmions has big potential applications due to much lower current density.Using the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin orbital coupling,the electrical current can also directly reverse the magnetization of single magnetic or antiferromagnetic layer.Then,we review the electrical current switching the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer in ferromagnetic/heavy metal structures,where both spin Hall effect and Rashba effect can contribute to the current switching magnetization in such device structures. To identify the relative contributions of these two mechanisms,several quantitative studies are carried,concluding that spin Hall effect plays a major role,which is summarized in this review.Finally,we review the current switching magnetization of free layers in spin valve and magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by spin transfer torque.We also discuss the approaches to the decrease of the critical current density in MTJs,which is desired for future applications.Alternatively,the electric field can also be used to manipulate the magnetization,where three methods are reviewed. Applying an electric field to the ferromagnetic/piezoelectric heterostructures,which changes the crystal structure of magnetic film through piezoelectric effects,realizes the change of the magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer.In ferromagnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures,electric field changes the spin distribution and orbital hybridization at the surface of magnetic film through the magnet-electric coupling effects,and then controls the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer.In ferromagnetic metal (semiconductor)/dielectric/metal structure,electric field controls the electron accumulation or depletion at the surface of the ferromagnetic metal or semiconductor,the change of the electron density in the magnetic layer in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy.Finally,we present the prospects for the development of electrical control magnetization reversal and domain wall motion for future applications.
      通信作者: 王开友, kywang@semi.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2014CB643903)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:61225021,11174272,11474272)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Wang Kai-You, kywang@semi.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB643903) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61225021, 11174272, 11474272).
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  • [1]

    Slonczewski J C 1996 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159 L1

    [2]

    Thiaville A, Nakatani Y, Miltat J, Suzuki Y 2005 Europhys. Lett. 69 990

    [3]

    Li Z, Zhang S 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 024417

    [4]

    Zhang S, Li Z 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 127204

    [5]

    Berger L 1978 J. Appl. Phys. 49 2156

    [6]

    Freitas P, Berger L 1985 J. Appl. Phys. 57 1266

    [7]

    Wang K, Irvine A, Wunderlich J, Edmonds K, Rushforth A, Campion R, Foxon C, Williams D, Gallagher B 2008 New J. Phys. 10 085007

    [8]

    Yamanouchi M, Chiba D, Matsukura F, Ohno H 2004 Nature 428 539

    [9]

    Wang K, Irvine A, Campion R, Foxon C, Wunderlich J, Williams D, Gallagher B 2009 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321 971

    [10]

    Wang K, Edmonds K, Irvine A, Tatara G, de Ranieri E, Wunderlich J, Olejnik K, Rushforth A, Campion R, Williams D 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 262102

    [11]

    Bauer U, Emori S, Beach G S 2013 Nature Nanotech. 8 411

    [12]

    Miron I M, Moore T, Szambolics H, Buda-Prejbeanu L D, Auffret S, Rodmacq B, Pizzini S, Vogel J, Bonfim M, Schuhl A 2011 Nature Mater. 10 419

    [13]

    Parkin S S 2004 US Patent 6834005[2004]

    [14]

    Parkin S S, Hayashi M, Thomas L 2008 Science 320 190

    [15]

    Thomas L, Yang S H, Ryu K S, Hughes B, Rettner C, Wang D S, Tsai C H, Shen K H, Parkin S S P 2009 Nature Phys. 5 656

    [16]

    Endo M, Matsukura F, Ohno H 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 222501

    [17]

    Fang D, Kurebayashi H, Wunderlich J, Vyborny K, Zarbo L, Campion R, Casiraghi A, Gallagher B, Jungwirth T, Ferguson A 2011 Nature Nanotech. 6 413

    [18]

    Li Y, Cao Y, Wei G, Li Y, Ji Y, Wang K, Edmonds K, Campion R, Rushforth A, Foxon C 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 022401

    [19]

    Marti X, Fina I, Frontera C, Liu J, Wadley P, He Q, Paull R, Clarkson J, Kudrnovsky J, Turek I 2014 Nature Mater. 13 367

    [20]

    Jungwirth T, Marti X, Wadley P, Wunderlich J 2016 Nature Nanotech. 11 231

    [21]

    Keffer F, Kittel C 1952 Phys. Rev. 85 329

    [22]

    Jonietz F, Mhlbauer S, Pfleiderer C, Neubauer A, Mnzer W, Bauer A, Adams T, Georgii R, Böni P, Duine R 2010 Science 330 1648

    [23]

    Yu X, Kanazawa N, Zhang W, Nagai T, Hara T, Kimoto K, Matsui Y, Onose Y, Tokura Y 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 988

    [24]

    Wei Z Y, Liu E K, Li Y, Xu G Z, Zhang X M, Liu G D, Xi X K, Zhang H W, Wang W H, Wu G H 2015 Adv. Electron. Mater. 1 1500076

    [25]

    Wang W, Zhang Y, Xu G, Peng L, Ding B, Wang Y, Hou Z, Zhang X, Li X, Liu E 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 6887

