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全固态磁制冷系统物理模型的研究进展

刘国强 柯亚娇 张孔斌 何雄 罗丰 何斌 孙志刚

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全固态磁制冷系统物理模型的研究进展

刘国强, 柯亚娇, 张孔斌, 何雄, 罗丰, 何斌, 孙志刚

Research progress of physical model of full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration system

Liu Guo-Qiang, Ke Ya-Jiao, Zhang Kong-Bin, He Xiong, Luo Feng, He Bin, Sun Zhi-Gang
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  • 磁制冷是一种节能环保的制冷技术, 具有广阔的应用前景. 目前, 基于主动磁回热循环的磁制冷系统被广泛研究并诞生了多个原型制冷机. 然而, 这些系统主要采用流体换热, 导致系统存在工作频率低、回热损失大、子部件设计复杂等问题, 使得制冷机成本升高和效率降低. 针对上述问题和难点, 引入固态传热增强机制和全固态磁制冷系统模型设计及优化已成为近年来研究的热点. 本文综述了全固态磁制冷系统的两类物理模型的研究进展, 即基于热二极管(电控热二极管和磁控热二极管)的全固态磁制冷模型和基于高热导率材料元件的全固态磁制冷模型. 与传统主动磁回热制冷模型进行比较分析, 表明全固态磁制冷具有更大的应用潜力. 最后, 对未来全固态磁制冷技术的研究进行了分析和展望.
    Magnetic refrigeration is a kind of energy-saving, environment-friendly and intrinsically-high-efficient refrigeration technology, which has a wide application prospect. At present, the magnetic refrigeration systems based on active magnetic regenerator cycle have been widely studied and many prototypes of refrigerators have been developed. However, fluids and gases are mainly applied to heat exchange in these systems, which brings some problems such as low operating frequency, large regenerative loss, and complicated sub-component design. These problems increase the cost and reduce the efficiency of magnetic refrigerators. In view of the above problems and challenges, researchers try to introduce the solid-state heat transfer enhancement mechanism, and to design and optimize the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration system model. In this paper, the development process of magnetic refrigeration technology at room temperature is briefly introduced at first. And the reasons for the low operating frequency and efficiency of the magnetic refrigerator, caused by using fluids for heat exchange, are analyzed. Then, two types of solid-state heat exchange media are briefly described, which are thermal diodes (i.e., electric-field-controlled thermal diode and magnetic-field-controlled thermal diode) and high thermal-conductivity material elements. In this paper we review the research progress of the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration model based on thermal diodes and high thermal-conductivity material elements. Some key items for these models are described in detail, such as the architectural design concept, physical mechanism and working principle, the main performance simulation results of these systems and their physical change rules. Then, the main performances (i.e. operating frequency, specific cooling power, temperature span, and coefficient of performance) of the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration model and the AMR model are summarized and comparatively analyzed. It shows that the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration system can work at high frequency and has greater specific-cooling-power. Meanwhile the design of full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration system is more compact and simpler. The characteristics and problems of the two types of solid heat exchange media are also analyzed. Due to the strong thermal transport capability, easy access and integration of thermoelectric elements, the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration technology based on thermoelectric thermal diodes has greater application potential. Finally, the main research directions and key scientific problems for further studying the full-solid-state magnetic refrigeration field are discussed and analyzed.
      通信作者: 孙志刚, sun_zg@whut.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11834012, 11574243, 11174231)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Sun Zhi-Gang, sun_zg@whut.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11834012, 11574243, 11174231)
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  • 图 1  (a) Peltier元件作为热二极管的工作机制; (b) kH元件作为热二极管的工作机制; (c) HTCM元件工作机制

    Fig. 1.  (a) Operation mechanism of Peltier element as thermal diode; (b) the operation mechanism of kH element as thermal diode; (c) the operation mechanism of HTCM element.

    图 2  (a) 基于热二极管的全固态MR模型结构示意图[21]; (b) 带有热二极管的MR系统与平行板AMR在不同温跨和不同频率下最大SCP和㶲效率的比较[26]

    Fig. 2.  (a) Schematic diagram of the full solid state MR model based on a thermal diode[21]; (b) comparison of maximum SCP and exergy efficiency between MR system with thermal diode and parallel-plate AMR at different temperature spans and different frequencies[26].

    图 3  (a)全固态MR系统模型结构示意图[28]; (b)器件长度方上的温度分布[28]

    Fig. 3.  (a) Schematic diagram of the full solid state MR system model[28]; (b) temperature distribution over the length of the device[28].

