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纳米光学辐射传热: 从热辐射增强理论到辐射制冷应用

刘扬 潘登 陈文 王文强 沈昊 徐红星

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纳米光学辐射传热: 从热辐射增强理论到辐射制冷应用

刘扬, 潘登, 陈文, 王文强, 沈昊, 徐红星

Radiative heat transfer in nanophotonics: From thermal radiation enhancement theory to radiative cooling applications

Liu Yang, Pan Deng, Chen Wen, Wang Wen-Qiang, Shen Hao, Xu Hong-Xing
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  • 热辐射作为一种无处不在的物理现象, 对于科学研究和工程应用都具有重要意义. 传统上对热辐射的理解主要是基于普朗克定律, 它描述了物体通过辐射交换能量的能力. 而近年来的研究表明, 由于微纳光学材料在尺寸上远小于热辐射峰值波长, 它们的热辐射性质往往很大程度上有别于传统黑体辐射理论所描述的宏观物体. 更重要的是, 微纳光学材料的热辐射性质可以通过改变它们的几何尺寸和微观构型进行定量的优化设计与精确调控. 纳米光学材料与辐射制冷效应的结合, 给热辐射效应在能源和环境等相关领域的应用提供了极具前景的应用价值. 本文首先从热辐射的基本原理和规律出发, 介绍纳米结构热辐射增强的发展进程和最新进展, 包括二维材料间的近场热辐射机理以及尺寸效应导致的远场热辐射增强; 其次, 介绍了近年来纳米光学材料在辐射制冷应用中的重大进展, 包括可以实现高效日间辐射制冷的各种纳米光学材料设计; 最后, 进一步介绍了日间辐射制冷的各种实际应用, 包括建筑物制冷、冷凝水收集、舒适衣物与太阳能电池降温等. 此外, 展望了纳米光学材料的辐射制冷技术在推动荒漠生态环境的治理与改造方面的广阔未来.
    Thermal radiation, as a ubiquitous physical phenomenon, plays an important role in various research fields of science and engineering. Traditional understanding of thermal radiation mainly relies on Planck’s law, which describes the energy exchanging efficiency of entire thermal radiation process. However, recent studies indicated that comparing with the macroscopic object obeying Planck’s law, the thermal radiation in nanophotonic structures is obviously abnormal. This is due to the fact that the nanostructures’ featured size or neighboring space are much smaller than the thermal wavelength. It is important to notice that by well designing the material, size, and structure pattern, the thermal radiation is tunable and controllable. Furthermore, the nanophotonic structures enabling the radiative cooling effects promise to possess the tremendous applications including energy, ecology, etc. In this review paper, firstly, we briefly describe the fundamental theory of thermal radiation, as well as the history and latest progress, such as, enhanced radiative heat transfer, the near-field radiation in two-dimensional materials, and the overall far-field enhancement. Secondly, we focus on the newly available daytime radiative cooling system, which is based on metamaterials or desired nanophotonic structures, pursuing the best cooling performances. Finally, we detail the checklists of remarkable applications, ranging from building cooling and dew collection to solar cell cooling. In addition, we also point out the broad future of radiation cooling technology of nanometer optical materials in promoting the management and transformation of desert ecological environment.
      通信作者: 徐红星, hxxu@whu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 91850207, 11674256)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2015CB932400)和国家重点研发计划(批准号: 2017YFA0205802)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Xu Hong-Xing, hxxu@whu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91850207, 11674256), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB932400), and the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0205802)
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  • 图 1  (a) 黑体向自由空间的热辐射; (b)两个黑体间的热辐射

    Fig. 1.  (a) Free space radiation of black body; (b) the thermal radiation between two neighboring black bodies.

    图 2  (a) 纳米颗粒与环境的热交换; (b)黑体辐射曲线(黑色虚线)和真实颗粒的辐射曲线(红色实线); (c)颗粒在一个衬底表面的热辐射; (d)两个颗粒间的热辐射能量交换

    Fig. 2.  (a) Thermal transfer between nanoparticle and surrounding media; (b) radiation spectrum of black body (black dashed line) and of true nanoparticles (red solid line); (c) thermal radiation of nanoparticle on the certain substrate; (d) thermal radiation enabled energy transfer between two nanoparticles.

