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阻抗劈绕射对破碎波后向散射特性的影响

张肖肖 吴振森 苏翔

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阻抗劈绕射对破碎波后向散射特性的影响

张肖肖, 吴振森, 苏翔

Effects of impedance wedge diffraction on backscattering from breaking waves

Zhang Xiao-Xiao, Wu Zhen-Sen, Su Xiang
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  • 海浪的破碎区会导致海面电磁散射特性发生很大改变,导致海尖峰现象的产生.本文结合阻抗劈结构模型分析了劈绕射对破碎波后向散射特性的影响.首先利用基尔霍夫近似求解破碎波的物理光学场;基于Maliuzhinets方法,从波动方程及精确阻抗边界条件出发,由谱函数的积分形式得到阻抗劈的一致性绕射系数,结合物理光学绕射系数导出阻抗劈等效边缘电磁流;利用边缘绕射场修正物理光学场,得到考虑劈绕射效应的破碎波散射总场.数值结果表明,阻抗劈的绕射场在Keller锥内出现HH极化大于VV极化的现象,因此计入绕射场的影响会使得破碎波生长到临近坍塌阶段时,小擦地角逆风观测出现总场的后向散射截面HH极化大于VV极化的现象,说明劈绕射是造成海尖峰现象产生的原因之一.
    Electromagnetic scattering characteristics change significantly from breaking waves, which is considered to be one reason for sea spike phenomenon(HH polarization scattering intensity close to or even greater than VV polarization scattering intensity). Spiky sea clutter is often treated falsely as targets, which affects radar performance in target detection in the sea surface background. Thus the investigation on the physical mechanism of the sea spike phenomenon can help mitigate false alarms. In this paper, the authors investigate the microwave backscattering from the wedge-shaped breaking waves, which is simulated with the dihedral impedance wedge of finite length. The physical optical field of the breaking waves is calculated with the Kirchhoff approximation. Based on the Maliuzhinets method with using the precise impedance boundary condition, the impedance wedge scattering solution in spectral integral representation is presented. The spectral function is derived by the perturbation method with respect to the oblique incident angle based on the incidence normal to or grazing to the edge. After obtaining the spectral function, the asymptotic theory is used to determine the diffraction field of impedance wedge at an arbitrary skew incidence. The equivalent edge currents are derived from the uniform diffraction of impedance wedge by combining the physical optical coefficients and diffracted coefficients. Backscattering radar cross-sections(RCSs) of the diffracted field from 120 impedance wedge are calculated in both HH and VV polarizations, and the effects of frequency and permittivity on the wedge diffraction are discussed as well. The physical optical field backscattering from 135 impedance wedge is compared with the total field with considering the diffraction effects. Further calculations and analyses for backscattering from the three-dimensional extension breaking waves are presented by using the contribution of edge diffraction field to correct the physical optics field. Numerical results show that the backscattering RCS of impedance diffracted field in HH polarization is greater than that in VV polarization in the Keller cone. Therefore, the diffraction effects will make the backscattering RCS of the total field in HH polarization greater than that in VV polarization when the breaking wave grows to near-collapse stage at a small grazing angle with upwind observation. This indicates that the wedge diffraction is one of the causes of sea spike phenomenon.
      通信作者: 吴振森, Wuzhs@mail.xidian.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:61471242)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Wu Zhen-Sen, Wuzhs@mail.xidian.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No. 61471242).
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    Jessup A T, Keller W C, Melville W K 1990 J. Geophys. Res. 95 9679

    [2]

    West J C, Sletten M A 1997 Rad. Sci. 32 1455

    [3]

    Guo L X, Wang R, Wang Y H, Wu Z S 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 3464(in Chinese)[郭立新, 王蕊, 王运华, 吴振森2008物理学报57 3464]

    [4]

    Kalmykov A I, Pustovoytenko V V 1976 J. Geophys. Res. 81 1960

    [5]

    Kwoh D, Lake B 1984 IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 9 291

    [6]

    Lyzenga D R, Ericson E A 1998 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36 636

    [7]

    Holliday D, DeRaad L L, St-Cyr G J 1996 IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 44 722

    [8]

    Luo W, Zhang M, Wang C, Yin H C 2011 Prog. Electromag. Res. 119 279

    [9]

    Wang P, Yao Y, Tulin M P 1995 Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 20 1315

    [10]

    Li W L, Guo L X, Meng X, Liu W 1988 IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 36 71

    [11]

    Rojas R G 1988 IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 35 956

    [12]

    Wu L C, Wang M G 1994 Chin. J. Rad. Sci. 9 76(in Chinese)[吴良超, 汪茂光1994电波科学学报9 76]

    [13]

    Wu L C, Zhang W X, Wang M G 1996 Chin. J. Rad. Sci., Special Issue on EMC 119(in Chinese)[吴良超, 张文勋, 汪茂光1996电波科学学报, 电磁兼容专刊119]

    [14]

    Lyalinov M A, Serbest A H, Ikiz T 2001 International Semina Proceedings of Day on Diffraction St. Petersburg, Russia, May 29-31, 2001 p180

    [15]

    Yuan F, Zhu G Q 2005 Rad. Sci. 40 238

    [16]

    Li J, Zhu G Q, Hu W D 2009 Chin. J. Rad. Sci. 24 761(in Chinese)[李骥, 朱国强, 胡卫东2009电波科学学报24 761]

    [17]

    Yu D F, He S Y, Fu S 2012 Sys. Eng. Electron. 32 2428(in Chinese)[余定峰, 何思远, 付松2012系统工程与电子技术32 2428]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-05-18
  • 修回日期:  2016-06-21
  • 刊出日期:  2016-11-05

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