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表面等离极化激元的散射及波前调控

管福鑫 董少华 何琼 肖诗逸 孙树林 周磊

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表面等离极化激元的散射及波前调控

管福鑫, 董少华, 何琼, 肖诗逸, 孙树林, 周磊

Scatterings and wavefront manipulations of surface plasmon polaritons

Guan Fu-Xin, Dong Shao-Hua, He Qiong, Xiao Shi-Yi, Sun Shu-Lin, Zhou Lei
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  • 表面等离极化激元在片上信号传输、增强非线性/拉曼效应、生物/化学传感、超分辨成像等方面具有重要应用. 在这些应用中, 表面等离极化激元的近场传输及远场散射起着重要作用. 然而, 长期以来人们对相关物理效应缺乏简单有效的理论理解, 这也限制了人们对表面等离极化激元的自由调控. 本文首先简单回顾了表面等离极化激元的发展历史及现状, 接着着重介绍了表面等离极化激元的近场传输效应和远场散射效应, 包括其理论进展及其相关应用; 最后还介绍了表面等离极化激元的近场波前调控的相关方法. 基于这些进展, 人们对表面等离极化激元的散射特性有了更为深刻的理解和更加强大的调控能力, 这将对未来表面等离极化激元相关研究和应用带来启发.
    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have found many important applications in on-chip signal transportation, enhanced nonlinear/Raman effect, biological/chemical sensing, super resolution imaging, etc. In these applications, the near-field propagation and far-field scattering of SPPs play a vital role. However, there has been strong desire to understand these physical effects. In this paper, we first briefly review the history and progress of SPPs. Next, we mainly focus on the near-field propagation and far-field scattering of SPPs, including their fundamental theories and practical applications. Finally, we review several different approaches to manipulating the near-field wavefronts of SPPs. These researches offer us a more in-depth understanding and the ability to more strongly control the scattering characteristics of SPPs, which may promote the scientific researches and practical applications of SPPs in the future.
      通信作者: 孙树林, sls@fudan.edu.cn ; 周磊, phzhou@fudan.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Sun Shu-Lin, sls@fudan.edu.cn ; Zhou Lei, phzhou@fudan.edu.cn
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  • 图 1  (a) SPPs的复杂散射效应; (b) SPPs遇到金属表面缺陷时的散射效应; (c) SPPs的反射和折射效应[16]; (d) 亚波长等离激元纳米激光器[17]; (e) SPPs的三维远场聚焦效应[18]

    Fig. 1.  (a) Complex scattering effects of SPPs; (b) scattering effect of SPPs striking a defect on the plasmonic metal; (c) reflection and refraction effects of SPPs[16]; (d) subwavelength plasmonic nano-laser[17]; (e) three-dimensional far-field focusing effect of SPPs[18].

    图 2  (a) SPPs在介质波导中的传输及辐射[22]; (b) SPPs聚焦装置[24]

    Fig. 2.  (a) Propagation and radiation of SPPs inside a dielectric waveguide[22]; (b) anano-device for SPPs focusing[24].

    图 3  (a), (b)等离激元金属/真空对接系统(上下为完美电导体边界)中的表面等离极化激元反射谱[33]; (c), (d) 等离激元波导对接系统中的SPPs反射系数[35]; (e), (f) 金属/介质开放体系中的SPPs的散射系数(R, T, S)[36]

    Fig. 3.  (a), (b) SPPs reflectance spectrum of a plasmonic metal/vacuum junction system surrounded by perfect electric conductors[33]; (c), (d) SPPs reflection coefficients of a plasmonic waveguide junction[35]; (e), (f) scattering coefficients $ (R, T, S) $ of SPPs inside a jointed metal/dielectric open system[36].

    图 4  (a) 周期性等离激元体对接结构; 特定等离激元周期结构中的(b) SPPs和散射模式以及(c)倏逝波模式的色散关系[38]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Periodic plasmonic junction system; dispersion relations of (b) SPPs and scattering modes, and (c) evanescent modes inside a typical plasmonic superlattice[38].