    图 3  平行板实验中在(a)室温[17]和(b)低温[18]条件下测得的热导率随间距的变化关系

    Fig. 3.  Distance dependent thermal conductivity of parallel plates, in the condition of (a) room temperature[17] and (b) low temperature[18].

    图 4  (a)热轮廓扫描仪示意图[22]; (b)测量近场热辐射的球型针尖示意图[24]; (c)针尖热辐射测量中的非局域效应[26]; (d)集成化微器件中的热辐射速率测量[27]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Setup schematic of near-field thermal scanning microscopy[22]; (b) schematic of spherical tips for near-field thermal scanning[24]; (c) tips enabled nonlocal effect in thermal radiation[26]; (d) thermal radiation speed of micro integration device[27].

    图 5  (a)两层平行石墨烯间的近场热辐射传导[28]; (b)氮化硼-石墨烯-氮化硼结构中的近场增强热辐射[29]; (c)两个石墨烯圆盘中的超快热辐射[33]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Near-field thermal radiation between parallel graphene[28]; (b) near-field enhanced thermal radiation in boron nitride-graphene-boron nitride structure[29]; (c) superfast thermal radiation between parallel graphene disc[33].

    图 6  两个并列纳米平板间的远场热辐射增强示意图(a)和计算结果(b)[36]; 平行板热辐射结构(c)和实验结果(d)[37]

    Fig. 6.  Schematic (a) and theoretical simulation result (b) of enhanced far-field thermal radiation between parallel nanoplate[36]. Architecture (c) and experimental result (d) of thermal radiation between parallel plate[37].

    图 7  (a)辐射制冷中的热量转移过程示意图; (b)大气的辐射波段和对应黑体辐射强度的对比[7]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Energy transfer schematic of radiative cooling; (b) radiation windows of atmosphere and the corresponding black body radiation[7].

    图 8  (a)可实现日间辐射制冷的周期孔洞多层膜微纳结构(上图)及其吸收和辐射谱(下图)[46]; (b)多层膜结构细节[47]; (c)辐射制冷薄膜和其他薄膜对照物的温度变化曲线[47]

    Fig. 8.  (a) Multi-layered hole array structure (top), of which the radiative cooling could work in the daytime, and the corresponding absorption and radiation spectra (bottom)[46]; (b) detail of layered structure[47]; (c) temperature comparison between the radiative cooling film and the other films[47].

    图 9  低成本纳米结构辐射制冷材料 (a)二氧化硅小球掺杂的高聚物薄膜[50], (i)结构示意图, (ii)连续三天的温度变化; (b) 涂布聚合物多孔薄膜[51], (i)结构电子显微镜图及分子结构示意图, (ii)不同辐射制冷材料覆盖膜的照片, (iii)在中午时的能量变化以及辐射制冷降温效果曲线

    Fig. 9.  Low-cost radiative cooling materials: (a) SiO2 beads embedded polymer film[50], in panel (a), (i) structure schematic, and (ii) temperature changing in 3-days-nonstopping measurements; (b) coated porous polymer film[51], in panel (b), (i) scanning electron microscope imaging and molecular structure schematic, (ii) camera picture of variously coated film, (iii) energy changing during noon time, and the corresponding radiative cooling efficiency.

    图 10  (a) Fan团队制作的辐射制冷系统工作原理图及制冷效果[54], 平均制冷功率超过40 W/m2; (b) Yang 团队搭建的建筑辐射制冷系统[56]

    Fig. 10.  (a) General radiative cooling system, delivered by Fan’s group[54], and the corresponding cooling result, of which the average cooling power is over 40 W/m2; (b) buildings used radiative cooling system, delivered by Yang’s group[56]

    图 11  (a)辐射降温衣物的工作原理[59]; (b)辐射降温织物的照片及扫描电子显微镜图[58]; (c)皮肤温度降温效果[59]; (d)降温织物在可见及红外波段的辐射谱[58]

    Fig. 11.  (a) Principle of radiative cooling cloth[59]; (b) camera picture and scanning electron microscope imaging of radiative cooling textiles[58]; (c) cooling effect on human skin[59]; (d) radiation spectrum of radiative cooling textiles, ranging from visible to infrared frequency[58].

    图 12  (a)辐射制冷薄膜增加冷凝水量的工作原理[70]; (b)多层膜冷凝水收集设备[70]; (c)辐射制冷薄膜的发射谱以及(d)冷凝水增量效果[70]

    Fig. 12.  (a) Principle of radiative cooling effect enabled condensate water[70]; (b) multi-layered radiative cooling system for condensate water[70]; emissivity spectrum (c) of multi-layered radiative cooling system, and (d) the dramatically increased condensate water[70].