    图 4  (a)基于热二极管的全固态MR模型示意图[30]; (b)工作原理[23]; (c)不同电流下COP和SCP的变化[23]; (d) Peltier元件不同长度下COP和SCP的变化[23]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Schematic diagram of a full solid state MR model based on thermal switch[30]; (b) operating principle[23]; (c) variation of COP and SCP with different current[23]; (d) variation of COP and SCP with the length of Peltier element [23].

    图 5  (a) 全固态MR系统示意图[24]; (b) MUR循环原理[31]; (c) 仅Gd[31]; (d) 平行板[31]; (e) 拓扑优化结构[31]; (f) 实验设置[31]; (g)最大SCP随Peltier电源电压的变化[31]; (h) Peltier COP和温差随转速的变化[31]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Schematic diagram of the full solid state magnetic refrigeration system[24]; (b) MUR cycle principle[31]; (c) Gd-only[31]; (d) parallel sheets[31]; (e) topology optimization structure[31]; (f) experiment setup[31]; (g) variation of maximum SCP with different Peltier supply voltages[31]; (h) variation of Peltier COP and temperature difference with different rotating speeds[31].

    图 6  (a) 基于kH元件和磁Brayton循环的全固态MR模型[32]; (b) 不同工作温度下SCP随工作频率的变化[32]; (c)最大SCP和COP随温度的变化[32]

    Fig. 6.  (a) A full solid state magnetic refrigeration model based on kH element and magnetic Brayton cycle[32]; (b) variation of SCP with operating frequency at different operating temperatures[32]; (c) maximum SCP and COP as a function of temperature[32].

    图 7  (a) 级联全固态MR系统的工作机制[33]; (b) 不同MCM元件数量下温跨随工作温度的变化[33]; (c) 不同热导率的MCM下温跨与工作频率的关系[34]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Working mechanism of the cascaded full solid state magnetic refrigeration system[33]; (b) variation of temperature span with operating temperature for different MCM components[33]; (c) dependence of the temperature span on the operating frequency for different thermal conductivities of the MCM[34].

    图 8  (a)不同网格数下温跨与转速的关系[24]; (b)不同温跨网格数下最大SCP与转速的关系[24]; (c) 32网格下最大SCP和COP与转速的关系[24]

    Fig. 8.  (a) Variation of temperature span with rotating speed at different lattice numbers[24]; (b) variation of maximum SCP with rotating speed at different temperature spans and lattice numbers[24]; (c) variation of maximum SCP and COP with different rotating speeds at 32 lattices[24].

    表 1  3 V电压下, 带有铜块的MR和带有Peltier元件的MR的最大SCP比较[31]

    Table 1.  Maximum SCP comparison between MR with copper blocks and MR with Peltier elements under a 3 V supply voltage[31].

    配置温跨/K最大SCP/W·kg–1增加
    百分比/%
    铜块Peltier元件
    平行板567.6133.898
    1026.164.9149
    拓扑优
    化结构
    588.5160.982
    1035.779.8124
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  全固态MR模型与传统AMR模型的主要性能比较

    Table 2.  Comparison of main performances between full solid state MR model and traditional AMR model.

    类型磁工质传热介质工作频率/Hz温跨/KSCP/W·kg–1COP参考文献
    全固态MR准2D全固态MRGdPeltier元件0—2255—151 × 104[21]
    全固态MRGdPeltier元件10501.5 × 1042.8[27]
    2D全固态MRGdPeltier元件205.3—6.5[28]
    全固态MRGdPeltier元件20—200604.0[30]
    1D全固态MRGdPeltier元件50.96—9.21[23]
    准2D全固态MRGdPeltier元件1079.8[31]
    1D全固态MRGdkH元件0—5002.51.5[32]
    1D全固态MRGdkH元件11.54.0[33]
    准2D全固态MRGdCu块5—50.92.6—105.81.5—4.2[24]
    传统AMR1D AMRGd151.49—5.27[42]
    2D AMRGd35.4[43]
    1D AMRGd0.125612.16[44]
    AMR/旋转床Gd水+乙二醇0~10 < 18.9[45]
    2D AMRGd水+乙二醇0.7510.260.593.1[46]
    2D AMRGd1.514.5~2[47]
    AMR/旋转床Gd水+乙二醇0.87.10.54[48]
    1D AMRGd水+乙二醇0.3—10201007.6—11.2[49]
    2D AMR ${\rm Gd_5(Si}_x{\rm Ge}_{1-x})_4 $1.25~10—16~5[50]
    AMR/平行板床${\rm MnFeP}_{1-x}{\rm As}_x $ 水+乙二醇0.832[51]
    1D AMRLaFeSiMnHy水+乙二醇0.1519.812.4[52]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-07-25
  • 修回日期:  2019-08-26
  • 上网日期:  2019-11-01
  • 刊出日期:  2019-11-05

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