    图 5  (a) 等离激元波导对接体系; (b), (c) 不同金属和不同介质对接的波导体系中SPPs的反射率谱线; (d) 开放式等离激元对接体系; (e) 反射率的变化谱线; (f) 体系中存在一阶波导模式时的场分布[38]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Plasmonic waveguide junction system; (b), (c) SPPs reflectance spectra in a waveguide junction system with different metals or dielectrics; (d) an open plasmonic junction system; (e) SPPs reflection amplitude as function of periodicity P in such system; (f) field distributions inside such plasmonic system with the first-order scattering modes appearing[38].

    图 6  (a) 等离激元体Y型分流器和Mach-Zehnder干涉仪[43]; (b) 基于纳米薄膜的SPPs全反射[44]; (c) SPPs的180°转向效应[45]

    Fig. 6.  (a) Plasmonic Y-splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer[43]; (b) total reflection of SPPs based on a nano-layer system[44]; (c) 180° bending effect of SPPs[45].

    图 7  (a) SPPs彩色全息术; (b) 重建的三色苹果全息图像[46]; (c), (d) SPPs远场聚焦[49]

    Fig. 7.  (a) Colorful holography of SPPs; (b) reconstructed image of 3D colorful apple[46]; (c), (d) far-field focusing of SPPs[49].

    图 8  (a) 半无限大等离激元体金属对接系统; (b) 远场散射强度随着散射角度$\varphi $$\sqrt {\left| {{\varepsilon _2}} \right|} $的变化; (c) 特定等离激元对接体系中的远场散射角分布[59]

    Fig. 8.  (a) Semi-infinite plasmonic metal junction system; (b) scattering far-field intensity as function of $\varphi $ and $\sqrt {\left| {{\varepsilon _2}} \right|} $; (c) scattering far-field angular distribution of SPPs in a typical plasmonic junction system[59].

    图 9  (a) 理想的半无限大二维等离激元体系统; (d) 半无限大人工金属网栅结构; (b), (e)相应体系中的SPPs的色散关系; (c), (f) 相应体系中的SPPs散射远场角谱分布[59]

    Fig. 9.  (a) An ideal semi-infinite 2D plasmonic system; (d) a semi-infinite artificial metallic mesh structure; (b), (e) dispersion relations and (c), (f) scattering far-field angular distributions of SPPs in two plasmonic systems[59].

    图 10  (a), (b) 利用不同形状的介质光学器件来调控SPPs的波前[66,67]; (c) 利用纳米颗粒阵列实现SPPs折射[68]

    Fig. 10.  (a), (b) SPPs wavefront manipulations with dielectric optical elements of different shapes[66,67]; (c) refraction of SPPs with nanoparticle array[68].

    图 11  基于(a)纳米颗粒阵列[69]和(b)介质光栅[71]的SPPs布拉格反射; (c) SPPs全息[72]; (d) SPPs的艾里光束激发[73]

    Fig. 11.  Bragg reflections based on (a) nanoparticle array[69] and (b) dielectric grating[71]; (c) SPP holography[72]; (d) SPPs Airy beam generation[73].

    图 12  (a) 真实的超构表面结构及(b)其对SPPs的反射系数[89]

    Fig. 12.  (a) Practical metasurface and (b) corresponding SPPs reflection coefficients[89].

    图 13  (a) 超构表面样品; (b), (c) 模拟和(d) 实验验证SPPs异常反射[89]

    Fig. 13.  (a) Metasurface sample and (b), (c) numerical / (d) experimental verifications of SPPs anomalous reflection[89].

    图 14  超构表面实现(a) SPPs贝塞尔光束激发和(b)SPPs聚焦效应[89]

    Fig. 14.  Metasurfaces for (a) SPPs Bessel beam generation and (b) SPPs focusing[89].