    图 13  (a) I为商业太阳能电池照片, II为实验制作的银线电极及铝背电极的太阳能电池, 右图为太阳能电池覆盖上制冷薄膜的照片及其截面示意图[73]; (b)各个器件的吸收谱, 分别为I图中太阳能电池板有无制冷薄膜下的吸收光谱和II图中器件的吸收光谱[73]; (c)对应器件在大气窗口的辐射谱[73]

    Fig. 13.  (a) Commercial solar cell unit (I) and the lab developed unit with silver wire electrode and alumina back electrode (II); the right figure shows the corresponding camera picture with coated cooling film and the detailed cross-section of the film[73]; (b) absorption spectra comparison between commercial solar cells unit (Fig. 13(a) I) with or without radiative cooling film, and lab made solar cell unit (Fig. 13(a) II)[73]; (c) radiation spectra of corresponding solar cell unit, in the frequency region of atmospherically radiative window[73].

  • [1]

    Planck M 1914 The Theory of Thermal Radiation (Philadelphia, PA: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co)

    [2]

    Polder D, Van Hove M 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 3303Google Scholar

    [3]

    Cuevas J C, García-Vidal F J 2018 ACS Photonics 5 3896Google Scholar

    [4]

    Basu S, Zhang Z M, Fu C J 2009 Int. J. Energy Res. 33 1203Google Scholar

    [5]

    Schuller J A, Taubner T, Brongersma M L 2009 Nat. Photonics 3 658Google Scholar

    [6]

    Zhao B, Chen K, Buddhiraju S, Bhatt G, Lipson M, Fan S 2017 Nano Energy 41 344Google Scholar

    [7]

    Hossain M M, Gu M 2016 Adv. Sci. 3 1500360Google Scholar

    [8]

    Eriksson T S, Granqvist C G 1982 Appl. Opt. 21 4381Google Scholar

    [9]

    Rytov S M 1953 Theory of Electric Fluctuations and Thermal Radiation US Airforce Cambridge Research Center Report AFCRC-TR-59-162

    [10]

    Joulain K, Mulet J P, Marquier F, Carminati R, Greffet J J 2005 Surf. Sci. Rep. 57 59Google Scholar

    [11]

    Otey C R, Zhu L, Sandhu S, Fan S 2014 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 132 3Google Scholar

    [12]

    Xu H, Aizpurua J, Käll M, Apell P 2000 Phys. Rev. E 62 4318Google Scholar

    [13]

    Chen W, Zhang S, Kang M, Liu W, Ou Z, Li Y, Zhang Y, Guan Z, Xu H 2018 Light Sci. Appl. 7 56Google Scholar

    [14]

    Xu H X, Bjerneld E J, Kall M, Borjesson L 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 4357Google Scholar

    [15]

    Chen W, Zhang S, Deng Q, Xu H 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 801Google Scholar

    [16]

    Sun J, Hu H, Zheng D, Zhang D, Deng Q, Zhang S, Xu H 2018 ACS Nano 12 10393Google Scholar

    [17]

    Hargreaves C M 1969 Phys. Lett. A 30 491

    [18]

    Domoto G A, Boehm R F, Tien C L 1970 J. Heat Transfer 92 412Google Scholar

    [19]

    Hu L, Narayanaswamy A, Chen X Y, Chen G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 133106Google Scholar

    [20]

    Ottens R S, Quetschke V, Wise S, Alemi A A, Lundock R, Mueller G, Reitze D H, Tanner D B, Whiting B F 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 014301Google Scholar

    [21]

    Kralik T, Hanzelka P, Zobac M, Musilova V, Fort T, Horak M 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 224302Google Scholar

    [22]

    Williams C C, Wickramasinghe H K 1986 Microelectron. Eng. 5 509Google Scholar

    [23]

    Dransfeld K, Xu J 1988 J. Microsc. 152 35Google Scholar

    [24]

    Shen S, Narayanaswamy A, Chen G 2009 Nano Lett. 9 2909Google Scholar

    [25]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-12-16
  • 修回日期:  2019-12-19
  • 上网日期:  2020-01-16
  • 刊出日期:  2020-02-05

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