    [26]

    Miron I M, Garello K, Gaudin G, Zermatten P J, Costache M V, Auffret S, Bandiera S, Rodmacq B, Schuhl A, Gambardella P 2011 Nature 476 189

    [27]

    Miron I M, Gaudin G, Auffret S, Rodmacq B, Schuhl A, Pizzini S, Vogel J, Gambardella P 2010 Nature Mater. 9 230

    [28]

    Liu L, Pai C F, Li Y, Tseng H, Ralph D, Buhrman R 2012 Science 336 555

    [29]

    Liu L, Lee O, Gudmundsen T, Ralph D, Buhrman R 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 096602

    [30]

    Fan X, Wu J, Chen Y, Jerry M J, Zhang H, Xiao J Q 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 1799

    [31]

    Yang M, Cai K, Ju H, Edmonds K W, Yang G, Liu S, Li B, Zhang B, Sheng Y, Wang S 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 20778

    [32]

    Lee O, Liu L, Pai C, Li Y, Tseng H, Gowtham P, Park J, Ralph D, Buhrman R 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 024418

    [33]

    Bhowmik D, You L, Salahuddin S 2014 Nature Nanotech. 9 59

    [34]

    Qiu X, Narayanapillai K, Wu Y, Deorani P, Yang D H, Noh W S, Park J H, Lee K J, Lee H W, Yang H 2015 Nature Nanotech. 10 333

    [35]

    Emori S, Bauer U, Ahn S M, Martinez E, Beach G S 2013 Nature Mater. 12 611

    [36]

    Yu G, Upadhyaya P, Fan Y, Alzate J G, Jiang W, Wong K L, Takei S, Bender S A, Chang L T, Jiang Y 2014 Nature Nanotech. 9 548

    [37]

    Pai C F, Mann M, Tan A J, Beach G S 2016 arXiv:1601.05854[cond-mat.mtrl-sci]

    [38]

    Yu G, Chang L T, Akyol M, Upadhyaya P, He C, Li X, Wong K L, Amiri P K, Wang K L 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 102411

    [39]

    Akyol M, Yu G, Alzate J G, Upadhyaya P, Li X, Wong K L, Ekicibil A, Amiri P K, Wang K L 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 162409

    [40]

    You L, Lee O, Bhowmik D, Labanowski D, Hong J, Bokor J, Salahuddin S 2015 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112 10310

    [41]

    Torrejon J, Garcia-Sanchez F, Taniguchi T, Sinha J, Mitani S, Kim J V, Hayashi M 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 214434

    [42]

    Brink A V D, Vermijs, G, Solignac A, Koo J, Kohlhepp J T, Swagten H J, Koopmans B 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 10854

    [43]

    Fukami S, Zhang C, Dutta Gupta S, Kurenkov A, Ohno H 2016 Nature Mater. 15 535

    [44]

    Cai K, Yang M, Ju H, Edmonds K W, Li B, Sheng Y, Zhang B, Zhang N, Liu S, Ji Y 2016 arXiv:1604.05561[cond-mat.mtrl-sci]

    [45]

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    Li Y, Luo W, Zhu L, Zhao J, Wang K, Wang K Y 2015 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 375 148

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    Zhang B, Meng K K, Yang M Y, Edmonds K, Zhang H, Cai K M, Sheng Y, Zhang N, Ji Y, Zhao J H, Zheng H Z, Wang K Y 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 28458

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    Wang J, Hu J, Yang T, Feng M, Zhang J, Chen L, Nan C 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 4553

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    Lei N, Devolder T, Agnus G, Aubert P, Daniel L, Kim J V, Zhao W, Trypiniotis T, Cowburn R P, Chappert C 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 1378

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    Dean J, Bryan M, Schrefl T, Allwood D 2011 J. Appl. Phys. 109 023915

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-10-11
  • 修回日期:  2016-11-28
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-20

电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动的研究进展

  • 1. 中国科学院半导体研究所, 半导体超晶格国家重点实验室, 北京 100083;
  • 2. 北京科技大学物理系, 北京 100048
  • 通信作者: 王开友, kywang@semi.ac.cn
    基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2014CB643903)和国家自然科学基金(批准号:61225021,11174272,11474272)资助的课题.

摘要: 电学方法调控磁性材料及器件的磁性是当前自旋电子学研究的热点之一.本综述简要介绍利用电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动的研究进展.首先简述了自旋极化电流的产生、自旋流与局域磁矩之间的作用原理以及对应的Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski磁动力学方程;然后分别讨论了单层磁性材料、铁磁层/重金属、铁磁层/非磁金属/铁磁层等不同结构中的电流诱导磁化翻转或驱动畴壁运动;最后介绍了利用压电效应、磁电耦合效应和栅极电场效应三种电压方式对磁矩的调控.在此基础上,对电学方法调控磁化翻转和磁畴壁运动进行了总结和展望.

English Abstract

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