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    Ebbesen T W, Lezec H J, Ghaemi H F, Thio T, Wolff P A 1998 Nature 391 667Google Scholar

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    Fang N, Lee H, Sun C, Zhang X 2005 Science 308 534Google Scholar

    [5]

    Huang K C Y, Seo M K, Sarmiento T, Huo Y, Harris J S, Brongersma M L 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 244Google Scholar

    [6]

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    [7]

    Atwater H A, Polman A 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 205Google Scholar

    [8]

    Anker J N, Hall W P, Lyandres O, Shah N C, Zhao J, Van Duyne R P 2008 Nat. Mater. 7 442Google Scholar

    [9]

    Hutter E, Fendler J H 2004 Adv. Mater. 16 1685Google Scholar

    [10]

    Mühlschlegel P, Eisler H J, Martin O J F, Hecht B, Pohl D W 2005 Science 308 1607Google Scholar

    [11]

    Beeck O, Ritchie AW 1950 Discuss. Faraday Soc. 8 159Google Scholar

    [12]

    Pendry J B, Martin-Moreno L, Garcia-Vidal F J 2004 Science 305 847Google Scholar

    [13]

    Hibbins A P, Evans B R, Sambles J R 2005 Science 308 670Google Scholar

    [14]

    Maier S A, Andrews S R, Martín-Moreno L, García-Vidal F J 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 176805Google Scholar

    [15]

    Sun S, He Q, Xiao S, Xu Q, Li X, Zhou L 2012 Nat. Mater. 11 426Google Scholar

    [16]

    Elser J, Podolskiy V A 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 066402Google Scholar

    [17]

    Oulton R F, Sorger V J, Zentgraf T, Ma R M, Gladden C, Dai L, Bartal G, Zhang X 2009 Nature 461 629Google Scholar

    [18]

    Chang C M, Tseng M L, Cheng B H, Chu C H, Ho Y Z, Huang H W, Lan Y C, Huang D W, Liu A Q, Tsai D P 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 1118Google Scholar

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    Quinten M, Leitner A, Krenn J R, Aussenegg F R 1998 Opt. Lett. 23 1331Google Scholar

    [20]

    Brongersma M L, Hartman J W, Atwater H A 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 16356Google Scholar

    [21]

    Maier S A, Brongersma M L, Kik P G, Meltzer S, Requicha A A G, Atwater H A 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 1501Google Scholar

    [22]

    Law M, Sirbuly D J, Johnson J C, Goldberger J, Saykally R J, Yang P 2004 Science 305 1269Google Scholar

    [23]

    Ditlbacher H, Hohenau A, Wagner D, Kreibig U, Rogers M, Hofer F, Aussenegg F R, Krenn J R 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 257403Google Scholar

    [24]

    Yin L, Vlasko-Vlasov V K, Pearson J, Hiller J M, Hua J, Welp U, Brown D E, Kimball C W 2005 Nano. Lett. 5 1399Google Scholar

    [25]

    Wei H, Wang Z, Tian X, Käll M, Xu H 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 387Google Scholar

    [26]

    Zia R, Schuller J A, Chandran A, Brongersma M L 2006 Mater. Today 9 20Google Scholar

    [27]

    Ekmel Ozbay 2006 Science 311 189Google Scholar

    [28]

    Lal S, Link S, Halas N J 2007 Nat. Photonics 1 641Google Scholar

    [29]

    Ebbesen T W, Genet C, Bozhevolnyi S I 2008 Phys. Today 61 44Google Scholar

    [30]

    Volkov V S, Bozhevolnyi S I, Rodrigo S G, Martín-Moreno L, García-Vidal F J, Devaux E, Ebbesen T W 2009 Nano Lett. 9 1278Google Scholar

    [31]

    Verhagen E, Spasenović M, Polman A, Kuipers L 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 203904Google Scholar

    [32]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-26
  • 修回日期:  2020-05-28
  • 上网日期:  2020-06-15
  • 刊出日期:  2020-08-05

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